Benchmarking, market positioning, advertising, promotion | Concepts of marketing

Concepts of Leadership and Marketing

Table of contents

1 platform of experience
2 market positioning
3 the buyer's decision-making process
4 Benchmarking processes
5 Product manager
6 product
7 promotion
8 sales promotion
9 testing of concepts and development of new products
10 advertising



Experience with customer management involves five steps. They are as follows:
• Step 1: analyze the world of the customer experience
• step 2: build the platform of experience
• Step 3: Designing the brand experience
• step 4: structuring the client interface
• Step 5: Engage in a continuous experience of innovation
The second step, build the platform of experience includes strategic planning and positioning. The platform of experience communicates through verbal and Visual images associated with the company and its brand. Its construction can be achieved by following these steps:
• Positioning experiential
or used to represent what the brand
or multisensory, intuitive and useful strategy component
 Example: Jamba Juice: a fun and healthy experience
or it should be sufficiently tangible to know immediately what to do
 The experiential positioning may need a full reconsideration under certain circumstances or in case of having to update it (for example: the terrorist attacks of September 11: after the attack, people wanted to live more oriented to the community, the truth, authenticity, loyalty, honesty and sincerity)
• Promise of value experiential (PVE)
or specifies precisely what will make the experience proposed by the consumer - what kind of experience you will get the consumer
or the promise of value experiential selection can lead to tangible results such as sales, market share and profitability.
or when you specify the PVE is useful to think in
 sensory experience (felt)
 experience affective (feeling)
 experience cognitive (thinking)
 physical experience
 behaviors
 lifestyle (shares)
 experiences of social identity (relations)
• Global implementation
or is achieved by attaching the positioning and the promise of value in a real deployment
or overall consideration is important because it provides the input for implementation elements and sets the sequence of elements
• Example: Red Bull energy drink brand
or the experiential positioning is "Energy in a bottle"
or the PVE is "strengthening the heart, acceleration of metabolism and combat stress"
or the implementation is focused on staying in shape for all kinds of social activities



Market positioning is the decision by the company, about the attributes to be you be conferred on its product by the target audience. Thus, the "Persil" position initially as the detergent "that undermined the clothing". Currently is positioned as eco-friendly detergent.
Aspects of the definition of the product analysed depending on the expectations of sales and profitability, the internal capacity of the company, the range of products, the acquired image, or the positioning of other competing products.
Another definition more simple would be, the positioning of a product is the form in which it is defined by consumers in respect of certain important attributes, i.e., the place that occupied his mind in comparison with competitors.

Positioning and marketing strategies

Once the product has been chosen, determine its location in the market. It's give a concrete meaning to a certain target audience through the concept defined above, in comparison with which can give competition to the product.

The main stages to carry out positioning are:

• The analysis of the market
• The definition of the positioning
• The definition of the concept of the product
• Selection of a proposed positioning
• Development of marketing mix

The analysis of the value

The analysis of value is intended to eliminate unnecessary costs and improve the quality of products critically questioning their functions, as well as the characteristics of the elements (number of parts, material, shape, machining tolerances) that allow to perform these functions.

The development process

The concept is the development of the product, where formal characteristics, image and quality level for the determination of the mark and for the design of the container, packaging or packaging are set. In this phase the industrial design joins the product. The phases of development are basically three: project, prototype and commissioning.


In the project of a new product can not forget a factor of great importance for its success: the design. Often, buyers prefer a product by its design, we think of cars that put to other aspects such as performance or price.
The Marketing Manager to create a good positioning strategy is increasingly difficult. The technological revolution is generating increasing flows of information produced in mind self-defense mechanisms such as the blockade of information. The study of the mind tells us that our perceptions are selective, that our memory is highly selective and that we can not process an infinite amount of stimuli. This means that we are facing that people avoid information that does not apply for or do not want, and which avoids exposure to it by ignoring or not remembering it. On the other hand, we have the tendency to perceive things that are related to our interests and pre-existing habits, either to support or to refute them. Therefore, your task is to get the people to accept the information you want to convey in the midst of an explosion of data generated by the information age.
The following points should be included for a proper functioning of a positioning strategy.
• Do not deviate from their strategy obvious by believing that it is too simple.
• Do not lose the niche of positioning that has already created for being unsure of whether will remain your choice in the future.
• Do not turn your positioning statement into a far-fetched idea.
• Do not let their personal ambitions or the other direct positioning strategies.
• Do not allow the pursuit of profits in the short term affect their positioning strategies.
• Do not attempt to improve things that are working well.
At a time as the now where what is permanent is change, you will have to decide to reposition your strategy or your company will be savaged by the impact of changes in the environment. Reset is nothing you give your product or service a new approach that will be more conducive to face the future. When the attitudes and perceptions of your customers change, and when the technology exceeds the existing products, it is time to reposition. In this case, when you go to make repositioning begin first inside your company. Your internal customer and especially General Manager of your company must engage emotionally in the repositioning process if you want to get your strategy to a successful conclusion.
When you list your product or service positioning strategy, you can take the next step which will be to formulate a marketing strategy and formulate a marketing strategy equivalent to choose the market mescal.

