Origin of morphine | Diseases and conditions.

Morphine is a pain reliever that is obtained from the opium plant, known popularly as poppy. You know how it was discovered, for what is used and what side effects it causes.
Morphine is a pain reliever that is obtained from the plant of opium (Papaver Somniferum), known popularly as poppy. Opium is one of the drugs most used in antiquity, which has now been replaced by famous derivatives, morphine and, especially, the heroine.

Brief history of morphine

Morphine appeared at the beginning of the 19th century. At this time be prescribed opium (analgesic used to relieve pain), but doubts were when it tried to establish what dose was suitable to manage according to the purity of the preparation;
The village pharmacist commissioned Friedrich Sertürner to do a study of quality of opium, which was dispensed in pharmacy. The young Friedrich came up with opium dissolved in an acid, then reduced it with ammonia; and finally got some grey crystals used experimentally in cats, thus demonstrating its hypnotic power (produces sleep). Burdens of a severe toothache pain, Friedrich decided to try it himself. Taking it entered into a deep sleep for eight hours. When woke up rose without any hassle.
Therefore because of your virtues somniferous, in honor of the God of el Sueño Morfeo, baptized the substance named after morphine.
Opioid was marketed first in 1817, announcing as a painkiller that could also be used in the treatment of certain substances, such as opium and alcohol addiction. Over time, unfortunately, you would discover that morphine is even more addictive than alcohol or opium.
Although nowadays it has been displaced by other drugs such as heroin, morphine remains one of the substances favoured by heroin addicts when they can not access the latter.

Uses of morphine

Used in the following cases:
  • Postoperative pain.
  • Severe chronic pain resistant to other pain relievers
  • Cancer pain.
  • Transient pain of severe intensity.
  • Pain associated with myocardial infarction.
This opioid can be administered orally (oral solution, pills and capsules retard) and parenteral (intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, epidural and intrathecal). Dose should be individually tailored to each patient, depending on the severity of pain that is present and the response before the painkiller.
In children only used exceptionally and in restricted doses, according to their body mass. Only administered to pregnant morphine when there is no alternative, and taking into account that the substance passes into breast milk, discontinue breastfeeding when a treatment with morphine.

Contraindications for the use of morphine

His job, as is contraindicated in certain circumstances:
  • When the patient presents an allergic reaction of any kind.
  • When can interact with other medications the patient is taking.
  • During pregnancy and lactation.
  • In children less than one year.
  • If the patient suffers from respiratory depression or respiratory diseases which present with severe blockages.
  • In patients presenting with trauma or elevated intracranial pressure.
  • Prior to surgery, or in the first 24 hours after the same.
  • When the patient suffers from seizure disorder.
  • In all those cases in which the patient suffers a disease that the doctor considers that it can be aggravated by the use of the drug.

Side effects of morphine

Morphine has important side-effects such as:
  • Nausea and/or vomiting.
  • Alteration in blood test results.
  • Drowsiness, disorientation, dizziness, instability.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Euphoria.
  • Sweating.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Constipation.
  • Respiratory alterations and/or variations in blood pressure.
  • Asthenia.
  • Pruritus.
  • Dependency (may occur if use is prolonged).
  • It can aggravate the condition of the patient when this suffer from diseases such as: pancreatitis, asthma, COPD, alcoholism, hypotension, chronic constipation, hypothyroidism, severe disorders of the liver or kidney, among others.
  • Physical dependence in the fetus and withdrawal symptoms in the infant if administered to a pregnant woman. In addition, passes into breast milk, so it should not be used during breastfeeding.
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Diseases and conditions

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