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Ionization is a concept that is used in chemistry to describe the action and effect of ionize. The verb "ionize", in turn, can mean either ungroup a molecule into ions, or convert an atom or a molecule ion.
That said, the ionization is a process by which ions (atoms or molecules electrically charged through the excess or lack of electrons to an atom or a neutral molecule) occur.
Any particle with more electrons than the atom or that the neutral molecule receives the anion name (it has a net negative charge). On the other hand, the particles that have fewer electrons than the atom or the neutral molecule are cations (they are charged positively).
Chemical ionization can develop in several ways. One of them is the transfer of electrons, as in the case of sodium chloride (chlorine reacts in the presence of sodium).
Physical ionization, on the other hand, is to separate the electrons of the neutral molecule while providing the energy required. The input energy may take place by ionizing radiation (x-rays or ultraviolet), heating to high temperatures or application of electric fields.
The ionization is present in the operation of fluorescent tubes, the projection of light of the plasma screens and rays that appear during storms. There is also sterilization by ionization, which eliminates the microorganisms of a certain place through the application of radiation.