Pathology of the Genital sexuality and reproduction (2) | Pathologies and health.

Diseases and conditions

  • Cervicitis
  • Cervical polyps
  • Cervical hypertrophy
  • Carcinoma of the cervix
  • Location of defects of the uterus
  • Endometritis
  • Endometrial hyperplasia
  • Endometriosis
  • Endometrial polyps
  • Curettage
  • Fibroid tumors of the uterus
  • Cervical carcinoma
  • Hysterectomy
  • Salpingitis
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Ovaries: General information
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Ovarian tumors


What is cervicitis?

An inflammation of the cervix.

What are the causes of cervicitis?

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites. Among the viruses should be remembered on Human Papilloma virus (HPV), sexually transmitted.

There are situations that favour cervicitis?

Yes, erosion of the cervix, which is the formation of a reddened and inflamed area that appears at the point where the cervical channel fits into the vagina. Can be primary, manifesting in girls with developmental anomalies to which we owe the absence of normal membrane that covers the cervix. Erosions may be secondary, as a result of an injury sustained during childbirth or after maneuvers, such as gynecological details dilation and curettage.

What are its symptoms?

the most pronounced) is the vaginal discharge (vaginal discharge), which can range from colorless to a mucus secretion of off-white or yellowish colour;
b) bleeding from the vagina after intercourse;
c) in severe cases, the main symptom may be a more profuse menstrual flow than usual or preceded or followed by bleeding for a day or two.

Cervicitis can prevent conception?

Sometimes. In these cases, you must delete the cervicitis in order to ensure conception.

Treatment of cervicitis?

in) In the presence of infection, this must be prevented by using specific medicines (antibiotics); HPV infection should be treated with interferon;
b) a simple erosion of the cervix can be treated with electrocautery or laser therapy;
c) chronic hypertrophy, i.e. the slow enlargement of the cervix, is treated by Cauterization.

What might be the consequences of cervicitis?

in cyst formation);
b) cervical hypertrophy; you have an overgrowth of the entire body tissue of the cervix, often accompanied by erosion and cysts;
c) the chronic inflammatory process.

As electrocautery is performed?

Is a process by which outpatient using an instrument with electrically heated metal spikes, is cauterized in several places the fabric or infected, which eroded dies and is separated from the underlying layer of cervical tissue. With time, this rises to cover the entire cervix.

Cauterization of cervix is a painful process?

No, because only a relatively mild discomfort. May cause a sensation of heat in the vagina and can be followed by contractions, but does not cause any disability.

How long does it take to perform a Cauterization?

Only a few minutes, if practiced by a competent gynecologist.

What should expect the patient after Cauterization of cervix?

In most cases, there will be an increase in vaginal discharge for a period of time from seven to ten days. The secretion can be smelly and greyish. After seven or eight days can cause vaginal blood loss, which is due to flaking of the infected tissue.

What precautions should be taken after Cauterization of cervix?

The patient should refrain from having sex or doing irrigations a twelve or fourteen days.

After a Cauterization is necessary to make watering regularly?

Yes. Once expelled desquamato tissue, within twelve to fourteen days, daily irrigations with special preparations to prevent recurrence of infection. These irrigation should be continued for about three weeks, excluding the menstrual period.

After a cauterization, how long will it take for a full recovery?

Approximately 4 weeks.

After a cauterization, it is appropriate to the use of local medicines?

Some gynecologists recommend daily introduction into the vagina of ova or glow antibiotics, to prevent any recurrence of the infection.

There are alternatives to electrocautery?

Yes, laser vaporization.

Cervicitis and cervical erosion for damage impact trend?

Yes, and in this case it is necessary to repeat the treatment. It is not uncommon that you can verify a slight relapse, but the reaction to the treatment is quick and positive.

In case of recurrence of cervicitis, the gynecologist suspects a possible tumor?

Yes, and in this case perform a Pap smear and possibly perform a biopsy of cervical tissue for microscopic examination.

The gynecologist always consider a cancer in all cases in which there are abnormalities of the cervix?

Yes, this is a suspicion I always intervenes, in presence of an alteration of the cervix. And also a competent gynecologist is able to determine which are requiring syndromes more in-depth investigation.

What is a Pap smear or cervical smear?

Is a method that involves the removal of superficial cells of the vagina and the cervix and their microscopic examination, with special staining techniques to identify possible cases of cancer. The examination shall cover only the superficial cells that you are presenting alterations desquamate characteristics, in case of risk of cancer or cancer in initial development phase (in situ cancer).

What is the usefulness of cervical smear?

May reveal cancerous cells at a very early stage of their development, thus allowing for timely treatment.

All women should undergo Pap smear?

All women after initiation of sexual activity should undergo a regular vaginal sampling, once a year. The smear should be performed in any case of suspected lesion.

It is a painful procedure?

Absolutely not. The whole process takes no more than a few seconds and is done by simply passing a pad on the surface of the cervix and vagina.

To investigate in depth the lesions of the cervix are other examinations, as well as the Pap test and the speculoscopia?

Yes. Is colposcopy that allows, through an optical instrument at high magnification, the affected area and check the biopsy sampling, i.e. excision of tissue to be examined under a microscope.


What is a cervical polyp?

Is a small benign tumor that forms on the cervix. Usually has a thin stalk and takes on the size and shape of a pea, a cherry or grape.

What is the cause of the development of polyps?

Is unknown.

What are the symptoms of cervical polyps?

Vaginal discharge, colorful losses pre-inter-or postmestruali and, after coitus, cramps. These symptoms can be legally appear individually, or, very often, does not appear at all.

What is the treatment for cervical polyps?

Outpatient surgical excision or, under certain circumstances, to the hospital.
It is considered a minor surgery and involves only a mild discomfort.

Polyps are tendency to repeat offenders?

Once removed, an Octopus is not reform. However, if a woman had an Octopus, in it there is the tendency to form other polyps and also they should be excised.

Can be malignant polyps of the cervix?


The polyps hinder pregnancy?

Not usually.


What is cervical hypertrophy?

Excessive growth or a stretching of the cervix with or without inflammation.
In many cases it is associated with prolapse of the uterus, cystocele or rectocele (see relevant paragraphs).

What is due?

You do not know the cause.

What are its symptoms?

Being normally associated with cystocele, rectocele and prolapse of the uterus, symptoms are urinary tract or rectum.

Cervical hypertrophy impedes sexual intercourse?

Yes. The presence of a mass that fills the vagina can make intercourse difficult,
unpleasant for both the male and the female, and in some cases almost impossible. Pain during intercourse may be the consequence of the displacement of the enlarged cervix.

How to treat cervical hypertrophy?

When is associated with prolapse, cystocele or rectocele, removal of the cervix is part of vaginal plastic surgery. When cervical hypertrophy is an isolated manifestation, is removed surgically.

Amputation of the cervix is an invasive surgery?

No. It is considered a minor surgery and carries few risks or postoperative discomfort.

Where the incision is made for amputation of the cervix?

Completely inside the vaginal Canal.

What is the hospitalization period for doing so?

About five or six days.

What measures are needed postoperative after amputation of the cervix?

It takes three to four weeks of convalescence; for about six weeks you must abstain from intercourse and do vaginal irrigations.

