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(Valladolid, current Morelia, 1783 - Padilla, 1824) Military Mexican, main architect of the independence of Mexico (1821) and Emperor, with the name of Agustín I, of the new Mexican State (1822-23).
Agustín de Iturbide
Portrait of Iturbide as Agustin I of Mexico
The life of Agustín de Iturbide reflects the ups and downs of the process that led to the emancipation of Mexico as few. In 1810, he condemned the early independence insurrection of father Hidalgo, and from the realistic side fought and defeated his followers. In 1821 he joined the pro-independence camp: agreed with Guerrero the Plan of Iguala and, after the quick victory of his army Trigarante, put an end to three centuries of Spanish domination. Proclaimed emperor with the name of Agustín I with great joy of the population, in 1823 he was forced to abdicate and the following year he was shot by the Republicans.
Agustín de Iturbide
From realistic to Patriot, Emperor traitor: naturally, the twists and turns of so tortuous path are not only to the historical circumstances. Charismatic and conservative temperament, but no ideology without specific, Iturbide tended always to adhere to the option which it judged a winner, embodying the paradigm of excessively pragmatic and opportunistic politician. But, despite being not so admired as other figures of emancipation, Mexico owes to the effective independence: Iturbide triumphed where Hidalgo and Morelos had failed.
Son of a Spanish landowner and a noble native, Agustín de Iturbide soon left his studies at the Seminary of his native population to join the Royalist Army at the age of fourteen years. At 22 he married Ana María Huarte, with whom he had six children. He refused to take part in the insurrection against the Spaniards led by the priest Miguel Hidalgoin 1810, and defended the city of Valladolid against the revolutionary forces; his outstanding performance earned him the promotion to captain.
With this new degree, Agustín de Iturbide fought pro-independence guerrillas, and eventually capture Albino Liceaga and subsequently the leader who, after the death of Hidalgo in 1811, had taken the reins of the insurgency: Ignacio López Rayón. This achievement earned him the promotion to Colonel. He was subsequently appointed commander general of the province of Guanajuato, where distinguished by their relentless pursuit of the rebels.
With the capture and execution in 1815 of the successor of Lopez Rayon, José María Morelos, the independence uprising seemed definitely suffocated; It was only as a visible head Vicente Guerrero, who fell back to the South. A year later, different charges (abuse of authority and misappropriation) led the viceroy Félix Calleja dismay to Iturbide, but was acquitted of all charges with the support of the auditor Bataller.
The Plan of Iguala
In 1820, and pilgrim paths, the emancipatory process revived from its ashes. In the metropolis, the irrigation Rafael pronouncement against the absolutism of Fernando VII gave home to the liberal triennium (1820-1823); the Spanish monarch was forced to swear to the Constitution of Cádiz.
In the Viceroyalty, absolutist oligarchy was threatening their privileges; the conspirators of the so-called Plan of la Profesa wanted to prevent at all costs the liberal drift, to consider the establishment in Mexico of an independent monarchy, whose sceptre would be offered to a Bourbon Prince. The viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca appointed commander general of the army of the South Agustín de Iturbide and entrusted the task to submit or win for their cause to the troops of Vicente Guerrero.
Realizing that it would not get easily defeating Guerrero, Iturbide joined the cause of independence, knowing that the elites of the Viceroyalty, rather than accept a liberal regime, would prefer independence as a way of perpetuating the absolutism in the country. Iturbide met with Guerrero and, together, they presented the so-called Plan of Iguala (24 February 1821), a political programme, whose objectives were based on three essential principles: the independence of Mexico, equal rights for Spaniards and Creoles and the supremacy of the Catholic Church in the new State.
Portrait of Iturbide as Agustin I of Mexico
The three points of the Plan facilitated the accession of broad layers and social strata: clergy, the former pro-independence revolutionaries (who returned to take up arms), merchants and conservative landowners and even the royalists, for the reasons indicated. Iturbide Trigarante Army (so called because sustaining the three guarantees of the Plan) you quickly augmented its ranks and went on to dominate throughout the country. In view of this, the new Spain Viceroy Juan O' Donojúsigned the Treaty of Córdoba (August 24, 1821), which recognized the independence of Mexico.
On September 27, 1821, Iturbide Agustín triumphantly entered the city of Mexico, where it was hailed as a hero, and the next day proclaimed independence in front of a Regency with executive powers, whose five members was O'donoju; After this the following month, Iturbide was free of any political control.
In February, 1822, Iturbide held a Constituent Congress. By the Treaty of Córdoba, the independent Mexico had called Mexican Empire and set up as a constitutional monarchy in which default swap would linger the Bourbon dynasty. But the same Congress reflected divisions in this regard: an important Republican faction was represented, and the Royalists were divided into Bourbon, supporters of giving the throne to a Spanish Prince, and iturbidistas, which wanted to Crown the same Iturbide Emperor.
Emperor of Mexico
A popular riot led by Sergeant Pío Marcha, which supported this last option, precipitated discussions at the Congress, which on May 19 proclaimed Iturbide emperor with the name of Agustín I. Amid the joy, the Republicans had to suffer, in addition, that the Congress declared hereditary succession to the throne.
During them just ten months which lasted his reign, lack of support more than his party stalwarts and unpopular measures to address the serious financial problems were weakening their position. Very soon there was faced by a conspiracy of the Republican character. Iturbide decided to then dissolve Congress (October 1822) and appointed an instituent National Board which acted completely at your service.
The arrest and prosecution of many members of Congress, however, did nothing more than join the opposition Republican and Bourbon. On the other hand, the absolutist rotation of Iturbide did not contribute to improve relations with Spain, whose liberal Government had unauthorized performance of the viceroy or ' Donojú and refused to recognize the independence; in November, the Spanish courts declared void the Treaty of Córdoba, waving the specter of involution.
At that point, the Governor of Veracruz, Antonio López de Santa Anna, tried unsuccessfully to seize the castle of San Juan de Ulúa, the last Spanish stronghold. Iturbide ceased in his duties to Santa Anna by this failure, and the reaction was swift: Santa Anna proclaimed the Republic (December 1822), and immediately received the support of other generals, and even troops which were to put an end to the revolt.
In March 1823, Iturbide was forced to abdicate. He was exiled in Europe and a year later returned to his country, ignoring that the Mexican Congress had declared him a traitor. Detained on arrival, the forger of the independence was shot by fellow soldiers at the age of forty-one. It would take years to be recognized as the father of the nation; in 1838, under the Presidency of Anastasio Bustamante, his remains were buried with honors in the chapel of San Felipe de Jesus of capital Cathedral.