Principles essential for positioning

• No one has a second chance to make a good first impression
• To solve traffic congestion in the mental highway from the client perspective, is to use an oversimplified approach: the technique of the main route
• Every day, thousands of advertising messages to compete for a place in the mind of the customer, and we must not ignore it: the mind is the battle field
• How manages an average person to cope with the explosion of products and advertising?
There are four types of positioning, where the word is applicable, this brings us to what is the strategic positioning. There may be several ways to present the word positioning, we will mention four:
• Consumer product perception: perception wins sense, perception is reality. Here comes the concept of brand known against unknown brand. People buy products, because you know the brand, because there is a degree of familiarity, people do not know if it is better or worse, doesn't matter so much the price, but the brand is known, therefore it is bought. The world is finally perceptions rather than realities. The perception is the reality.
• The position that has the product versus the competition, is a relative position; versus, or against the competitor: I against the competitor, market share, one against the other. It is more profitable, selling much to few, to many, makes more sense. Loyalty is an emerging term.
• The position on the market of the future: there was a company in Monterrey, years ago, that they were very proud to be the third manufacturer of consoles in the world. Is it good news? It should take into account that the console industry was dying in the world. Consumers preferred sound players more small. The business closed. The positioning, like business, is ahead.
• The antiposicionamiento, which goes against the current position: you have to take a position. The market goes by defined enterprises, labour market goes down people defined in his profession, there must be a definition, there must be an idea associated with its business concept, to its professional concept. When you choose a position one is made more vulnerable because it can be attacked. If one is not defined is in the middle. If defined is at risk of that attack you from your current position.

Positioning strategy

Marketers can follow different positioning strategies. You can position the products according to certain specific product attributes: the Ford Festiva announces its moderate prices and Saab promotes high performance. Products can also be positioned according to the needs that meet or the benefits offered by or can be positioned according to the occasions of use, another way is to position the product for certain classes of users.
A product can also be positioned directly against a competitor. Finally, the product can also be positioned between different kinds of products.
Strategic positioning is a process of transformation. It is a model that can be applied to a business, a trade, a factory, a professional level and is sequential, the steps are:
Opportunity: all businesses, economic entities, are born of a chance, which is the divine breath, the spark that starts a whole concept.
Differentiation: the difference with the rest is articulated, it is said in a very simple way but it is very difficult, summarizes the sentence of the business
A comprehensive strategic positioning is competitive, that it is against someone, it is not only in favor of the consumer, is against my competitor. It is not only a movement toward the market, because against someone it is the reference to the consumer. The positioning must be unique. The strategy is to do something totally different, non-incrementalist, something so strong as an innovation.
Aligns all the operations of the company. All are aligned and focused to this strategic direction. Everyone knows how it contributes to that strategic purpose. Represents a culture, technology purchase, products purchased, prices are equal, but you can not buy a culture.
And that's where the real differentiation of the 21st century, is the culture that exists in the business, the set of values, principles, customs, habits, of what is recognized as good business, in what is recognized as bad. The competitive culture is everything. It is known by all internally, communicating abroad after that communicates to the interior and finally is reinforced with actions. It is a model of transformation at the execution level.



Consumer is treated so to maximize its usefulness. See consumer theory. Game theory can also be used in certain circumstances.
• Psychological models - these models focus on the processes of psychological motivation and reduced requirements. They are qualitative rather than quantitative, and are built on sociological and cultural influences and family influences factors.
• Consumer behaviour models - these are practical models used by marketers. Usually, grouped the economic and psychological models.
A general model of the consumer decision-making process has the following steps:
1. recognition of the desire or need;
2. search for information about products that can meet the needs of the purchaser;
3. alternative selection;
4 take decision of purchase of the product;
5. purchase decision;
6. subsequent to the purchase behavior



Role of management in benchmarking

The Directorate plays a crucial role in the benchmarking process. Certainly, without the approval and commitment of senior management, benchmarking is impossible. Some considerations on the benchmark require approval of the address before the process can begin: commitment to change, funds, staff, outreach and engagement.