Amputation of the cervix hinders a subsequent pregnancy?

After amputation of the cervix conception is possible, but most likely for childbirth will be necessary to have recourse to caesarean section, as a
time amputated cervix, it is unlikely that the cervix may dilate enough to allow passage of the baby. There is also a danger during childbirth, laceration of this lower segment.

Cervical hypertrophy may lead to cancer?



Cervical cancer, cervical cancer, frequently?

Yes, it is responsible for 25% of all cancers affecting women.

What causes cervical cancer?

You do not know exactly. It is, however, found that this type of cancer is spread more easily in women with multiple children, those with low socio-economic conditions and in those with an early and intense sexual activity (in the latter case, the risk is related to that of contracting sexually transmitted viruses such as the Human Papilloma virus). Also appears to be a risk factor also smoking.

At what age can you find?

Can occur at any age, but most often affects women between forty and fifty-five years.

Cervical cancer has a tendency to recur within familiar?


It is prudent to seek treatment promptly for any abnormalities of the cervix in an effort to prevent the onset of cancer?

Definitely. Many gynecologists believe that erosion, tearing, inflammation or benign Neoplasms of the cervix may predispose to cancer.

You can prevent cervical cancer?

A real prevention is not possible, but, with early care, you can prevent the cancer reaches an advanced stage gynecological exams Periodicals make it possible to detect cancer in its early stage, and then to treat him properly.

What are the initial symptoms of this form of cancer?

Symptoms can be absent in cases of initial cancer. Is this one reason why we must undergo periodic examinations. Later you can have vaginal discharge, bleeding after intercourse and after watering, or unexplained bleeding between menstrual periods.

You can detect cervical cancer by the vaginal smear?


What is a cancer in situ?

Is a syndrome (also known as zero stage) in which cervical cancer is limited to the top layer of cells and does not affect tissues in depth. The term is used to distinguish it from invasive forms, in which the cancerous process has extended beyond the superficial layers of cells and has achieved deep tissues, including the lymphatic vessels and the blood stream.

What is the reliability of a smear for detecting a cancer?

Positive smear is trusted in 97 percent of cases.

A smear is positive enough to diagnose cervical cancer?

No. Whenever you have a smear positive, we should make a bio and a review of psia cavity to locate and diagnose cancer with absolute certainty. Positive smear may indicate a cancer localized in the corpus Uteri as well as localized cancer in the cervix.

How is cervix cancer treated?

Depends on the stage of development reached by the tumour at the time of its discovery. There are four therapies:
radiation therapy);
b) surgical removal of the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and of all the lymph nodes to which the region;
c) a combination of radiation therapy and surgery;
d) only in case of carcinoma in situ is possible a cone biopsy, i.e. excision of a cone of tissue from the cervix around the carcinoma.

Who determines the treatment take?

The gynecologist, after ascertaining the type and extent of spread of the cancer.

What are the chances of recovering from a cervical cancer?

If detected early, the cancer can be successfully treated with therapies. As the disease spreads, implying more complex procedures, the cure rate is lower. In large cases, the mortality rate is high and the percentage of very low recoveries.

What is the form practiced surgery for cancer of the cervix?

Conization) in case of cancer in situ;
b) in the case of hysterectomy in situ or invasive cancer at the early stage;
c) radical hysterectomy in case of cancer spread;
d) evisceration for advanced cancers and widespread.

What is meant by gutting for cervical cancer?

Is a surgical procedure that involves extremely complex excision, widespread cancer, uterus, cervix, vagina, fallopian tubes, ovaries, lymph glands, bladder and/or rectum. For the passage of urine and faeces are practiced artificial openings.

You can heal cervical cancer with this type of surgery widely breaks down?

Only in exceptional circumstances. You have to remember that this type of surgery are not only widespread cancer patients and that otherwise would die certainly and only if you have the ability to remove all the cancerous tissue.

Is a dangerous operation?


What are the future prospects for people affected by cancer of the cervix?

The advent of the vaginal smear can now diagnose the disease in early stages of development, and the further spread of this review, very desirable, will raise significantly the rate of healing.


The uterus is subject to relocation?

Yes; the uterus is a mobile organ, which can undergo changes for both functional and causes (for example, excessive pressure from the bladder or intestine) is pathological. Such movements, which are called uterine deviations, are usually determined by the rotation of the body around a horizontal axis, passing through the so-called isthmus, namely the narrowing that divides the circular uterus into two portions, the body and neck (or cervix). If the movement is in the isthmus, without Cervical flexion, you have the version (anti-, retro-, lateroversione); If instead the body Flex, while the penetration (or snout tench) retains its normal axis, you are bending (anti-, retro-, lateroflessione).

What is the retroversion of the uterus?

A movement whereby the pathological uterus, instead of being tilted forward is diverted permanently backwards. The abduction may be congenital or acquired, and in the latter case, the most common, usually occurs after abortions, difficult or inflammatory processes.

How important is retroversion of the uterus?

Usually has no importance, but it can impede conception.

What are the symptoms of a tipped uterus?

Usually none. In rare cases, the presence of a uterus retroversion strongly can cause back pain and a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen.

What do we do in cases of retroversion uterus?

In most cases you do not need any treatment (the numerous transactions that were made years ago to "straighten" the uterus, were abandoned because considered not necessary). In rare cases a vaginal pessary for keeping the uterus in place (although many gynecologists are opposed to this technique).

A uterus retroversion prevents pregnancy?

In most cases, no; but can hinder conception.

A uterus retroversion hinder coitus?


What is prolapse of the uterus?

An abnormal lowering of the uterus into the vagina, often associated with disorders of the bladder and rectum.

What is the cause of uterine prolapse?

In most cases is due to the stretching or tearing of tissues during labor and delivery. Women who had more children may be prone to stretching or tearing of ligaments and muscles that usually support the uterus and vagina.

Prolapse can be caused by an inadequate treatment obstetrician?

No. The tearing of ligaments support can occur despite the best care midwives.

There are various degrees of prolapse?

Yes. There may be only a slight lowering of the uterus, or it may also happen that the uterus is lower to the point of escape from the vagina.

What are the symptoms of uterine prolapse?

There is a sense of fullness in the vagina and one gets the impression that something is falling; the symptoms worsen, walking and lifting heavy objects.
Prolapsed structures can hamper intercourse and you can have during urination and defecation. The symptoms depend on the degree of prolapse.

You can prevent the prolapse of the uterus?

Adequate obstetrical care may serve to decrease the incidence of cases of prolapse, but it is often not possible to prevent them.

How do we cure it?

The treatment is surgical. Requires a plastic surgery on the vagina to reconstruct the ligaments and muscles, or in women who have passed menopause, it may be necessary to remove the entire uterus (vaginal hysterectomy).

Are interventions for serious cases of prolapse?

Are considered invasive surgery interventions, but do not involve serious risks or determine disability.

How long you need to stay in hospital for such an operation?

Ten to twelve days.

There are medical treatments for cases of prolapse?

Yes. The application of a pessary can help keep the uterus to its normal position. This form of therapy does not still need to heal and must not be used to replace surgical.

