Systemic theory (also called the systemic) is a multidisciplinary approach which studies the common properties in various entities. It is the Austrian biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972), who gave him this name, in the middle of the 20th century.
Considered a theory of theories, because it looks for General value rules that can be applied to any system and any level of reality. It is noted that systems are modules ordered interdependent elements and which interact with one another.
One can make the distinction between a conceptual or ideal (the whole organized of definitions, symbols and other instruments of thought) and a real system (a physical entity with organized components that interact so that the properties of the whole can not fully separate from the properties of the parties).
Although systemic theory is born through an expert in biology, over time, it spread in various fields of study such as Cybernetics and the theory of information. The German sociologist Niklas Luhmann (1927-1998) is one of those who have implemented systemic theory in the social sciences.
Among the principles of systemic theory, there are instead of mentioning the use of the same concepts to describe the main features of different systems, the search for general laws which facilitate the understanding of the dynamics of any system and the formalisation of descriptions of reality.
Finally, the systemic theory has a dynamic, multidimensional and multidisciplinary approach.