Knowing the consumer | Marketing Concepts.

What characterizes mainly marketing is that all their actions are directed or are aimed towards the perspective of demand, profitably meet the needs of the consumer.
This demand is made up of a particular group of subjects who voluntarily buy according to your tastes, preferences and monetary resources, this becomes necessary that marketing know sufficiently to the consumer from the point of view that you are interested in, that is, to understand their behavior of buying in its dimensions to, in last instance, to know how to direct it towards the product offered by the company in the market.


This is regarded as the more traditional concept where fixed their attention marketing which is the understanding of the needs of the consumer, which is considered active subject in the economic exchange relationship, is this the importance that has for marketing knowing your consumer, your needs and which variables through the product offering can meet them. Within these we have:
  • Absolute and relative requirements: must take into account that human needs are unlimited in extension, not in intensity, but only marketing interested in which consumers can meet with their resources, i.e., through certain economic behavior. For this it is necessary to classify the needs to understand them better. Why is this classification where the "Absolute" needs are those that the individual experiences regardless of what experience the society, these are limited in capacity, and this is due to that to be satisfied going off, and the "relating" are those that when they meet will rise to person and cause a feeling of superiority due to their nature, they are considered insatiable, because when the individual's economic capacity is greater, increases in the same proportion as their desires, what more could be said that these achievements in the field of the relative needs are to current societies which serve to define the positions of individuals in the social scale.
    Studies have been conducted in developed countries that data on the following: those goods that meet the absolute needs have come to understand a small part of what the community consumes, while prospects that offer goods that meet needs drive the entrepreneur to manufacture products that cover them and use all the tools of marketing to channel the wishes of the consumer towards them.
  • The need, the desire and demand: it is necessary to know the differences between these concepts, to understand how it works marketing in the process of meeting the needs of the consumer. "The need" to say that it causes in the individual a feeling of deprivation that is intrinsically linked to the human condition, so it is universal, common to all, this feeling has the peculiarity of motivate the conduct by the individual to eliminate that feeling, deprivation - conduct of eradication. "Desire" is the externalisation of the desire to satisfy the need, and that not all individuals are to be performed in the same way since it depends on a number of factors that influence as the age, the socially dominant culture, climate environment and other situations. "Demand" is the express formulation of the desire according to the will of each individual purchase and the resources available for this purpose. Situations of need without desire, an example of this is the sick who need to eat to survive, but cannot express his desire for food, may occur as well as there may also be a desire without demand, the person that it lacks resources to formulate your desire. Anyway what distinguishes demand is the limitation of resources available to the individual to eliminate the need and develop the desire to, and as a result, limited resources have alternative uses, is marketing who must take care of addressing the needs and desires of the individual acting on demand where you specify.


For the study of the consumer marketing must take into account, that the commercial activities of the company can be considered a transfer of information about the offered product that the potential buyer about the possibilities to meet your needs with goods that occur in offerings. This allows to infer the importance that has for marketing know the mechanisms that determine the attention and the perception of the subject, as if known, let us draw up a better messages and stimuli which the company directs to the consumer, in order to orient their demand to the product offered by the company. In these aspects, we must take into account:
  • Attention: is the concentration of the mind on one thing that will be responsible for prepare and direct the individual to take awareness of the feelings. The dual importance of this is the consumer attention to stimuli that emits the company, as publicity, on the one hand, and the other reason why truly interested in marketing is to understand that there are various forms of attention, and that in each of these stimuli are captured differently. We have for example the involuntary attention; Detaches from the senses to a stimulus that comes from the outside world of the individual, has a passive character since is given by the individual without conscious collaboration, so it is called spontaneous. Another is fascinated attention; arises when the individual focuses intensely on a given stimulus. This can lead to an obsession to him stimulus into a fixed idea, passing this attention to a deep stage close to the in sleep. Voluntary care is the most decisive way, since its active character is derived from the conscious individual predisposition to capture stimuli. This kind of attention allows the individual to focus on a stimulus and abandon it when you want to. It is clear that this is where should concentrate since marketing that is with her that is achieved by joining the stimulus to the offered product, with resources such as surprise, curiosity, positively influencing the consumer behavior.
  • Perception: is considered to be the representation of a behavior in which the individual becomes aware of the sensations that capture their sensory organs. It is usually of a relationship between the subject that perceives and the object that originates the feeling, always has a subjective character, since the way to take that object will depend on the paradigm of each person. This is why many things are not perceived as they are, but as the paradigm of the individual say that they are, settling in this the basis of which to a given object two individuals could interpret it in different ways according to their particular point of view. Marketing should be directed to solve this dilemma, and must try to get to unify the interpretation of the perception of the products offered by the market.
    The solution to this challenge can be found in these ways: 1.-the presentation of the product; design, labeled container 2. - and the information about it, will "anchor" in meaning easily homogenizables by subjects, e.g. colors universally perceived in a certain sense, example: white peace, passion red, green nature, and above all words that guide the significance of Visual imagery, example a very wide-eyed amazement mean. 3 - another is to seek to modify the criteria of perception through the experiences of the subject. Examples of this are the free product deliveries to be tested by the consumer. The famous slogan "test, compare, etc." pursues this purpose.