Because the use of pessary is not extended indefinitely?

you don't need) to cure the basic defect;
b) can lead to ulceration of vagina, inflammation of the vaginal wall or a secondary infection and ulceration or fistulas;
c) requires daily irrigations;
d) requires monthly office visits, to remove it, clean it and put it back in place after each menstrual period.

Pregnancy is possible after surgery for prolapse of the uterus?

Yes, if excised only the cervix (neck of the womb); also in this case the delivery can request a caesarean section. It is obvious that pregnancy is no longer possible if you performed a total hysterectomy (i.e. the total removal of the uterus) to correct the prolapse.

What is an infantile uterus?

The term is used to indicate a small uterus.

Women with an infantile uterus have trouble conceiving?



What is an endometritis?

An infection of the mucous tunic of the uterus, called the endometrium.

What caused it?

propagation) to the endometrium by vaginal infections, such as gonorrhea;
b) may be a result of an abortion or an abortion, especially if procured by rudimentary or non-aseptic conditions;
c) can follow a normal delivery, if you have had a random infection of the uterus;
d) tuberculosis of the lungs, kidneys and has spread to the uterus;
and infections) produced by other organisms.

What are its symptoms?

Irregular bleeding, vaginal discharge, pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen, feeling weak, fever, difficult urination etc.

How do we cure it?

The first step is to determine the exact cause. If there was an interruption of pregnancy, ing the uterine cavity must be emptied by a curettage; If endometritis was caused by a bacterial infection antibiotics should be administered; If the infection has spread beyond the lining and has spread in the inner wall of the uterus, it may be necessary to remove the uterus itself for healing.

The endometritis may heal spontaneously?

No. Very often the infection spreads involving the deeper layers of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, or even the abdominal cavity.


What is Endometrial hyperplasia?

Is an increase in volume of mucosal tissue for abnormal increase in the number of cells of the lining of the uterus.

What is the cause?

It is usually caused by excessive and prolonged production of female sex hormone (estrogen hormone) from the ovaries. Are often present a cyst or an ovarian tumor, which is dependent on the production of the hormone estrogen.
Another cause may be premenopausal stage or estrogen therapy.

What are the symptoms of Endometrial hyperplasia?

It is characterized by bleeding irregular and unpredictable, absolutely you can go from a complete absence of menstruation in more frequent flows of the standard, and a slight loss in colored a copious bleeding. Characteristic of Endometrial hyperplasia, blood loss is painless.

Endometrial hyperplasia is associated with infertility?

Yes. Women with this disease often have no ovulation and therefore cannot conceive.

How is?

By microscopic examination of the tissue taken from the lining of the uterus with biopsy; or by examining the excised tissue via curettage.

Where and how is it performed the biopsy?

This procedure is performed in an outpatient setting and introducing a special tool through the vagina and cervix to reach the uterus.
Remove a piece of tissue and examine it under a microscope.

Endometrial biopsy is a procedure painful?

No. Is a simple outpatient procedure that causes no discomfort.

Is there a relationship between Endometrial hyperplasia and cancer of the uterus?

It is thought that in women who have passed the childbearing, certain types of endometrial plasia are associated with the development of cervical cancer. For this reason, in cases of Endometrial hyperplasia, it is recommended to older women a radical treatment.

How is Endometrial hyperplasia?

Depends on the patient's age, the type of microscopic examination revealed hyperplasia and the presence or absence of ovarian neoplasms. In young women, still in childbearing, simple hyperplasia treated with curettage and
for progesterone stimulate the normal menstrual cycle.
After menopause, depending on the type of hyperplasia, the therapy varies from simple curettage to hysterectomy. If you relapse, hyperplasia or show a preponderance of certain types of cells, if the patient has passed the childbearing, it is likely that the best therapy is hysterectomy. In the presence of an ovary of abnormal size, consider the possibility that both hyperplasia associated with a tumor of the ovary.
In these cases, you should perform a laparotomy with the removal of the ovaries and uterus.

Women who have been affected by Endometrial hyperplasia should undergo periodic and frequent exams?

Yes. An irregularity of the menstrual cycle, if the woman is still in childbearing, is a good reason to undergo a gynaecological examination.

What is the preferred therapy in case of recurrence hyperplasia in young women?

in Repeated scrapings or) hormonal therapy for an extended period of time;
b) if it is not possible to control the symptoms of hyperplasia, can be necessary, for example in case of uncontrollable bleeding, perform a hysterectomy, even in a young woman. Luckily, this is rarely necessary.


What is endometriosis?

A pathological condition in which endometrial cells of uterus found in abnormal areas. You can find deep into the wall or on the outside of the uterus, tubes, ovaries, uterine ligaments in the intestine, bladder, vagina or other areas within the abdominal cavity.

How can these be endometrial cells in abnormal areas?

Are implanted on the surface of other structures and grow in small clusters of cells. Their sizes vary from that of a pinhead to that of an orange. They often form cysts, which contain a chocolate-coloured fluid consists of old material similar to menstrual blood.

These endometrial implants can cause particular syndromes?

They can cause adhesions between the solid tube and ovaries or bladder, bowel or uterus. Can also result in formation of cysts which can, in turn, twist or break, causing acute abdominal pain and painful sensation.

The activity of these plants is similar to endometrial of uterine cells?

Yes; swell and blood congestionano at the approach of each menstrual flow and bleed at the time of menstruation.

What causes endometriosis?

You do not know exactly. According to one theory, the cells of the lining of the uterus are expelled through the fallopian tubes by a reverse Peristaltic movement during menstrual flows. According to another theory, these cells are released following surgery on the uterus. It also seems that this disease is related to genetic factors, hormonal, immunological.

What are the symptoms of endometriosis?

at) there are no symptoms whatsoever and that endometriosis is discovered accidentally when an operation for another cause;
b) severe pain before and during menstrual flow;
c) pain during urination, defecation or sexual intercourse;
d) there may be a noticeable increase in menstrual flow;
and) one of the complications of endometriosis is the inability to conceive.

How to confirm the diagnosis of endometriosis?

With laparoscopy or associated with biopsy sampling can laparotomy play. Can also be used computed tomography (CT).

How do we cure it?

a) therapy is medical and usually involves the administration of hormones (androgens, progestins) to temporarily stop menstrual flows. It is clear, however, that this type of therapy may not be extended.
b) is used in mild cases laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia. The laparoscope is inserted into the abdomen through a small incision practiced at the level of the navel and miniature surgical instruments coagulate outbreaks of
c) in persistent cases of endometriosis, with marked symptoms, it may be necessary to perform a hysterectomy, as well as the removal of the outbreak. This procedure is reserved for women who have passed the childbearing or the symptoms are so severe as to require radical treatment; otherwise, if possible, only the removal of the outbreak;
d) in young women, childbearing, pregnancy can bring temporary relief, since the cyclical influences responsible for the symptoms of endometriosis stops.

Endometriosis can cause cancer?


What can happen in the case of endometriosis neglected?

It is possible that symptoms progress and become debilitating. If Endometriosis affects the intestinal tract, can cause a blockage of the intestine.
In some cases endometrial cysts can become so large to exert strong pressure on other organs, thus requiring surgical intervention. Occasionally, cysts or twist to break, therefore requiring emergency surgery.


