Schizophrenia is a group of mental illnesses that occur before puberty and characterized by specific dissociation of the psychological functions. In the most serious cases, schizophrenia can cause incurable dementia.
The concept of schizophrenia derives from two Greek words: schizo ('division', 'split') and ('thought') phrenos. It is a diagnosis that is used to describe a group of symptoms, characterized by a mutation supported several aspects of the person's mental functioning and a more or less complex Neuropsychological disorganization.
Individuals who suffer from schizophrenia have a way of thinking disorganized (associative laxity), delusions, alterations in perceptual (hallucinations), behavioural and emotional alterations (States of mood and emotions).
The cause of schizophrenia is not yet clear, but it is assumed that several factors are involved: the genetic inheritance, alterations of the migration of cell populations during embryo development, pathologies of pregnancy environmental stress (such as premature rupture of membranes, maternal infections and perinatal Hypoxia) and many psychosocial conditions.
Among the types of schizophrenia, it is necessary to mention the paranoid (where delusions and hallucinations are predominant), the disorganized (speech and disorganized behavior), the Catatonic (with alterations in psychomotor), the differentiated (different psychotic types paranoid, disorganized, or Catatonic symptoms), the residual (positive symptoms are present at low intensity), post-schizophrenique depression (the kind of depressive disorder) and schizophrenia simple (it does not hallucinations or delusions).
Although schizophrenia is a chronic condition, it can be treated with antipsychotic medication and psychological therapies.