Pathology of the Alcoholism, smoking, addiction | Pathologies and health.

Diseases and conditions

  • Alcoholism
  • Alcohol: drinking during pregnancy harms your baby?
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Smoking in pregnancy
  • Addiction
  • Neknomination: drinking games on social networks


What is alcoholism?

The term alcoholism, or alcohol, commonly refers to abuse of alcohol that causes a pathological condition. However, it should be noted that in 1977 the World Health Organization (who), as well as sell alcoholism within drug addiction, has replaced this term with "alcohol-dependence syndrome", defining it as "characterised by abnormal behavior, subjective and psychological, with weakened control of drug intake ethyl alcohol". For more understanding, but we will continue to use here the term "alcoholism" and "alcohol".

In what forms is manifested alcoholism?

In two forms. The acute (commonly called hangover or intoxication) is a result of ingestion, in a relatively short period of time, large amounts of alcohol; the resulting symptoms framework, while causing negative effects on behavior and sensory and motor efficiency, is destined to disappear with the suspension of the alcohol and with a short period of sobriety. The chronic form, the actual alcohol-dependence syndrome, is a result of habitual consumption, protracted, copious amounts of alcohol and is characterized by very substantial and serious symptoms.

In what doses you can take alcohol without adverse effects?

While taking into account the possibility of different individual reactions to alcohol intake (and the conditions in which the body is located, for example, on an empty stomach or full), it can be said that the intake of drinks with content equivalent to 10 grams of pure alcohol do not cause adverse effects in General.
This means not drinking more than 100 cc about 10° wine (a glass), less than 50 cc of an aperitif or digestif at 18-20° c, 200 cc, 20 cc of liquor at 45°. Overcoming these doses may be mild sensory and motor changes (Visual field reduction, slow reflexes, less attention) that can make it difficult and dangerous activities (for example, the automobile Guide).
Significant behavioural changes (euphoria, decreased inhibitions, underestimation of danger), sensory (Visual and auditory capabilities), mobility (incoordination of movements, marked slowing of reaction time) can be present when you ingest drinks with alcohol content equivalent to 50 grams of alcohol (or slightly more), amounting to 400 cc of wine or liquor 100 cc.
These data, however, effects that may appear in a subject usually moderate or occasional drinker. For anyone who is affected by even modest forms of alcohol, various pathological manifestations often appear with the intake of alcoholic beverages in much lower doses.

All heavy drinkers are destined to become alcohol addicts?

Not necessarily. As pointed out by the who, "not everyone who experiences or impairment caused by alcohol consumption will suffer from alcohol dependency, but presents a high risk of developing it.

What distinguishes an alcohol-dependent heavy drinker?

A etilista, to use the most common term, is an individual who, habitually drinking large amounts of alcohol, he ended up acquiring tolerance towards alcohol. This means that in order to achieve the desired effects, must take much more gradually. Typically appears over time even a supportive framework from "abstinence", i.e. a collection of ailments, from morning tremor to feeling sick, who are relieved only by drinking.

There are other distinguishing features between the etilista and the heavy drinker?

Yes. In the case of etilista can lead to episodes of amnesia, depression, loss of self-control, of instability, balance disorders, lack of motor coordination and other very serious physical and psychological complications (see below).

What are the causes of alcoholism?

The development of alcohol dependence many factors contribute: (enzyme deficiency), genetic, environmental, psychological. Abstracting from the first two factors, it is believed that individuals feel insecure or emotionally immature have a greater risk of developing alcohol dependence compared to individuals with mature personality and strong.
Considerable importance in causing the habit of drinking too much is also attributed to environmental factors (availability of alcohol, social acceptance of alcohol among persons who attend at work or in moments of leisure, and so on) and psychological ones.

Where an individual is brought to drink more easily?

Typically when subjected to severe stress, when he thinks he can fight anxiety, depression, disappointment, or when he needs to take courage (remember that in war, before dangerous actions, used to distribute spirits). Many women say etiliste then drinking to excess before menstruation. Even the desire to socialize quickly in a more difficult environment, to increase its efficiency, psychic or imitative behavior (it is in fact easier drinking group) can be an opportunity to begin to drink alcohol more than the usual and lawful.

Alcoholism is usually in the family?