What is an endometrial polyp?

Is a tumour that develops on the lining of the uterus and stretches into the uterine cavity. Often polyps occur in clusters.

What symptoms like an endometrial polyp?

Menstrual pain, cramps like colored losses between menstrual flows, which are very abundant, and vaginal secretions.

How is?

Using diagnostic curettage (cavity examination), or by performing an HSG or ultrasound.

What is a hysterosalpingogram?

An examination is to examine an x-ray the uterine cavity, and runs
by injecting into the cavity, through the cervical canal, a radio-opaque substance.
The x-ray shows the outline of the same cavity.

Endometrial polyps can become malignant?

Sometimes Yes.

How to treat?

Li is removed using curettage. When extruded into the vaginal Canal through the cervix, you can excise them by introducing dilator into the vagina and by grabbing them with pliers. If the Octopus shows signs of malignant alterations, you run a total hysterectomy (total excision of the uterus).


What is scraping?

Is an operation that is performed in the cavity of the uterus through the vagina.
Is to scrape the membrane which lines the uterus, using special instruments to dilate the cervix.

Because you run a curettage?

for diagnostic purposes);
b) for therapeutic purposes;
c) diagnostic and therapeutic purposes at the same time, as in the cases of mucosal hyperplasia and uterine polyps.

When you run a diagnostic curettage?

a) of unexplained uterine bleeding;
b) in cases where you suspect the presence of an octopus in the uterine cavity;
c) in cases where you suspect a cancer of the body of the uterus;
d) in cases where genital tuberculosis is suspected.

When you run a therapeutic curettage?

curettage) can be performed as a cure when you have already been diagnosed with an alteration at the expense of the mucous membrane of the uterus, such as an Octopus;
b) you can often get the healing with curettage in cases where it was diagnosed with a tumour of the mucous membrane of the uterus (Endometrial hyperplasia);
c) following an abortion, when there are leftovers of the fetus or placenta. In these cases, curettage is used to clean out the cavity and restore so normal.

What other terms indicates curettage?

It is also called "" curettage French term "curette", indicating the instrument normally used for surgery.

Curettage is painful?

No. Runs to the hospital under general anesthesia.

What is the hospitalization period usually required for a curettage?

About two or three days, sometimes only a few hours.

A scraping leaves scars visible?

No. It runs completely inside the vagina.

How long before you can resume working?

Within a week.

To which restrictions you must follow after a curettage?

Irrigation should be avoided and sexual intercourse for a period of two to four weeks.

A normal pregnancy is possible after a curettage?

Yes. A curettage, if performed in hospital by a competent gynecologist does not prevent subsequent pregnancies.


What are fibroids (fibromiomi) of the uterus?

Are benign tumors composed of muscle and fibrous tissue, rounded and compact.

What is the incidence of fibroids?

Nearly 15-20% of women suffering from uterine fibroids: most of these growths do not cause symptoms and does not require treatment.

What is their cause?

Although they didn't know the exact cause, it was discovered that some ovarian hormones have an important part in the pace of their development. Therefore, after menopause, when the secretion of ovarian hormone is very limited, the development of fibroids will stop and they can also atrophy.

When women are more prone to fibroids?

During the last stages of childbearing, namely between thirty-five and fifty years.
Fibroids can still strike even women just twentysomethings.

Fibroids are recurring in the family?

There is a real trend, but as one in four women is prone to fibroids, it is not unusual for more than one member of the same family is suffering from this disease. This phenomenon cannot be attributed to familiarity, but falls within the General statistical incidence.

What are the different types of fibroids?

Sottosieroso): develops under the outer covering of the uterus;
b intramural): develops in the muscular layer of the uterus;
c): submucosal develops under the mucous membrane of the uterus.

Fibroids are of varying sizes?

Yes. They can be as small as a pinhead or as big as a watermelon and are almost always multiple.

What are their symptoms?

in) many fibroids are asymptomatic and are discovered accidentally, during a regular Gynecologic exam;
b) if the fibroid is submucosal type, can cause uterine bleeding between menstrual flows, and prolonged or heavy periods;
c) intramural subserosal fibroids and may cause excessive menstrual flow, but no symptoms;
d) if the fibroid gets very chunky and exerts pressure on the bladder or the rectum, there may be frequent urination and difficulty in defecation;
and occasionally pain may occur) back or belly;
f) may be infertility, if deformed fibroma uterine cavity.

How is a fibroid?

By gynecological exam, which allows you to determine the size, shape and other characteristics of the tumor. An HSG can be useful in diagnosing small submucosal fibroids; ultrasonography is also useful.

The fibroid of the uterus is a malignant tumor?

Absolutely not: fibroids are benign growths.

Can fibroids become cancerous?

No. It may happen that in a womb containing fibroids grow a cervical or endometrial cancer, but the presence of fibroids does not predispose to cancer formation.

Fibroids may be associated with other syndromes in the womb?

Yes. In women suffering from fibroids is found a high incidence of polyps and Endometrial hyperplasia.

What is the best cure for fibroids?

In some cases, hormone therapy in other surgical excision (often with laparoscopic technique).

What are cases where hormone therapy can succeed?

In the case of menstruation more plentiful, more prolonged and more frequent than normal, or bleeding between menstrual periods, hormonal therapy can lead to the disappearance of these symptoms. If you don't get any improvement will guide you toward surgery.

What are additional indications that recommend surgery?

to) pressure symptoms that cause a persistent urinary and rectal discomfort;
b) rapid growth of fibroid size: any size fibroma are equal to those of a fetus of three months should be removed even if they do not give rise to symptoms;
c) acute pain due to a twist or degeneration of fibroid;
d) repeated abortions or infertility.

What are the procedures operators?

Myomectomy, which consists in the removal of only the fibroid, and hysterectomy, which consists in the removal of the entire body of the uterus. In certain cases, it may be used in laparoscopic surgery.

On what basis a gynaecologist decides to do a myomectomy or hysterectomy?

Depends on the age of the patient and his desire to have children. If the patient wishes to have children, you attempt to save the uterus and a myomectomy.

In addition to myomectomy and hysterectomy, there are other methods for the treatment of fibroids?

Small submucosal fibroids can be removed in endoscopy, namely contacting them via the vagina.

Surgical or hormonal therapy is necessary in all cases of fibroid?

No, very often no treatment is not necessary, because not always the fibroids cause inconvenience.

Fibroids tend to recur?


Fibroids may occur during pregnancy?

Yes. In this case, the pregnancy progresses, can increase in size.

In this case, need to be treated?

No. It is better to postpone treatment until after the birth of the child.

A woman can conceive after undergoing surgery for fibroids?

Pregnancy is possible only if you have performed a myomectomy. In these cases, the child is delivered by caesarean section. Of course, if you have removed the entire uterus, pregnancy is impossible.

Surgical treatment of fibroids usually gives good results?

Yes, almost all cases end with the healing.

Myomectomy is considered an invasive surgery?

Yes, as it involves an incision in the abdomen (can laparotomy play). You still have healing in almost all cases. Typically requires a hospital stay of ten to twelve days.

Menstruation resumes normally after myomectomy?


How long does it take to recover from the effects of myomectomy?

