(Valladolid, 1388 - Rome, 1468) Spanish theologian and Cardinal. Born in a family with Jewish background, became a Dominican (1403) and attended the Council of Constance (1413). Sent to the Councils of Basle and Florence by Pope Eugenio IV, he contributed to the condemnation of Jan Hus and Wycliffe heresies. His works include the Summa de Ecclesia (1448-1449), advocacy of the Papal power.
Juan de Torquemada
Juan de Torquemada
Descended from Jews, Juan de Torquemada entered the order of preachers in the convent of San Pablo de Valladolid. In 1417, it was called by the provincial of Castile, so you come to the Council of Constance (Germany). In 1424 he took a degree in theology in Paris, and a year later he was awarded the title of doctor. Shortly after he returned to Valladolid and stood in front of several convents.
In 1432 he attended the Council of Basel (Switzerland) as a theologian of Pope Eugenio IV, Pontiff who had appointed him master of the sacred Palace Pontifical. Juan de Torquemada contributed to the doctrines were condemned in
John Wycliffeand Jan Hus, and held the dogma of the immaculate conception of Mary.
A few years later, at the Council of Ferrara - Florence (Italy), defended the union of the Eastern Churches. After access to the cardinalship of St. Sixtus, occupied the Episcopal chairs of Palestrina, Sabina (Italy), Cadiz, Orense and Léon, on. Highlighted as promoter of numerous artistic restorations in Spain and Italy and as one of the introducers of the printing press in Italy.
Juan de Torquemada wrote around fifty works of religious thought, of which more than twenty were published posthumously. Among all of them stands out the Treaty, Summa de Ecclesia, which drafted between 1444 and 1449. Summa de Ecclesia exposes the doctrine of the indirect authority of the Pope in temporal, starting from Santo Tomás and Juan de Paris-beating matter, and is directed against the adversaries of the Church and of the primacy of St. Peter. The theses developed occupy three hundred and thirty-six chapters, whose interest culminated in the 113, where, after presenting the two opposite opinions than attributed to the Pope already unique spiritual power, because full jurisdiction in the two areas, based his attitude.
Torquemada understands that the Pope has "a certain temporal jurisdiction in all the Christian world", but not a total power, but a power justified in its orientation as it is necessary to preserve the spiritual goods and relied on the needs of the Church and the obligations of the priesthood. He studied equally and defends the superiority of the spiritual power of the storm, noting multiple slug of the same.
The increased interest of the work of Torquemada is not only this initial self-contained treatment of the Church, making him founder of Ecclesiology, but also the same concept of power; This work has been viewed by Dublanchy as a decisive stage in the development of Pontifical law. Torquemada attacks Marsilius of Padua, rejects errors by Egidio Romano and anticipates the most fertile doctrinal lines, where are you debtors Vitoria, Soto and Bellarmine. The priority it has well earned and Leclercq studies on Juan de Paris; can not snatch it so far this relationship is not attested, and in any case the work of Spanish Cardinal has valid and "primores" that lacks the the Parisian.