Yes. First, the constitutional tendency to alcoholism may be hereditary; Secondly, children learn, following the example of parents, to use alcohol as a means to escape tensions or to reality. Whatever the underlying cause, the majority of alcohol-addicted descended from families where one or both parents were equally etilisti

What are the symptoms and the damage that characterize a prolonged, excessive alcohol intake?

Are many and both physical and mental. The lightest, and initials, can be represented by a poor appetite, mild stomach discomfort and, sometimes, some trembling hands and chronic laryngitis (which causes the characteristic hoarse voice).
In the most severe forms, as well as an increased risk of cancer of the mouth, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus, there can be a marked involvement of the liver (up to the development of cancer or cirrhosis), stomach and pancreas (gastritis, peptic ulcer, pancreatitis), peripheral nervous system (polinevriti). Can be also affected the cardiovascular system (heart failure, hypertension, increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke), blood (hypoglycaemia and hyperlipidemia) and the central nervous system (brain activity impairment, confusion, memory loss). In very severe forms is massively compromised mental activity appear mood swings, behavior disorders, hallucinations, and psychosis eventually. Sudden withdrawal, delirium tremens can occur.

What is delirium tremens?

The delirium tremens, or alcoholic delirium, is a psychotic State of confusion that occurs within one week of reduced or ceased drinking alcohol. Delirium tremens is characterized by hallucinations (the sick often sees small animals running here and there), strong State of restlessness, tremor, fatigue, recklessness, sometimes fever, diarrhea and vomiting. If left untreated, severe cases can be fatal.

How is the delirium tremens?

With rest, rehydration and sedation in hospital. Sedatives are administered to the patient, and often practiced injections of vitamins, particularly vitamin B 1, the lack of which seem to be some related manifestations of delirium tremens.

How is diagnosed with alcoholism?

Carefully evaluating:
to) the data provided by the medical history of the patient and his family;
b) test results such as blood alcohol content (the determination of blood alcohol measured directly, or through the evaporated alcohol concentration in exhaled air from the blood) and alcoluria (determination of alcohol in urine) and blood tests (CBC, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, gamma-GT, transaminases, azotemia, pancreatic function tests etc.);
c) results of investigations performed for possible damage to
organs (esophagogastroduodenoscopy, abdominal ultrasound, neurological tests, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, liver biopsy, etc.).

What are the chances of recovery from alcoholism?

In General, thanks to timely medical assistance can be healed at least half of individuals suffering from alcoholism. The therapy is based on the divezzamento, carried out mostly under constant medical supervision, hospitalization or specialized centres; This is accompanied by the care of tossicometabolici more immediate damage and care of complication. Very important for the success of therapy are the detection of psychiatric disorders and their treatment with individual or group psychotherapy as well as the subject's will to break free from alcohol dependence. Among the medicines that may help include the care of antabuse (which is useful in divezzamento phase) and psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, sedatives, antidepressants), to combat both States of tension is present in abulia alcoholic intoxication.

What is the antabuse?

The antabuse is a preparation which acts, altering metabolism to make alcohol intolerable. Alcohol intake while taking antabuse causes strong pains and nausea, in fact.

The Association of "Alcoholics Anonymous" in what way contributes to the healing of etilisti?

This organization, based on mutual administrative assistance of fellow sufferers, with special rules of conduct among members, gets excellent results in the treatment of alcoholism. It was founded by people at one time, they get several alcoholic "healings", not using drugs, but taking into account in its work the psychological and social aspects of the problem and acting on other persuasion associates.

How often the "healed" etilisti fall into the habit?

The etilisti are not considered "cured", but simply "checked" or "inactive". The saying "once a drinker, always drinker" is unfortunately true. Even one glass can push an inactive drinker absolutely uncontrolled consumption of alcohol.

Alcoholism may shorten your life?

Yes, because in etilisti often develop diseases already mentioned, plus States of avitaminosis and acute infections, which may take a lethal course. Among alcoholics are also more frequent cases of car accidents and suicide. According to statistics, the probable duration of survival is much less than for alcohol-dependent than non etilisti.

Alcohol consumption promotes tuberculosis?

Yes. Strangely, TB is proportionately more common among etilisti than among the population as a whole and also seems to have a more severe course.

Excessive alcohol consumption is especially dangerous for diabetics?

Yes. In many cases the diabetic coma is caused by a strong drink.

Alcohol ingested by pregnant women has a direct effect on the fetus?