Approximately 4 weeks.

How long should a woman wait before trying to conceive?

About six months. (For hysterectomy, see below.)


What is the incidence of carcinoma of the uterine body?

The frequency of uterine body cancer is now equal to that of cervical cancer, while up to 10-15 years ago was ranked second amongst the dl hitting the cancer female genitals, and was five times less frequent cervical cancer.

Who is more easily affected by cervical cancer?

Cancer of the uterus occurs at an older age and cervical cancer is more common among women who are between 55 and 65 years.

Cancer of the uterus has family character?


What is the difference between sarcoma and carcinoma of the uterus?

Carcinoma originates from the mucous membrane of the uterus, while the sarcoma (malignant tumor also) originates from the muscular layer.

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

Enlargement of the uterus);
b) irregular vaginal bleeding in women who still have menstrual periods;
c) bleeding after menopause.

How is?

Performing a curettage (examination of cavities). Any blood loss in a woman who has already gone through menopause, should be considered suspicious and should be examined by curettage to rule out the possibility of cancer. Is useful for diagnosis endometrial biopsy.

What is the recommended therapy for cancer of the uterus?

Radiotherapy, followed, after four to six weeks, from a total hysterectomy.

What percentage of the cures in case of cancer in the body of the uterus?

If the cancer is detected before it has spread beyond the confines of the womb, about 65-70% of cases has a higher survival at 5 years. If the cancer has already spread beyond the uterus, the percentage to 5-Cove 10%.

You can prevent cervical cancer?

You cannot prevent it, but you can find it quickly if women turn to gynecologist just notice abnormal vaginal bleeding and, especially, if you strictly subject to periodic tests (Pap tests and, if necessary, examination of cavities).

There are risk factors for this cancer?

These are considered: exposure to estrogen (even if taken in menopause as hormone replacement therapy of ovarian function, if not accompanied by progestin), early onset of menstruation, late menopause, not having ever had pregnancies, diseases such as diabetes and obesity.


What is a hysterectomy?

Surgery for excision of the uterus.

What are the different types of hysterectomy?

Subtotal Hysterectomy): removal of the body of the uterus except cervix;
b) total hysterectomy: removal of the body of the uterus and cervix;
c) radical hysterectomy: this surgery involves the removal of a large part of the vagina, fallopian tubes and ovaries, of supporting tissues and lymph glands along the body and cervix of the uterus;
d) hysterectomy, leek or amputation: ovarian uterus-womb at birth by caesarean section;
and) vaginal hysterectomy: removal of the uterus and cervix through the vagina rather than through an abdominal incision.

What are the main causes that recommend a hysterectomy?

symptomatic Fibroids);
b) chronic and incurable inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries, such as gonorrhea and tuberculosis;
c severe relapsing hyperplasia) of the endometrium;
d) cancer of the uterus or cervix;
and tubal cancer) or ovaries;
f) uncontrollable hemorrhage after childbirth;
g) in certain cases, when it is necessary to remove the ovaries to cancer or cysts, you should also remove the uterus;
h) uterine rupture during childbirth.

Hysterectomy is an invasive surgery?

Yes; However, it is not considered dangerous and operating healing almost in 100% of cases.

After a hysterectomy, a woman still has her period?


After a hysterectomy, a woman can still conceive?


You must always remove the ovaries when performing a hysterectomy?

If the illness for which you perform hysterectomy is cancerous in nature, it is necessary to remove the tube and ovaries; If the syndrome is benign and the woman has not yet forty, you can leave one or both ovaries, so to avoid the annoying symptoms of menopause. When the patient has gone through menopause, normal take off, while doing everything to avoid removing the ovaries when the patient is very young.

After a hysterectomy, ovaries that were not removed tend to degenerate and become cystic lesions?


A hysterectomy is always followed by symptoms of menopause?

No, if one or both ovaries are left on site, you will not have menopause.
She has menopause only when both ovaries have been removed.

After a hysterectomy, you can control the symptoms of menopause?

Yes. There are excellent means to combat them.

The removal of the uterus affect your sex life?

No. So, with or without removal of the ovaries, does not affect the ability and sexual appetite; There are indeed women who claim that their relationships are more satisfying after a hysterectomy than they were before.

Hysterectomy alters the external genitalia?

No; the vagina and other external genital structures remain unchanged.

Hysterectomy causes changes in a woman's physical appearance?

No. Is a wrong concept as how widespread: women don't tend to gain weight or lose their female characteristics due to hysterectomy. However, bear in mind that most of the interventions are executed after fifty or sixty years, when women usually already show signs of old age.

The hysterectomy is disfiguring scar?

No. Is a simple line on the lower abdomen. In the case of vaginal hysterectomy, the scar is not visible.

When should a vaginal hysterectomy?

In the presence of prolapse, cystocele and rectocele-bound, it is sometimes advisable to remove the uterus through the vagina, so that you can run at the same time plastic surgery
penetration. This is not possible if the uterus is enlarged to the point that it cannot pass through the vagina.
It is not recommended when vaginal hysterectomy malignant syndrome is suspected.

Vaginal hysterectomy is a surgery?

No. Involves the same risks of hysterectomy performed by abdominal incision.

Hysterectomy is a surgery painful?

The discomfort is the same as any other operation and abdominal pain is largely controlled by medical treatment.

How long does it take to perform a hysterectomy?

One to two hours.

How long after a hysterectomy the patient can leave the bed?

Usually the day after surgery.

What is the period of hospitalisation required for a hysterectomy?

Ten to fifteen days.

What are the postoperative disorders that follow a hysterectomy?

There may be bleeding or vaginal secretions for one or two weeks.
For a week or more, there may be some difficulty in passing urine or in bowel peristalsis.

After a hysterectomy, you can:

swim leaving home drive your car to look after the House resume intercourse resumed all physical activities resume after 4 weeks after 8-10 days after 3 weeks after 8 weeks after 8 weeks after 8 weeks after 3 months


What is salpingitis?

A bacterial infection of the fallopian tubes.

What are the most common causes of salpingitis?

in) germs that are traced through the vagina, cervix and uterus: Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, chlamydia;
b) germs that settled in after a childbirth or abortion: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pneumococcus;
c) the tubercle Bacillus and gonococcus of clap or clap, although less frequently than in the past.

The salpingitis is an infection common?

Yes, but with the advent of antibiotics and antitubercular medicines, inflammation of the fallopian tubes is far less severe than it was ten or twenty years ago, and can be eradicated.

What damage can arise from an infection within the tube?

b) tubal pregnancy (ectopic pregnancy);
c) formation of a chronic abscess involving the ovary and fallopian tube;
d) spread of infection in the abdominal cavity, resulting in the onset of peritonitis.

What are the symptoms of acute salpingitis?

Pain in the lower abdomen, fever, chills, difficult urination, nausea and vomiting, vaginal secretion, increased menstrual flow, vaginal bleeding between two successive periods, painful intercourse etc. These symptoms can be present all at once or just a few.

What is the best way to prevent salpingitis?

Women should obviously avoid intercourse with infected men.
However, any manifestation of vaginal discharge after a report must lead immediately to a gynecological examination. In most cases, appropriate and timely treatment can prevent infection, through the uterus, reaches the tube.

