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From the latin rationālis, rational is what relates to the reason. This concept allows many uses, such as references to the ability to think; the reason or cause; the argument used to support something or the ratio between two numbers.
Rational, therefore, refers to what comes from the reasoning, which is in accordance with reason or who has it. Examples: "cannot explain not what happened with unusual arguments. I want to hear a rational explanation", 'member of Parliament turned a rational man who knows how to act in such circumstances', ' If you were a little more rational, you would never have bought such a car just below the spur of the moment. ''
The rational is opposed to the irrational. If a man has heart problems, rational behavior involves taking care of his health and do not take unnecessary risks. If that person decides to skydive, we can say that it is not rationally.
Sometimes, what is rational and what is not is difficult to distinguish. The decision of a woman who occupies a managerial position in a large company who chooses to resign to start his own business may be considered as rational by some (because it will have more autonomy and other depend for food) and irrational by others (those who find that it's a risky bet and should not leave a well-paid job).
A rational number, moreover, is one that can be represented as a quotient of two integers with denominator non-zero.