Yes; the harm that alcohol can cause birth defects, penetrating into her bloodstream through the placenta, was recognized only recently. Drinking more than two small glasses of wine or beer per day increases the risk of miscarriage is of occurrence of fetal alcohol syndrome, which can cause heart defects, abnormal limb development, cleft lip, cleft palate, and below-average intelligence.

An individual in a State of acute alcohol can be dangerous?

No doubt, because he lost self-control and ability to reflect and can perform reckless actions, that would never do sober.

The drink is dangerous for drivers?

Extremely dangerous. The source of a very large number of accidents is the fact that the driver had been drinking.

How to prevent alcoholism?

The fight against alcoholism should be initiated as soon as possible, which is why it should be part of health education imparted already of school age, indicating clearly the damage done by the abuse of alcoholic beverages. Then it will be appropriate to protect individuals who are part of a family unit where there is a etilista or consume large quantities of alcohol, acting on family and social conditions that may have been because of malicious behavior.


Doctors confirm: a glass of wine with meals is good for your health, longer life and dismisses the risk of serious disease. Applies to all? How we should behave when you are pregnant? It is dangerous, or the benefits of alcohol are transmitted also to the child?

Mother and son: two distinct organisms

One is inclined to think that what is good for your mother is good also the baby in her lap holding: nothing could be more wrong. The body of an adult is stronger and resistant and needs of different substances to protect themselves from disease. If it is true that, for example, contained in the wine polyphenols reinforce blood, arteries in children is not so. For a fetus to alcohol is quite dangerous, if not lethal: is so harmful that it can be considered a poison, because it is not absorbed in the same manner (remember that the tolerable quantity is calculated according to the weight) and can cause damage to liver, brain and kidneys. The placenta, which normally filters out harmful substances, in the case of alcoholic beverages is not able to absorb the ethanol and protect the baby, which is immersed in amniotic fluid, which in turn has rather high concentrations of this substance.

The consequences of alcohol consumption during pregnancy

There are many risks that you suffer if you continue to drink during pregnancy: in recent years on the bottles of wine, spirits and beer logo is printed/ban on depicting a pregnant woman which holds a glass in hand. Doctors have shown that taking any kind of alcohol (in any amount) during pregnancy leads to fetal malformations, miscarriages, premature births, physical development deficit, epilepsy, neurosis and hyperactivity in the first years of life. In the long term have been found of serious mental deficiency in children whose mothers continued to take alcohol during pregnancy or in early gestation period. This can happen if you consume alcohol regularly and if not we notice immediately to be pregnant: so be careful if you are planning to become pregnant or if you have unprotected sex.
The problem is more serious when it comes to women who abuse alcohol: If your relationship can be defined as an addiction it is recommended that you consult a specialist if you are going to give birth to a child. Having regard to the risks that might run your son would be best, for you and for him to undergo a psychotherapy tailored to solve your addiction before conception.

Fetal alcohol syndrome

The children of mothers who continued to drink alcohol during pregnancy may suffer fetal alcohol syndrome, which causes physical, mental disorders and behavior in newborn babies and older age. In the 1970s some doctors observed that the children of women drinkers face malformation of brain, heart, delays in growth and intellectual development, immune deficiencies. There were also cases of children with a smaller skull than normal, cleft lip, eyes, genital malformations, renal, cardiac, bone, joints and decrease in birth weight. A recent study in France showed that it is not necessary to be brandi to cause drinkers harm to your unborn baby: it takes small doses of alcohol to impair his health. Fetal alcohol syndrome is a fatal disorder for which there is no cure: you can only prevent its occurrence taking wise and conscious behaviour during the nine months of pregnancy but especially in the first three. In this period the foetal cells multiply and grow: take heart, limbs and brains, and it is therefore important that they do it properly, without being influenced by external agents, more toxic.
Although many women who have consumed small amounts of alcohol during pregnancy have claimed to have fathered the children absolutely healthy, you should avoid drinking alcohol during all nine months: this is what the doctors around the world following much research done on the subject. Alcohol is classified medically as teratogen, can cause malformations of the embryo that is in its phase of growth and development.
A small sacrifice, giving some drunk together, brings great benefits to your child and will avoid physical problems, mental and behavioral problems that would compromise its future from many points of view. Give them a healthy life!


What is smoking?