How you care for salpingitis, once manifested?

The acute salpingitis is treated with antibiotics. The patient must observe the absolute bed rest and analgesics are administered to relieve pain.
If you have an abscess which format does not recede, may need surgery and remove the tube.

It is normal to resort to surgical acts during the acute phase of salpingitis?

No. The gynaecologist will do anything to be able to control inflammation with medical care. Immediate surgery may be needed when inside of an abscess is threatening to rupture and cause peritonitis.

All cases of salpingitis require hospitalization?

No. In the early stages the disease can be treated at home, without danger. However, if the response to treatment is inadequate, it is advisable to hospitalization.

The salpingitis may disappear spontaneously?

No; must always be subjected to intensive therapy.

What is the chance of healing a salpingitis?

Women who die of salpingitis are few, but the shape of this chronic disease ascessualizzata can be cured only by removing the tube. In its acute phase, salpingitis can be cured only if treatment is begun early and it continues.

It is always necessary to surgically intervene in chronic forms?

No, if there is the presence of a tubal abscess, medical treatment with antibiotics and anti-inflammatories can solve a chronic form.

You can treat with antibiotics and persistent chronic abscess inside the tube?

Not usually. Once formed a chronic abscess, the only valid method of treatment is excision of the tuba.

Which surgery is performed for cases of salpingitis?

If the disease is limited to a single tuba, it simply removes the tuba.
In more advanced cases, it may be necessary to remove either tube or the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

Surgical excision of a burning tuba is considered an invasive surgery?

Yes. The classical intervention runs practicing an incision in the lower abdomen, or spinal anesthesia.

What is the period of hospitalization necessary after an intervention on the tube?

Ten to fourteen days.

After an operation at tube when you can leave the bed?

The day after surgery.

How long does it take for the wounds to heal?

Ten to twelve days.

The surgery can be performed laparoscopically?

In certain cases, Yes.

After surgery, may have relapses salpingitis?

Will not be repeated, if you ran a radical surgery with removal of the tube. If you have had a single tuba, or has not been performed a radical intervention, it is possible that inflammation occurring again hitting the nearby ovary, or fallopian tube and the other ovary, resulting in an annessite.

What is annessite?

Inflammation of the uterine appendages, or tube (salpingitis), ovaries (oophoritis) and peritoneal folds of these organs.

The salpingitis tends to recur, if treated with medical therapy?

If not, whether acute, chronic, Yes.

What is the frequency of cases of salpingitis limited to one tuba?

These cases are quite rare; in general the inflammation affects both fallopian tubes. However, it is not always necessary to remove both and sometimes you can save a.

Excision of uterine tubes interferes with normal sexual intercourse?


The removal of the tube causes menopause?

No. She has menopause only if together with the tube were also excised ovaries.

After the removal of one or both fallopian tubes, you can:

swim after 4 weeks caring for the House after 1 week, drive your car after 3 weeks resume intercourse after 6 weeks then after 6 weeks irrigations resume work after 6 weeks


What is an ectopic pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy?

Is a pathological condition in which the fertilized egg nestles into the uterus not but outside, most often in the wall of the tuba (tubal pregnancy), sometimes even on the ovary or into the abdominal cavity, and there begins to grow.

What are the causes?

in) the most common cause of ectopic pregnancy is a pre-existing inflammation of tuba; about 25% of cases occur in women already suffering from salpingitis;
b) infection following abortion or childbirth;
c) ovarian tumors or fibroids that resulted in a mechanical compression, distortion, or locking a tuba;
d) a previous peritonitis that originated a tacks tuba and occluded or diverted the lumen;
and congenital deformations) tuba;
f) the presence of a uterine contraceptive device (IUD);
g) of unknown causes in women perfectly normal in every other aspect.

What is the frequency of tubal pregnancies?

About one case per two hundred normal pregnancies.

How long after fertilization of the egg occurs a tubal pregnancy?

Immediately after fertilization. The fertilized egg, rather than descend into the uterus, remains in salpinge and mucosa lurks. There is no difference between the onset of a tubal pregnancy and the beginning of a normal pregnancy.

How long after your experience you can diagnose a tubal pregnancy?

Usually within six to eight weeks.

What are the symptoms?

In the early stages of a tubal pregnancy, the patient usually miss a menstrual period, but also a light colored loss; also pain in the lower abdomen, especially after intercourse. They may also be present all symptoms characteristic of an early pregnancy, including morning sickness, breast enlargement etc. In a tubal pregnancy advanced, the symptoms mentioned may be followed by a sudden abdominal pain to "stab", severe shock, fainting, paleness, intense feeling of pressure in the rectum.

What is the cause of this severe symptoms?

A real break of tuba, accompanied by a severe loss of blood within the abdominal cavity, which triggers the symptoms of internal bleeding.

What do you mean by "tubal abortion"?

The contractions of the tuba can quite easily result in separation of the fertilized egg or embryo, which is expelled from the tuba in the abdominal cavity. In this case the symptoms are not as severe as in the disruption of the tuba because the tuba in itself does not break, and are very minor shock and hemorrhage.

Pregnancy tests are always positive in these cases?


How do I make the diagnosis of tubal pregnancy?

Observing the onset of symptoms, associated with the presence of a mass in the fallopian tubes. A positive pregnancy test can help establish the diagnosis. Sometimes an ultrasound may be able to show the amniotic sac in tuba. In suspected cases, one can insert a needle into the pelvic cavity through the vagina, to highlight the presence of blood in the cavity itself. Or you can insert a tool in the pelvic cavity to see with clarity the tube.

What is the best procedure in cases of suspected tubal pregnancy?

If the diagnosis is not possible, the best procedure is to perform a laparoscopy, which consists of introducing (via a small incision) a special optical instrument in the abdominal cavity filled with air, and watch the tube. If this is not possible, you use a direct examination. Although this entails a can laparotomy play, it is much safer to follow this procedure rather than allow it to get to the break of the tuba.

You can somehow prevent ectopic pregnancy?

No, except cure all diseases of the pelvis before allowing the pregnant patient.

How you care for tubal pregnancy?

a) In the case of definite diagnosis, the patient should be operated on immediately and during the operation the gynaecologist will assess whether removing a tuba in whole or only a part using then the reconstruction;
b) do you need immediate blood transfusion, if there have been significant bleeding;

c) suspected cases must be subjected to careful observation and you should call your doctor in every little change.

In a speech for ectopic pregnancy, the ovaries are also removed?

No, unless they are ill.

What is the greatest danger of ectopic pregnancy?

Acute hemorrhage in the abdominal cavity.

What are the chances of healing after an ectopic pregnancy?

Basically you have healing in all cases, when you have modern equipment and operating in a timely manner. The mortality rate is 4 per cent, but this is largely due to the fact that in many cases the surgery is late.

This is a difficult task?

Not more than a tuba removal for any other reason.

What type of anesthesia is used?

For inhalation narcosis.

What is the period of hospitalization necessary after an ectopic pregnancy?

Seven days if you are using the classic technique, two days if you adopt that.

Which therapeutic measures are taken prior to surgery?