Commitment to change

Benchmarking is a serious company for both parties in the process. Unless there is commitment to a firm to change unless the organization intends fully to radically improve their processes to be at the level of best-in-its-clase¬ standards benchmarking should not be considered. Unfortunately, many companies rush to the benchmarking without that commitment, with the result that both sides wasted money and staff time. In addition, hopes and expectations, rising only to be disappointed when nothing is this. This type of benchmarking is known popularly known as industrial tourism. That is appropriate because the tourism industry is his sole beneficiary. To get a real benefit from benchmarking, any organization must resolve that when a process best in its class is, will do whatever it takes to add it as a model of replacement (or radical improvement) to its lower process. That, after all, is what is benchmarking.


Only the address may authorize the disbursement of funds for benchmarking. These funds will support travel for teams who visit the organizations that have the best processes. Teams are usually composed of 5 to 8 people. Tours last from two days to two weeks. Travel destinations are inflexible, governed by the location of the best firms in its class. Of course, travel costs may be high. The address must be available funds if you want that benchmarking is carried out.

Human resources

Similarly to the anchor, the address must be available the necessary human resources for the tasks of benchmarking. Although human resources costs are generally quite higher than travel expenses, staff availability is rarely a problem.


It may not be obvious immediately, but both companies divulge information about its processes and practices. The address may be understandably dubious to disseminate information to competitors, but about the case of a non-competitor benchmarking partner? Even so, the address may be reluctant, because there can be no guarantee that the information disclosed to a non-competitor will not find their way to the competition. The other side of the coin is that few processes or practices remain secret for a long time. However, if the Organization has a unique process that gives you a competitive advantage, the process should treated as patented and not to be subjected to benchmarking. In any case, only the address can take the decision to disclose information.


The address must be actively and visibly involved in every aspect of the process of benchmarking. Direction should engage in determining which processes must be run to benchmarking and who will be candidates for benchmarking partners. The address is in a unique position to establish channels of communication between the companies, since senior executives tend to be associated through professional organizations. Be encouraged dialogue among high-level executives.
It is important to address be aware the benchmarking events and be sure that the effort supports the objectives and the vision of the company. The ability of the company to achieve this improved a lot when it is directly involved. In addition, subordinates recognize the importance placed on benchmarking by the degree that the address is visible in the process. The address being active, all levels will be more productive in their benchmarking activities. The critical points related to the role of management in benchmarking are the following:
For benchmarking to be productive, the address must be committed to change.
The address should provide the necessary funds.
The address must be assigned to appropriate personnel.
Only the address must approve the information that will be disclosed to the benchmarking partners.
High level managers should get directly involved in benchmarking activities.

Prerequisites of benchmarking

Before fully entering the benchmarking, the Organization must check prerequisites those philosophical and aspects of attitude, skills, and previous tasks that must precede any benchmarking efforts.

Will and commitment

Without the will and desire to do benchmarking, an organization can not move forward. Do not waste your time or his companion's process in absence of commitment and willingness of senior management of the company.

League with strategic objectives

Before, benchmarking objectives must be linked with the strategic objectives of the company, giving specific direction to the effort.

Purpose of becoming the best / not simply improve

There is nothing wrong with continuous improvement, unless the current performance is far from world class. However, if an organization is not at the level of world class, continuous improvement can only be guaranteed that this always remains below the world class. Benchmarking requires that the purpose is throwing at the head of the field in a radical change, not only to be a few percentage points better than last year.

Openness to new ideas

If a company is saturated with the syndrome of "is not done here", you will have a problem with the benchmarking, because the essence of benchmarking is to capitalize on the work and ideas of others. A company should be open to new ideas for benchmarking. This process can help you be more receptivity to new ideas by demonstrating that they actually work.

Understanding of processes, products and services

It is mandatory that an organization fully understand their own processes, products, services and practices in such a way that you can determine what needs to be submitted to benchmark. In addition, it is necessary to have a solid understanding of your process to make meaningful measurements against those of your partner.

Documented processes

It is not enough to understand the processes, these must be fully documented. There are three reasons for doing this:
All persons associated with the process should have a common understanding of the same, and that only can come from documentation.
A documented starting point against which measure the performance improvement since the benchmarking changes have been implemented is necessary.
The Organization will involve persons (partners) are not familiar with its processes. With an understanding of where is the organisation of benchmarking, the partner will be more able to help.