The term "smoking" means a toxic syndrome due to constant and prolonged use of tobacco, prevalence of smoking tobacco (cigarettes and cigars), significantly less percentage of pipe tobacco, snuff and chewing tobacco.

What are the damages produced by the habitual use of tobacco?

Tobacco contains nicotine, a toxic alkaloid, and various carcinogens, which are added in the gaseous phase is equally toxic compounds such as nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. The most important damage produced by tobacco smoke are those borne by the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. As regards the first, studies in several countries have demonstrated unequivocally the close correlation between smoking and lung cancer; the incidence of this cancer is slightly lower in smokers of cigars and pipe (probably because they inspire many non smoking), which presents a greater risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract; those who chew tobacco or sniffing is particularly exposed to the risk of cancer of the oral cavity. There are also smoking-related respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The harmful effects of smoking on cardiovascular system are manifested in coronary artery disease, the risk of developing which, in a young man who smokes 20 cigarettes a day is three times higher than a non-smoker; in functional impairment of cerebral arteries (stroke) and limbs (peripheral vascular disease).

Also the forms of abnormal development (dysplasia) of cancer or affecting the stomach, pancreas, colon, kidney and bladder are associated with smoking.

Tobacco addictive?

Many authors consider smoking a real drug addiction; It should be noted that stop smoking abruptly may result in those who for years some secondary reactions (hypotension, mild depression).

Smoking in pregnancy is dangerous?

Yes. Smoking in pregnancy should be avoided in any way, as it has very detrimental effects both on the course of pregnancy, both on the conditions of children in the neonatal period. Among smokers was in fact found a greater number of miscarriages, Ectopic pregnancies, premature births, babies weighing less than normal. I am also not excluding negative effects on subsequent development of the offspring.

The "passive" smoke is just as harmful?

According to most scholars, Yes. In 1990 the Environmental Protection Agency has included the inhaled smoke passively between agents with recognized carcinogenic effect, while in 1991 the American Hearth Association declared due to cardiac and vascular diseases. The issue is still debated and no shortage of opinions in favour of innocuity of passive smoking.

How to prevent cigarette smoking?

In view of the serious diseases for which it is responsible, against tobacco was promoted a campaign to discourage the use and to avoid publicity.
Specific laws impose a ban on smoking in public places and selling cigarettes to minors (unfortunately these prohibitions are often circumvented); have been issued restrictive rules on advertising, while EEC legislation (applied in Italy from 1990) forces to bring on the packaging is the nicotine content and particulate pollutants, both a warning on harmfulness of smoking. Prevention also requires a work promoted health education since the school age.


I have long known the dangers of smoking against the lungs and respiratory system but what if smoking is a pregnant woman? What risks is the shower? What are the effects of this behavior on mother and child?

Smoking in pregnancy: the alarming

Smoking is bad, that's for sure, and the number of consumers of "blondes" increases in population every year, despite the many awareness-raising campaigns that attempt to dissuade people quit and never start. Unfortunately many are boys and girls to be accepted by the Group and to be more fashionable light up the first cigarette from very young, around 15 years of age.
While a few decades ago, nobody wondered about the harm of nicotine on human health, the medicine has shown the dangers of cigarette smoking at any age, so much so that many sufferers of lung cancer (especially in the United States) have taken legal action against the tobacco multinationals accused of not informing the population of risk of contracting serious illnesses and incurable (the cancer) and be responsible for their health. For a few years in Italy it is mandatory to print on cigarette packets phrases that put information at the current smokers about the risks they face, that strategy has effectively lowered the percentage of smokers in our country, although not enough. In addition, smoke affecting fertility, makes it harder to give birth to children: in women, the chances of getting pregnant if you smoke is reduced by about half and blondes decreases the concentration of sperm in the ejaculate, resulting in erection problems.
The percentage of women who smoke is higher than that of men: over the years there has been a decrease in the number of cigarette-addict, while women (especially with a high level of education and age below 35 years) have become more dependent on tobacco, as alarming if you think even just one time in pregnancy , more than one in three women continue to smoke. These States to reduce the number of daily cigarettes but could not stop altogether, mainly because of a stressful lifestyle and demanding that do not contribute to appease that dependency.