The patient is undergoing blood transfusions, to get her out from the shock and make possible the intervention itself.

In no case it is possible to avoid surgery for tubal pregnancy?

Only in cases where the pregnancy is discovered within the first ten days. Then it is advisable to use a specific drug, methotrexate.

It is possible to have a normal pregnancy after an ectopic pregnancy?

Yes. Excision of a fallopian tube or ovary does not prevent a subsequent pregnancy, nor does it necessarily mean that should occur another ectopic pregnancy.

Women who have already had an ectopic pregnancy are more predisposed to have a second?

To a certain extent, Yes.

How long after surgery for ectopic pregnancy you may try a new pregnancy?

You should wait at least six months.

How long after an ectopic pregnancy resume menstruation?

Usually after six to eight weeks.

The fallopian tubes can be affected by cancer?

Yes, but it is a very rare case. Represents only 0.5% of all malignant tumors of the female genital system.

What is suitable for the therapy of cancer a tuba?

Fallopian tube cancer is treated like any other pelvic cancer, by complete excision of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries with subsequent radiation.

You can heal after a case of cancer in a tuba?

Yes, provided that the condition has been uprooted before they have spread to other organs.


What are ovaries?

Are a pair of glandular structures, almond-shaped long three to five centimeters long, with a diameter of about two and a half centimeters. Are located in the pelvis, on either side of the uterus, and hanging from the back wall near the funnel-shaped openings fallopian tubes. Each ovary is composed of an epithelium of grayish-white color, from a substance and a cortical, medullary. The ilo has a body, or pedicle, through which they enter and leave the blood vessels.

What are their functions?

periodic production) and release of a mature egg: cortical substance of each ovary contains many thousands of immature eggs, mature each month one that is released into the funnel-shaped opening of a fallopian tube.
This process is called ovulation. If the egg is fertilized by male sperm, the process stops. It has the menstruation if fertilization has not occurred. The time between ovulation and menstruation is about fourteen days, with minor individual wastes more or less;
b) the ovaries produce and secrete hormones into the blood stream, called estrogen and progesterone. They regulate ovulation and menstruation, pregnancy help when this is in place and is responsible for the development of female characters: udder development, distribution typical of fluff, likeness and voice.

Both ovaries are required for normal ovarian function?

No. Just one ovary or only part of an ovary, to maintain normal function.

At what age the ovarian function?

At the beginning of puberty, about twelve, thirteen years of age.

The ovary can be prone to inflammation or infection?

Yes. Because of its proximity to the fallopian tube disorders, which affect that structure extends to the ovary.

What are the symptoms of an inflamed ovary or infected (oophoritis)?

Are identical to those of the diseases of the fallopian tube (salpingitis).

What is meant by the term "ovarian dysfunction"?

A condition in which ovarian hormone production is subject to imbalances or to disorder, characterized by disorders of the menstrual cycle and difficulty to conceive or carry to term. These imbalances can be caused by alteration of the ovary itself or can be a secondary manifestation of an impaired function in other endocrine glands such as the pituitary or thyroid.

What are the symptoms that may result from prolonged dysfunction of the ovaries?

in total Upheaval) menstrual cycle, the character and nature of menstruation;
b) obesity;
c) appearance of body hair (HIRSUTISM);
d) abnormal growth of the mucous membrane of the uterus (Endometrial hyperplasia);
and infertility).

What are the consequences of ovarian dysfunction?

The alteration of the normal balance between production and use of two key hormones, estrogen and progesterone. This can interfere with ovulation and menstruation or with the preparation of the uterus at conception.

How to cure ovarian dysfunction?

First, you need to determine the exact cause: to this end run hormonal tests blood and urine in an attempt to locate the alteration and whether it originates in ovarian glands, thyroid or pituitary.
For a precise diagnosis can also perform an endometrial biopsy and Pap tests, after which:
a) where ovarian dysfunction is accompanied by cysts, surgical excision of a wedge-shaped section of each of the ovaries can help correct the disorder;
b) if ovarian disorder depend on thyroid dysfunction or pituitary gland, it is necessary to remedy this before correcting the dysfunction ovary;
c) of a certain utility can be sequential therapy, namely the regulated doses of estrogen and progesterone stimulate the normal cycle;
d) in recent times, it has been found that in some cases the cortisone can give satisfactory results in restoring normal ovarian function.

It is possible that the altered ovarian function disappear spontaneously?

Yes. This is often done without any therapy.

At what age may experience ovarian dysfunctions?

At any time, from puberty to menopause, but seem more frequent during the early years of adolescence or early adulthood.

It is possible that conception takes place in the presence of ovarian dysfunction?

If the dysfunction is associated with an absence of ovulation, there will be no conception.
However, conception will be possible once you correct the malfunction.

There are drugs to help a woman who did not ovulate?

Yes, there are now many new drugs effective in this regard. In many cases these medicines not only stimulated ovulation and pregnancy leave, but were correlated with multiple pregnancy (twins, triplets, quadruplets, etc).


What are follicular cysts?

Are small fluid-filled sacs located on the surface of an ovary. Formed as a result of the failure to break the follicle that produces the egg; the follicle, persisting, turns into a cyst.

What size can reach a follicular cyst?

Its size varies from that of a pea to that of a plum.

What are caused?

a) previous infection that caused a thickening of the outer lining of the ovary;
b) ovarian dysfunction.

What are the symptoms?

May not be, or they may cause ovarian dysfunction, as mentioned above. The biggest solitary follicular cysts can sometimes cause abdominal pain, difficult urination, painful intercourse and irregular menstruation.

It may happen that a follicular cyst breaks?

Yes. Even in these cases the symptoms depend on the size of the cyst is small — if the rupture is asymptomatic, if is large rupture may be associated with severe pain in the lower abdomen, pain and pressure, nausea, vomiting and shock. For a gynecologist is often difficult to distinguish a follicular cyst from appendicitis or an ectopic pregnancy.

How to treat the follicular cysts?

It is rarely necessary for treatment or multiple small cysts asymptomatic.
In the case of multiple cysts that cause symptoms, and are associated with ovarian dysfunction, we must intervene with a hormone therapy considering then the response to medication. However, if the cyst, one or multiple, is more than 5 cm in diameter agrees for surgery by removing the ovaries with a wedge-shaped incision. You may need surgery if the rupture or torsion of a solitary cysts do not mitigate symptoms within one to two days.

Follicular cysts sometimes disappear spontaneously?


They tend to give fallout?

Yes. Patients who have already had follicular cysts, should go to the gynecologist for regular checkups.

What is a luteal cyst of the ovary?

Once the egg has been expelled from the ovary, the follicle should atrophy and disappear. In some cases, instead of disappearing, the follicle turns into cyst.
This cyst can fill with blood and reach the size of 4-5 cm.

What are the symptoms of a luteal cyst?

May be asymptomatic, or, especially if it is very large, it can cause pain, delayed menstruation or painful intercourse. If the cyst breaks, you can have acute sudden pain, nausea, vomiting, difficulty urinating and severe pain in the lower abdomen. All this may look like an acute appendicitis or as an ectopic pregnancy and may need to resort to surgery.

When is it necessary to operate a luteal cyst?

