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(Sri Aurobindo Ghose;) Calcutta, 1872 - Pondichery, 1950) Indian poet and philosopher. Third son of Dr. Krishnadhan Ghose, bengali doctor admirer of British culture, the young Ghose received two personal names: Aurobindo (bengali pronunciation of Sanskrit Aravinda, Lotus), and Ackroyd, in English. As his older brothers, received an education English.
In 1879 it was entrusted, along with his brothers over, to a family of Manchester, where he started his studies in latin. In 1885 entered the St. Paul´s School in London. There he studied Greek, history, as well as various European languages, starting to develop his poetic talent. In 1889 he joined the King´s College of Cambridge, where he joined an Association of Indian students and left its English name. His father wanted to destine it to the Indian Civil Service, but was rejected its application to not pass riding tests, although increased nationalist feelings already made you little suitable for colonial service.
He then caught the attention of James S. Cotton, brother of a former Governor of Bengal, and the Maharajah of Baroda, at whose service came, leaving England in 1893. It began to collaborate, in principle anonymously, in the nationalist magazine Induprakash, insufficient judging the performance of the National Indian Congress, newly founded in 1885 with the intent of inspiring reforms to the British Government. Wishing to deepen their knowledge of Indian culture, he plunged into the study of Sanskrit and bengali tradition, without giving up to European culture, with a view, even then, to achieve a higher synthesis that give place to the best of both cultures.
He campaigned in secret organizations that fought for independence, without excluding (as if would Gandhi) the recourse to violence. After the partition of Bengal carried out by Lord Curzon in 1905, which provoked great indignation, left Baroda and, from 1906, he made political tours of Bengal, he directed the Bengal National College and the nationalist newspaper Bande Mataram. Object of persecution by the English administration, left the direction of the College in 1907.
Sri Aurobindo then played in the Group of the Indian National Congress, and was arrested as a result of terrorist actions in which his faction was involved. He spent in prison an entire year (1908-1909), imprisoned between common prisoners, period dedicated to the practice of yoga, meditation and the literary work. If during his stay in England, Sri Aurobindo professed modernist atheism, then it again to the Divinity in the study of Indian philosophy. Again threatened with jail, Sri Aurobindo spent clandestinely to Chandannagar, under French rule, and in February 1910, settled definitively in Pondichery.
Thereafter it refrained from any political activity. In 1914 he founded the journal Arya along with Paul Richard and a small group of disciples. His work began to be translated into French by Madame Richard who is associated with the work of Sri Aurobindo in 1920: the creation of the Sri Aurobindo Asram, community led by the philosopher, she organized and headed (from 1926) as "Mother", while the thinker was retired, making few public appearances a year, in various anniversaries and solemnities.
Sri Aurobindo Asram, spiritual and temporal community based in Pondicherry, deployed a great educational activity according to the doctrine of Sri Aurobindo, in search of a synthesis between science and sports and healthy life regimen and spirituality. At his death (not accepted as such by many of his disciples), Sri Aurobindo was buried in its Asram, in a tomb object of constant veneration to the present. The community had in 1968 over two thousand members, with branches in several cities of the India, Europe and America.
Course required of all existence, God, according to the thought of Sri Aurobindo, is present in the field and in mental and supramental dimensions. The truth that it is covers all particular truth, and is expressed in a special way through the intelligence human, and tending to manifest itself more and more clearly and more fully by this ever-evolving intelligence (one of the functions of the Sri Aurobindo Asram is, precisely, direct, guide this evolution). That truth is already contained in the ancient Indian texts or any other culture. Sri Aurobindo finds especially in Heraclitus, in the Vedas, the Upanisad and the Bhagavadgita.
The ideal purpose of man's life will be for the full and selfless performance of human, suitable condition for vehicular and manifest divinity. According to Sri Aurobindo, there is no universal religious or philosophical doctrine that man to enslave. Yoga, adjustment and integral development, adapts to every nature, taking it to the realization, to be witness to the emergency in his own divinity, knowledge-driven inside.
The thought of Sri Aurobindo is both a spiritual doctrine and a philosophical system, and a yoga: a synthesis that integrates the Vedic speculative tradition with the influence of Western philosophy. Core of your reflection are two of the principles of the Upanisad: "everything is Brahma" and "one has no second", which, according to the interpretation of Sri Aurobindo, merges with another current of Vedic thought to say: "one has no second because in reality everything is Brahma", unit, therefore is not denial of multiplicity, but all in constant evolution. To the knowledge of the divine reality is heading the programme of integral yoga, which seeks to find that Divinity in oneself, with knowledge as via.
The works of Sri Aurobindo include Basis of Yoga (Yoga fundamentals), 1936; La mère (The mother), 1938; La Synthese des yogas (The synthesis of the yogas), 1939; The divine life. The philosophy of Sri Aurobindo (The Life Divine, The Philosophy of Sri Aurobindo), in three volumes, (1942), which is his best-known work, synthesis, according to Romain Rolland, the most complete between the genius of Asia and Europe; The Human Cycle (The human cycle), 1949; Evolution (Evolution), 5th Edition in 1950; Ideal of Karmayogin (Ideal of the Karma Yoga), 7th Edition in 1950; Lights on Life-Problems (Lights in the problems of life), 1950; The Foundation of Indian Culture (The Foundation of Indian culture), 1954; On the Veda (About from the Vedas), 1956; Thoughts and Aphorisms (Thoughts and aphorisms), 1958; Essays a. the Gita (Essays on the Bhagavadgita), 1959, and The Future Evolution of Man (the future of man), published in London in 1963.