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In the field of physics, reflection (from latin reflexĭo) is the change in direction of a RADIUS or a wave which takes place at the surface of separation between two environments, to return to the initial medium.
Concerning the nature of the surface of separation (the interface), there are two types of reflection of light (also known as the optical reflection). Specular reflection is that which occurs as in a mirror; When the reflecting surface is smooth (without defects), the reflected rays are parallel to the incident rays, reason why they come back by showing off the image.
The laws of specular reflection report that the incident Ray, reflected ray and the normal to the reflecting surface at the point of impact must be on the same plane, while the angle between the incident Ray and the normal is equal to the angle between the reflected ray and the same normal.
Diffuse reflection, on the other hand, occurs when the image is not retained and it is rather its energy that is reflected. In this case, if the reflective surface (the interface) is irregular, the reflected rays are then not parallel incident rays, and so only the surface is illuminated.
On the other hand, if the surface of separation is between a conductor and a dielectric material, or between two dielectric materials, the reflected wavelength can be inverted.
The phenomenon of total internal reflection occurs when a beam of light through a material whose refractive index is greater than where it is located, is refracted so that he was unable to cross the surface between the two materials which are completely reflected.