The consumer is not immediately linked to the product offered by the company, the first stage is to perceive it in the environment and then get gradually used to use and after gradually check your bonuses in the scope of their needs, adapting it and incorporating it into his daily routine of buying. We can say that there is a mechanism of learning in the individual that allow the marketing study and understand the habits of consumers over time involved in their purchasing decisions. Among these are:
  • Learning and consumer behavior: marketing must determine as its main objective to change the mechanisms that determine the performance of the consumer in order to be able to help you choose, or teach through a learning process the purchase of product or brand that offers the company in the market. I.e. marketing must find the mechanisms that cause the so-called shopping impulses; are made deliberately, without any type of search, and usually are banal and repetitive articles like candy, magazines, etc., in this Act "Brand image" concept through advertising messages or Visual stimuli, and routine purchases, which consist of acquiring regular and continuing certain brands of products, are usually of regular consumption , and these consumer has achieved a gratifying experience for him, and especially in the circumstance that psychologically learning of the brand that suit you buy gives you a quick and easy purchasing behavior, not having to compare prices and quality.
  • Conditioned reflexes: this is the origin of the acquisition of the consumer habits, and within this an interesting explanation regarding their purchase behavior can be found. For the purpose of provoking it is necessary two kinds of stimulus: 1.-of neutral, since it produces a State of alert and does not lead to a response specified, "Conditioned stimulus". 2 - that engenders a specific reaction consistently, "Unconditioned stimulus" and the reaction is called "Unconditioned response". The objective should aim to join these two kinds of stimuli, in a way that the conditioned, previously neutral, triggering a reaction specifies so-called "Conditioned response". The elements of which should be worth the marketing for this response are "Advertising" and the "brand image"


Motivation, in ordinary language, is everything that originates a variation in the conduct of an individual, when speaking of it and conduct or specific Act, I know talking about reasons or causes that originated such conduct. Marketing must know how, and he because of consumer purchase behavior.
  • Motivation according to psychoanalysis: it offers different alternatives to understand the motivations of the consumer in particular, through the so-called "defense mechanisms" which the individual brings into play to prevent situations of distress or anxiety resulting from conflicts between your conscious, his unconscious and the surrounding reality. These are four, within which we have:
    1 - "Repression" the individual prevents the situation source of anguish make conscious. Marketing uses this mechanism by disguising this reality, as for example the advertising which has cleaning supplies within the framework of the environment household to make it more pleasant, and collaborates with it to forget how unpleasant that is the domestic task.
    2 - "Projection", is attributed to something external origin of anguish. In marketing this is done at the level of situations surrounding the product proposed for consumption, especially those having a distinctly aggressive: "Persecuted woman" by its "saved" by the deodorant and body odor is a clear example of this.
    3 - "Identification", which allows the individual to identify with someone who seems desirable or admires who, feeling as if really was that someone. This resource marketing uses the "character" as a bridge to offer the product, it can range from an athlete to the beautiful and seductive woman.
    4 - "Sublimation" occurs when a socially more acceptable object passed to replace another that cannot be directly meet. The resource that is used is the discharge of situations not accepted but justified.
  • Motivation through impulses: is based on the biological principle called "Homeostasis", which is the general tendency of the body to maintain a balance of internal physiological conditions. The Activator reason occurs as a result of a well known variant of the model "Stimulus – response", when there is a State of necessity, this leads to a boost, which normally ends by satiate it. Here is where marketing is going to become the producer of these impulses mechanism, through advertising stimuli, special, offers and will be routed to elicit responses of purchase that restore the balance broken by the State of the consumer need.
  • Motivation through incentives: it is the result of an invitation, it is a response provoked by virtue of something that, if it has enough appeal to promote the individual to get it, determining it as objective or goal. Marketing is responsible for presenting the product surrounded by positive elements, making it an incentive that leads to action.
Published for educational purposes
Concepts of Leadership and Marketing