The dangers of smoking on a fetus

The foetus suffers major damage if the expectant mother smokes during pregnancy: nicotine is a vasoconstrictor and this is a cause of heart attacks and strokes. Expose your child to this risk is already very serious. also, carbon monoxide generated by cigarette combustion leads to hypoxemia, i.e. a decrease of oxygen in the blood, and hypoxia (decreased oxygen in the tissues and brain). Substances contained in cigarettes are carcinogenic and can cause severe colic, respiratory failure (mainly affecting the small Airways), apnoea, allergies and asthma in children who came into contact, even after childbirth: passive smoking, a body of an infant, it is equally harmful, especially if the subject was already on pace to absorb through the placenta the pollutants of cigarettes smoked by the mother.
To aggravate these disorders there are also the decrease in fetal weight at birth and physical development, increase of premature births, Ectopic pregnancies, placenta previa, malformations, abortion, to deliver a dead fetus, maternal milk, alterations of cot death (SIDS), the number of infections faced by infants up to a few years of life , eating disorders and socialization from adults, aggressiveness, hyperactivity, cognitive deficits/auditory and finally increase the possibility that the child becomes in turn a smoker. Recently it has been shown that smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of contracting the Legg-Perthes disease, degenerative disorder in the femoral head, who knows a slow growth and deficit. Male individuals are most affected and are subject to important issues.

The Mom smoke-free project

Quitting smoking is not easy and many pregnant women can't do it despite the risks know meet; a study conducted at the University of Washington has shown that the support of loved ones is essential to overcome this obstacle and some research has indicated that if the partner collaborates with and supports the partner in the fight against smoking, there are far more likely than mothers to give up cigarettes.
The LILT (Lega italiana per la lotta contro i tumori) and the National Federation of midwives colleges promoted smoke-free Moms project designed to raise awareness of women who continue to smoke during pregnancy, offering you the help you need to say no to. The Minister of labour, health and Social Affairs has financed this idea, whose program is structured in meetings and support groups that aim to deter and to inform pregnant women of the risks they face and that jeopardize the health and lives of the unborn.
Nicotine (addictive alkaloid), benzo [a] pyrene (aromatic hydrocarbons), acrylonitrile (in chemistry is categorized as a monomer), amminobifenile (containing nitrogen and organic compound derived from ammonia), carbon monoxide (poisonous gas) are some of the substances contained in cigarettes and are downright harmful for both mother and child. a British study showed that as soon as you stop smoking you can quickly mute all the risks associated with smoking: it's never too late to protect the future of your child.
If you are pregnant and want to quit smoking get help and seeks the support of those around you. Your baby's health is very important, as your: you both.

The latest discoveries: the neurological retardation and fetal movements

A recent study conducted by a group of researchers at Durham University (UK) has investigated a series of 80 ultrasounds performed on fetuses 20 between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation: 4 fetuses belonged to women smokers (14 cigarettes per day on average) and 16 others in nonsmoking women. During these 4 d ultrasounds (the fourth dimension is the temporal), researchers have scrutinized thousands of facial movements in fetuses and have noticed that all fetuses are touching the face and move your mouth very often but that those of nonsmoking women decreases the frequency of hand movements that the nervous system (which controls movement) develops. Instead, in fetuses of mothers who smoke these movements remain very frequently, and do not decrease at the same speed than nonsmoking mothers.
In the image below, you can see two fetuses the same week of gestation, the one in the photos of the first sequence belongs to a smoker, mom and the second to a mom not smoker.
British researchers have concluded that this difference is due to a delay in the development of the central nervous system caused by tobacco smoke, which makes the less mature fetus neurologically and – together with other previous studies – confirms the hypothesis of a delayed speech development in children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Also, some additional results showed that similar movements are present in fetuses whose mothers suffer from stress and depression, but neurological retardation is higher when the mother smokes.


What is an addiction?

This term commonly refers to the absolute, the urgent need to take a drug or a drug. From a scientific point of view, shows how drug addiction "the set of behavioral and clinical manifestations associated with acute and chronic intake of drugs able to give psychic dependence and/or physical". Psychic dependence, in most cases, manifests itself in stimulating, compelling and uncontrollable, to take the drug continually. Physical dependence arises from the fact that the individual develops tolerance towards substance, for which must take increasing doses to achieve the desired effect (tolerance).

Narcotics and drugs are equivalent terms?

The term "narcotic drugs" are properly shown analgesic or narcotic substances derived from opium, which can be addictive. The term "drugs", which indicated the medicinal substances, is now used in a very general sense, to indicate all those substances capable of causing human addiction, habit, addiction. In this sense the terms are equivalent.

