Biography of Yasser Arafat

Dove in the blood August 24, 1929
November 11, 2004

Who is Yasser Arafat?

There is some dispute on the day and at the place of birth of Yasser Arafat, who claimed to be born on August 4, 1929 to Jerusalem, while the official birth certificate says he was born in Egypt, in Cairo, on August 24, 1929.

Arafat was born into an important family from Jerusalem, Husseini.

His real full name is Mohammed and Abd al-Rahman Abdel-Raouf Arafat but was also known by another name, that used in war, namely Abu Ammar. His father was a successful merchant, his mother died when he was just four years old. He spent his childhood in Cairo, then to Jerusalem at an uncle. Enter immediately into warring factions against the establishment of the Israeli State. Nineteen year old, takes an active part in the Palestinian struggle.

Meanwhile he studied civil engineering at Cairo University where, in 1952, he joined the Muslim Brotherhood and the Palestinian students ' League and became President. He obtained a Bachelor's degree in 1956. At the outbreak of war for control of the Suez Canal is a second lieutenant in the Egyptian army.

Now part of the group leader of the nascent Palestinian movement is an awkward character, wanted by the Israeli authorities. To avoid arrest leaves Egypt for Kuwait where in 1959 he founded, with other important components of the rebel factions, "al-Fatah". The organization manages to convey in its ranks hundreds of young Palestinians and to create a consistent and forceful movement.

After the defeat in the Arab war against Israel in 1967, al-Fatah converge in PLO, "Palestine Liberation Organization" in February 1969: Yasser Arafat becomes Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine National Council.

With his charisma and political skills Arafat the PLO towards directs the Palestinian cause away from pan-Arab designs. At the same time the growth of its political role is more military responsibility: in 1973 became Commander in Chief of the armed Palestinian groups.

In July 1974 Arafat decides an important breakthrough of the PLO, claiming for the Palestinian people the right to self-determination and to the creation of a Palestinian State; in November, in a historic speech to the General Assembly of the United Nations, Arafat calls for a peaceful solution, politics, Palestine, implicitly admitting the existence of Israel.

In 1983, in the full swing of the Lebanese civil war, move the General Headquarters of the PLO from Beirut to Tunis and, in November of five years later, proclaims the independent State of Palestine. Also calls for recognition of UN resolutions and asks to open negotiations with Israel.

In April 1989 the Palestinian Parliament is elected first President of the State that is not there, the State of Palestine.

It's a red-hot period, which sees the explosion of its subterranean tensions in the Gulf war, unleashed in 1990 by the United States against Saddam Hussein guilty of having treacherously invaded neighboring Kuwait.

Arafat strangely-perhaps blinded by hatred of the West and especially against the United States-sided with Saddam. A "choice" that cost him dear and which Arafat himself will repent of which, especially in light of the events linked to the attack on the twin towers of September 11 2001.

The move attracted him considerable suspicions of having hands-on in the terrorist fringe that swarm in the Middle East. Hence the crack of its credibility as a counterpart in terms of negotiations with Israel.

Anyway, like it or not, Arafat has always remained the only legitimate interlocutor, because of a very simple fact: was the only personality who for years have recognized Palestinians as their spokesman (excluding the usual extremist fringes). Despite being accused by many of being the instigator of terrorism and fundamentalist line, others Arafat has always been rather genuinely on the side of peace.

The negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians conducted by him, on the other hand, have had a troubled history, never ended.

A first attempt was made with the Conference for peace in the Middle East in Madrid, then with secret negotiations carried out from 1992, until the Oslo accords in 1993.

In December of the same year for Arafat comes an important recognition of Europe: the Palestinian leader is received as a head of State by the European Parliament, which calls for the Union to become a party to the peace process. A year later, in December 1994, receives the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with Israeli State leaders, Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres. Meanwhile the Palestinian leader moves to Gaza, where he leads the Palestinian National Authority (PNA).

His eventual succession, within a framework which sees the Palestinian Authority institutions very fragile and poorly consolidated, potentially from scenarios outlines Palestinian civil war which could feed even more international terrorism.

In this reality, fundamentalist groups and shapers of the most bloodthirsty terrorism like those of "Hamas" compensate for the absence of a proselytizing activities, but also assistance, education and Islamic solidarity among families.

Thanks to this network of support and guidance that Hamas is able to influence its followers up to bring them to sacrifice themselves in the infamous suicide actions.

In terms of safety, therefore, supports the same Arafat, it is not possible to control all the fringe of terrorists with a COP every fifty Palestinians, this finding support and success also in Israeli public opinion.

At the end of October 2004, Arafat was urgently transferred to Paris, in the ICU, to cure the evil that hit him. In the days that followed his recovery are continuously followed rumors and denials of his likely leukemia, of its various losses of knowledge and an irreversible coma.

His death was announced by Israeli television on the afternoon of November 4, but for a yellow because the spokesman of the Hospital where Arafat was hospitalized belied. In the evening was made official by doctors her brain dead.

After a fast-paced succession of rumors about his condition in the following days, Yasser Arafat died at 3:30 on the day November 11.

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