The concept's map is based on the term latin charta (paper). It is a representation graphics and a portion of territory on a two-dimensional surface generally flat, metric may be spherical as is the case of the globes.
Thanks to its metric properties map to measure distances, surfaces and angles, of which the results are near accurate. This is why maps are an important source of information for developing many human activities based on the data they provide.
Mapping (the art of designing maps) started by lines drawn on the sand and Earth. At the present time, satellite-based photography techniques allow not only to know the exact outline of a country, a continent and even the world, but also to have access to ethnological, orographic, geological and hydrographic data, for example.
Historians are convinced that it is Tales de Mileto which is at the origin of the first map of the world, on which the world was represented as a kind of disk floating on the water. Aristotle, on the other hand, was the first to have measured the angle of inclination from the Ecuador, as a result, over time, the man eventually conclude that the Earth is spherical (round).
Cartographers work with many plans reading, and simplification techniques based on colors and symbols to provide all possible information clearly. However, the amount of published information depends on the scale: the information is even more likely that the space dedicated to a region is important.