Skills for the analysis of the process

To achieve an understanding of your own processes, products and services and to document these processes, you must have the staff with the skills to characterize and document processes. This same staff will be necessary to analyse the benchmarking partner processes and help to take these processes to the needs of the organization. Ideally, they should be employees, although it is possible to use consultants in this role.

Research, communication and team building skills

Some additional skills including research, communication, and team building. Research is required to better identify the process owners in their class. Communication and team building are needed to develop benchmarking both internal, as with partners based on.

Tools for benchmarking

Like most human attempts, benchmarking can fail. The fault in any activity generally means that the participant not prepared adequately for the company - who failed to learn enough about the requirements, rules and tricks. So you can go with the benchmarking. This section explains some of the common obstacles to the benchmarking in accordance with the experience of dozens of companies.

Internal focusing

So the benchmarking to produce the expected results, you should know that someone on the outside has a process much better. If a company is focused internally (as many are), you might not be aware that their processes are 80% less efficient than the best in its class. An internal approach restricted vision. Is anyone better? Who is? Such organizations are not even questioned. This is complacency ¬y can destroy an organization.

Target too broad benchmarking

A goal of benchmarking excessively broad as "improving fundamental performance" can guarantee failure. This well may be the reason for doing the benchmarking, but the team will need something more specific and focused not on that but to the as. A team could struggle with the fundamental life without knowing for certain whether it was successful or if it failed. The team needs a target more narrowly as "Refine or replace the billing process to reduce errors by 50%." This brings something about what can work.

Impractical calendars

Benchmarking is a complicated process that cannot be compressed into a few weeks. Consider the shortest program for an experienced team, and six to eight as a general rule of four to six months. Treat it do in less time than that will force the team to overlook certain details that can lead to failure. If you want to take advantage of benchmarking, you must be patient. On the other hand, any project exceeding one year should be reviewed. Probably the team is going through difficulties.

Poor team composition

When a process is subjected to benchmarking, those who have the process, the people who use it every day must be involved. These people can be operators of the production line or employees. The address may be reluctant to assign those spaces with such personnel when supervisors or engineers could fill them. The latter certainly should be considered but not involving the exclusion of the owners of the process. The process owners are those who know more about as it operates really process and they will be that more quickly detect the often subtle differences between your process and your partner at benchmark. Teams should form with six to eight people, so make sure that the first assigned are operators. There is still space for supervisors and engineers.

Settle with an "OK" in its class

Too often organizations choose benchmarking partners that are not the best in its class. There are three reasons for this:
The best in class are not interested in participating.
Research identified the wrong partner.
The company simply chose a partner to hand.
The organizations get into benchmarking when they decide that one or more of its processes is much less than the best in its class. The intention is to examine that process best in its class and adapt it to local needs, quickly leading your organization to standards world class in that process area. No sense having a nexus with a partner whose process is only good. It may be better than yours, but if adopted, yet let your organization far from the best in its class. for the same effort, an organization could have reached the Summit. Organizations must identify the best and go after him. Only if the best is not involved, have justification to choose the second. The second best should only be used if it is significantly higher than the process in question.

Inappropriate emphasis

A frequent cause of failure in benchmarking is that teams will flounder collecting endless data and put too much emphasis on numbers. Both the collection of data and the same numbers are important, but the most important aspect is the process itself. Take sufficient data to understand the process on paper, and analyze the data so that you are sure that the results can improve significantly if the process is implemented. Unless the team have entered deeply in the process, it may be that the know-how lack to adapt it and implement it successfully in our Organization. Keep the emphasis on the process, taking the data and numbers as support for that emphasis.

Insensitivity towards partners

Nothing will break faster than a society of benchmarking that insensitivity. Remember that a partner is doing you a favor to your organization by giving access to its process. You are using valuable time of key people from your partner, and in the best of cases, you are disrupting the daily routine of work. If you fail to adhere to the Protocol and courtesy of transactions, your organization runs the risk of being cut.

Limited senior management support

This aspect is still in discussion because it is critical for success in all phases of the benchmarking activity. Required the constant support of the head to start, take the benchmarking by the preparation phase, and finally secure the promised benefits.



Product manager or head of product, integrated in the marketing department of a company, is the head of a service, product or range of products. Its hard involvement from conception until its demise. Defining commercial and marketing strategies to follow at all times, it will manage the product throughout its life cycle. It shall also ensure the maximization of the benefits produced by it through its re launch in phases of decline or the implementation of other strategies to prolong its existence.
The creation of a new product or range of products goes from the conclusions drawn in the marketing plan. In it he had to detect the existence of a need or desire to satisfy by a consumer group or sufficiently large market segment and to compensate the effort of its creation and launch.
The product manager is responsible for defining the marketing mix that will hit the market, including product, price, promotion and distribution, or square. This mix must be attractive and differential for the target segment to cause a desire to purchase quickly and effectively.