What is the "withdrawal syndrome"?

Is the set of psychological and physical symptoms that appear when the suspended taking a drug or a drug to which an individual is physically dependent. The supportive framework varies depending on which substance use: for opiates and stimulants is opposite in sign to that of the effects such drugs usually cause; for barbiturates and benzodiazepines is characterized by the aggravation of the same symptoms that led to the taking of such drugs.

What are the substances most commonly used by drug addicts?

Very many substances that may give rise to drug poisoning.
They can be distinguished – according to their chemical characteristics or effects that cause – into five groups: opiates, so called because opium derivatives (such as heroin or morphine), whose ownership is to cause euphoria, fight anxiety and arousing feelings of well-being; barbiturates (such as amobarbital), sedatives and sleeping pills effects; stimulants (amphetamine and cocaine), capable of causing elation and well-being, to reduce fatigue, arouse, sometimes, hallucinations; the anti-anxiety drugs (benzodiazepines, meprobamate), whose ownership is to combat anxiety and their sedative action; hallucinogens (LSD, mescaline, derivatives of Cannabis sativa or cannabis, that is, marijuana and hashish), which are likely to cause feelings of dreams and hallucinations.
To these drugs so to speak were traditional in recent years new substances which have unfortunately found rapid spread. These include ice and ecstasy, the synthetic derivatives amphetamine, psychostimulant, which induce psychological dependence; the crack, a natural extract of the coca plant that causes the sense of euphoria and relaxation, and gives both physical and psychological dependence; khat, a drug active principles very similar to amphetamine and similar affections, causing physical and psychological dependence; the speed ball, a combination of cocaine and heroin already in vogue in the 1960s and back to recently that acts very quickly on the nervous system and creates physical and psychological dipendensa.

What damage can be caused by the use of drugs?

The different pharmacological properties and different chemical characteristics of drugs cause, for health, negative consequences of various kinds. The majority, however, causes mood disorders (apathy or irritability), mental impairment, physical decay, anxiety or depression, reducing the ability of organic protection against other diseases. Opioids can also cause anorexia, impotence and sterility; stimulants and hallucinogens cause real psychosis; volatile solvents induce morbid forms affecting the liver, kidney, heart and hematopoiesis. It should also be noted that other diseases or other events can be more or less a direct result of the use of drugs.

The habit among drug users as a group use the syringes to inject drugs may promote the spread of infectious diseases, blood-borne like hepatitis or AIDS. A result of the use of hallucinogens were acts of suicide, resulting in a loss of relationship with reality. It should be mentioned finally that a large dose (overdose) of certain drugs and also drug use by the person who is instead customarily used doses mixed with inert substances can cause death very quickly.

How you can prevent the use of drugs?

The most effective way to combat the spread of drugs appears to be health education, imparted from a very young age, in school.
Any other occasion of community life (e.g., work, military service) may also be home to educational initiatives.

You can treat a drug addiction?

The greatest difficulty that one can encounter in detoxification is in need of an active collaboration with the same drug addict, who, however, do not always want to get out of his State. Weaning, in fact, has great chances of success if there is the will of the person concerned. To this can be of help, in addition to psychotherapy, the existence of some specific, albeit occasional, reasoning that a behavior change reminders (for example, a new job, a falling in love) or other individuals who have had a similar experience (as can happen if weaning attempts in a therapeutic community).


Is the new trend that is sweeping through the younger, named Neknomination. Just booze, a camera and a social network, and the drinking game is done, ready to be shared on Facebook walls.

What is Neknomination

The Neknomination ("your neck", literally drinking a beverage at the drop directly to wrap itself around the neck of the bottle) is drinking a alcoholic, videotaping it and while you ramble under the scent of alcohol just gobbled up, post it on your wall and appoint three other people that within 24 hours can take the challenge and raise in turn the trend. The loser, in the sense that it does not end the drink or not collect pay pledge challenge offering a carton of beer to those who challenged him.
In the vicious circle of the dynamics between younger members of Facebook "missed" this challenge means losing the visibility gained and be publicly humiliated. So the stakes are far higher than the aftereffects caused by alcohol guzzled: chimarsi out of the game is equivalent to renounce that visibility on social networks that makes people feel, and especially the younger, more accepted and welcome, part of a group, a community that shares the same interests and the same passions.
For this reason the phenomenon takes hold: playing on visibility, recognition and need to be part of a group, teenagers are left to easily carry from wave to feel like the "other" and get the complicity of peers. Do something that is fashionable means joining a circle of people who do and dictate trends, overcome some sort of "initiation rite" that makes them feel great and welcome. The provocative attitude and exhibitionist young people here got the space.