When symptoms persist and if the patient has lost a lot of blood due to bleeding into the abdominal cavity.

There are other types of ovarian cysts?

Yes. There are several types, including simple solitary cysts and cystic tumors.

Cysts can reach considerable size?

Yes. There are some that can fill the entire abdominal cavity.

How is an ovarian cyst?

With pelvic ultrasonography, via transvaginal or abdominal, you can detect the presence and nature of the cyst: luteal follicular, serosa, mucoid, dermoid cyst or endometriosa. If the investigation leads to the suspicion of malignancy, searching, special blood marker (CA-125). The fact that the latter level is very
high, does not necessarily mean the presence of a cancer, but the study justifies using diagnostic laparoscopy.

Laparoscopy diagnostic only has meaning?

No, might also have therapeutic value. Because, if there is need, allows the removal of cysts.

How to treat ovarian cysts?

With surgical excision as soon as possible.

Laparoscopic surgery often is used for the removal of ovarian cysts?

Yes; the priority is the young woman, in which the risk of malignant tumour is very low.

You can use the needle aspiration technique to treat ovarian cysts?

When a cyst is simple, you can breathe the contents, under ultrasound control, using a special needle into the abdomen after local anesthesia.


Are very frequent tumors of the ovaries?


What are the types of cancers that affect the ovaries?

benign tumors) solid or cystic tumors;
b) malignant cystic tumors or solid;
c) tumors that produce hormones.

Because the ovary is so easily subject to the formation of tumors and cysts?

The eggs inside the ovaries contain all the basic primitive cells that contribute to the formation of a new human being and it is not surprising that some of them may be subject to abnormal growth. In addition, the ovary is subject to fluctuations of its function so various and so numerous that it is not difficult to realize how something may not function properly and lead to the formation of a tumor.

Ovarian cancer can affect women of all ages?

Yes, you may experience from early childhood until very late age. The maximum age incidence is around 45 years for benign tumors and around 55 to malicious ones.

What is a dermoid cyst of the ovary?

Is a cancer that usually affects women between 20 and 50 years. Is often found in both ovaries and can reach the size of an orange.
Consists of many types of cells and may contain hair, teeth and bones. Cysts were also found containing dermoids other tissues organs resembling a primitive stage of development.

Dermoid cysts are malignant?

In most cases, no, but some can become one if you will remove.

How is a dermoid cysts?

Gynecological examination and ultrasound or x-ray.

How do we cure it?

In childbearing, with removal of dermoid cyst. Past childbearing, with excision, ovary or ovaries.

What are ovarian tumors that produce hormones?

Are tumors that produce male or female hormones in huge quantities.
A patient suffering from a tumour of the ovary that produces a type male hormone, thus male characteristics, such as the appearance of hair on the face and chest, deeper voice and loss of the female form.

Frequently these tumors?


How to cure this cancer?

Much depends on age. In some cases, surgical excision is recommended of the ovary; in older women, we should also remove the uterus.

After excision of the tumor, the alteration of female somatic features?


What are fibroids the ovary?

Are tumors that account for the majority of serous benign cystic tumors of the ovary but of all ovarian growths. Are usually associated with liquid secretion into the abdominal cavity and, because of their resemblance to some malignant ovarian neoplasms, once removed, must be carefully analysed.

The ovary can be affected by endometriosis?

Yes. About two cases of endometriosis affects the ovary, and it is almost always associated with a similar disease process located elsewhere.

There are frequent cases of ovarian cancer?

Unfortunately Yes. Cancers can be solid or cystic neoplasms and may originate from one or both ovaries. Ovary cancer can develop from benign tumors, such as dermoid cysts.

There are risk factors related to this type of cancer?

We consider these: advanced age, had pregnancies, family history, a erediataria mutation of the BRCA1 gene, or perhaps of the BRCA2 gene.

Ovary metastasis may be affected?

Yes. It is a fairly frequent event and is the consequence of the spread of a cancer of the stomach, of the breast or uterus.

How is ovarian cancer?

Gynecological examination and palpation of the abdomen: the presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity can often indicate a malignant ovarian tumor. Also it takes transvaginal ultrasonography, the test for specific markers (CA-125 Antigen) and biopsy, which provides the most secure and trusted.

How to treat malignant tumors of the ovaries?

Using the total and complete removal of the uterus, fallopian tubes, both of both ovaries and ligaments. In most cases, the intervention follows a radiotherapy and sometimes uses chemotherapy: treatment with Taxol is one of the last approved for this type of cancer.

There are chances of a cure?

If surgery is timely, before the cancer has spread to other organs or structures, chances are pretty good. In almost all cases you have surgical healing because it is not overly dangerous operations.

You can permanently cure a cancer of the ovary?

Yes; about one in four women survive more than five years.

Vaginal smears are useful in diagnosing a possible cancer of the ovary?

In rare cases, Yes.

What is the best method to prevent cancer of the ovary?

Frequent and regular gynecological exams allow you to detect the presence of abnormalities in the ovaries and warn the patient about the need of an intervention. With prompt surgery for suspected cancer, many patients can be saved before the tumor becomes malignant or before metastatizzi, spreading to other organs.

What is the best treatment for an ovarian tumor or cyst?

If it persists or gives sign of growing, we must work to assess the exact nature of the injury. In this way, it is possible to remove in a timely manner – even with laparoscopic technique – many ovarian cancers that could degenerate into malignant. The removal of an ovary permanently enlarged cystic or may serve to prevent twisting or breaking.

There are cases of ovarian tumors in which medical therapy is preferable to surgical?


What are the objective data that ovarian syndromes, they prefer the surgical therapy?

Any ovarian mass) that exceed five centimeters in diameter and that persists after repeated tests, should be removed;
b) operate in all cases of rapid development of an ovarian mass
c) surgery is recommended in the presence of an ovarian tumor;
d) surgery is recommended when there is Endometrial hyperplasia in the presence of an ovarian mass.

You can determine during the operation if an ovary tumor is malignant?

Yes. While the patient lies on the table, do you froze a section

What determines the sex of an unborn child?

The presence or absence of a particular chromosome (called Y chromosome) in the nucleus of the fertilizing sperm. The female egg has no ta ruoapparato and tumor you look under a microscope. This allows you to determine whether the tumor is malignant or not, and depending on the result, the surgeon may decide the extent of the intervention.

Ovarian tumors may arise during pregnancy?

Yes, sometimes.

Cysts that occur while pregnant harm the baby?


Cysts and ovarian tumors can cause acute abdominal syndromes?

Yes, they tend to rotate around their peduncle, causing an acute abdominal framework, requiring immediate surgery.

Ovarian cysts may rupture?

Sometimes Yes, and in this case it is recommended to operate urgently.

The removal of the ovaries change sexual desire?

Absolutely not.

After a speech on the ovaries, you can:

bathe drive your car care the House resuming work resume sexual relations do after irrigations after 3 weeks 4 weeks after 4 weeks after 6 weeks after 6 weeks after 6 weeks

A woman can conceive after removal of an ovary?

Yes. The removal of one ovary does not decrease any chances of conception.

The removal of both ovaries always cause menopause?

Yes, unless, of course, the patient has not already outdated.

A woman with only one ovary has regular menses?