The term Viceroyalty refers to the position which belongs to the viceroy, while it lasts and the Exchange governed by this authority which represents the person of the King in the colonial Territories.
That said, is it the viceroy who administers and who governs on behalf of the King. The Spain has based much of his power over that person because, in light of the extension of its colonies and the difficulties of communication, these lands could not be managed centrally.
The Viceroyalty of new Spain, for example, has existed from 1535 to 1821 and comprised the territories of the Empire of North America, Central America, Asia and Oceania where Antonio de Mendoza was the first viceroy.
The Viceroyalty of the Peru, for its part, was born in 1542 and remained in force until the year 1824. There has been a Viceroyalty (the Viceroyalty of New Granada) that has existed in two stages: 1717-1723 and 1739-1819.
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (1776-1811) was the last that was created by Spain in America, last Viceroy Francisco Javier de Elio.
We will retain that the Spain is not the only monarchy having developed viceroyalties elsewhere in the world. Viceroyalty of Brazil the United Kingdom of Portugal, the Brazil and the Algarves, means an entity governed by the dynasty of Braganza between 1815 and 1825.
Today, it is y most of viceroyalties, reason why this term is rather associated to historical studies. In informal language, the concept can be used to refer to any type of field having virtually nothing to do with the Organization political or social of the past centuries.