Where does the trend Neknomination

The Neknomination phenomenon is started from Australia, homeland of "booze rapide" so that in 2008 the Prime Minister Kevin Rudd made a 40 million campaign to combat alcoholism. Here a group of boys at the University of Western Australia, Scotch tape, recorded and broadcast their stunts and alcoholic Jay Anthony then created a group, The Best Facebook page Neknominate Videos, which has collected more than 200,000 clicks like the synonym of page likes, since early January. In no time the trend has expanded worldwide.

Victims of Neknomination

In addition to "like" are dramatically increased the victims: so in the first quarter of 2014 they recorded ten, including five in Australia, three in England and two in Ireland, where a 19-year-old in Dublin died while trying to cross a frozen river,
The viral phenomenon that bounces from one wall to another in Facebook and Youtube Channel (just type the term to see thousands of videos about it) you're scaring parents and societies, and in the United States and France is warning. Here, a guy is almost transformed into a human torch, as she drank shot under the burning tear gas of his "friends": for this reason, the national police has begun to talk about it on their pages.

The degeneration of the phenomenon

The game is degenerated in no time: from beer ingurgitati in no time you switched to alcoholic concoctions and other subjects, from food for animals to live goldfish, guzzle and positions in the most absurd. The challenge is no longer just down alcohol but do it in the most extreme way to collect the most successful and force the "nominated" to do better. The video resume so that down beers while riding, others who do it while driving, others while swimming in an aquarium. There is no limit to the imagination, if not ethyl coma arrives.

Physical damage due to alcohol abuse

Excess alcohol can severely damage, especially in young people. First it interferes with brain development and accelerate aging since brain cells weakens.
The effects on the nervous system related to it are the immediate consequence: early on, alcohol is perceived as inhibitor and Stimulator brakes, but quickly becomes a sedative, with negative effects on intellect, such as memory leaks and dementia, and judgment and walking.
Alcohol abuse also has an effect on the stomach: it in fact it inflames the mucous membrane causing gastritis and decreasing the capacity of absorption of nutrients. Associated with the stomach, the pancreas is involved in this corruption: its regulatory capacity of the organism and digestion of feed consumed are fading.
Alcohol has an impact on the liver, causing a variety of illnesses, such as hepatitis and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, which in the long run destroys this body tissues with lethal consequences. It increases the risk of hypoglycemia and the risk of complications of diabetes, affecting the level of glucose in the blood.
Finally, alcohol abuse increases the risk of cancer, including breast, mouth and liver.

Psychological damage

Causing a strong cognitive impairment, alcohol abuse increases the level of violence and aggression: the risk of abuse, rape, and assault crimes is higher in women who suffer from alcoholism. Such behavior is hardly manageable in the workplace, with the consequence of losing their jobs, therefore, and within the family, with conflicts and domestic violence.
Psichiatricamente, long term abuse of alcohol cause depression, psychosis, anxiety, panic attacks and dementia.

Alcohol abuse in teenagers

The consumption of alcohol has serious repercussions, especially among young people. The consequences of physical and psychological damage they reach extreme levels. Those who start drinking very soon is most at risk of falling into a real addiction, leading to chronic alcoholism.
Kids who drink more frequently also have a sex life more flirtatious and active, with the result that more reports to risk of transmission of STDs. At the same time, large quantities of alcohol affect the menstrual cycle of girls, even to stop it, and erectile function of the boys.
Finally, it is one of the main causes of traffic accidents, drownings, suicides and murders.

After Neknomination: virtuous answers

The Neknomination also resulted in more positive reverberations: thanks to the incredible potential of social networks, the speed and the consequent sharing of virality phenomenon, other trends have been created pointing to good deeds. Videotaping will donate blood (Bloodnomination, invented by two brothers of Marseilles), or nominate other friends to do good deeds (DonnerNommer), getting filmed while doing the pampering to strangers on the street (Chaine des câlins) or tag someone to bid to charities (HelpNomination).

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