Tasks for new products

These are some of the tasks to be performed by the product manager for the conception and the launch of new models:
1. identify new opportunities for existing products.
2. identify, specify and quantify the current opportunities in the market for such products and new ones.
3 involve other departments of the company to the conception of a product that will satisfy the customer in all its dimensions (packing, palletizing, service after sales, etc.).
4. develop and present tests prior to release (product, brand, etc.) for consideration by management.
5 prepare detailed specifications of user techniques.
6 planning and executing the product as project manager development program.
7. develop a product offering attractive with an important customer characteristic of differentiation.
8 develop and manage the launch of the product to the market.
9 strengthen the reputation of the company offering a good quality/price ratio of a few products and services suitable for the purpose for which they are acquired.



In the very strict sense, the product is a set of tangible and physical attributes gathered in a personally identifiable form. Each product has a descriptive or generic name that everyone understands: apples, basketballs, baseball, etc.
The product attributes that raise the motivation of consumers or result in purchase patterns are not included in this definition so strict. For example a Toyota Corolla and a Chysler Neon are the same product: A car.
A broader interpretation of the term recognizes that each mark is a single product. In this sense a Giorgio Armani suit and a Gucci suit are different products.
But brand name indicates a difference in the product to the consumer, and this introduces the definition the concept of needs or desires of the consumer.
Any change of a physical characteristic (design, color, size, etc.) for small that is, creates another product. Every change gives the producer the opportunity to use a new set of messages to get to what is essentially a new market.
The concept of product now includes the services that accompany the sale, and so we have approached a definition that is useful for marketing personnel.


In this case we need to find a very limited definition. On the contrary, we can recognize several potential new product categories. But the important thing is that each perhaps requires a special marketing program to ensure a reasonable chance of success.


-Products that are really innovative that is truly innovative. Example of them could be a hair Restorer or a treatment against cancer, products for which there is a real need, but which do not yet have substitutes that are considered to be satisfactory. This category could include, products which are very different to those that exist today but that meet the same needs.
-Substitutes of current products that are significantly different from those that exist today. For many people the instant coffee replaced the coffee beans and ground coffee: then dehydrated and cold coffee came to replace the instant.
-Products of imitation that is new to a company in particular but not for the market.

Classification of products

Products can be classified into three groups according to their durability or tangibility.
• Goods non-durable, are tangible assets that are usually consumed in one or several times that used. Examples include beer, SOAP, salt.
• Goods durable, are tangible goods that usually survive to use. Examples include refrigerators, machine tools and clothing. Services are activities, benefits or satisfactions that are offered for sale; for example, haircuts and repairs.
• The consumer goods, consumer goods are those that buy the final consumer for his own consumption.

Marketers usually classified these assets based on consumer purchase habits.
or property of common use, are consumer goods which the customer usually buy frequently, immediately and with the minimum effort in comparison and buying. Examples include tobacco, SOAP, and newspapers. Commonly used assets can be subdivided into commodities, momentum and emergency.
or commodities, are those that consumers buy in a way regular, as the sauce Ketchup Heinz or the Ritz crackers. Impulsive purchase goods are purchased without planning it or search usually they are available in many places, because clients rarely look to them. Thus, chocolates and magazines found near cash, since otherwise will not be occur customers buy them.
or emergency goods, are bought when the need is urgent: umbrella during a rainstorm, or boots and blades during a snow storm. The emergency goods manufacturers placed them in many points of sale, to avoid losing this example: the moment in which the customer needs them.
or comparison goods, are goods that typically go through a selection process during which the customer compares them in terms of their suitability, quality, price and style. Examples of this are furniture, clothes, second hand cars and most appliances. Comparison goods can be divided into uniform and non-uniform.
or uniform comparison goods, are similar in terms of quality, but it is quite different in terms of the price. But when someone searches for clothing, furniture, or other non-uniform goods, the characteristics of the product are often more important than the price. If what the client wants to buy a new suit, cut, quality and appearance will be more important than a small difference in the price. Which sells non-uniform property of comparison has to offer an assortment to satisfy the tastes of every individual and also have well trained salesmen able to provide advice and information to the customer.
specialty goods, are goods of consumption with some very special features, or a brand specific, by which an important group of buyers is willing to make an effort to purchase. Examples include certain brands and certain specific types of cars, stereo equipment, photographic equipment and men's clothing components. Buyers tend not to compare the assets of specialty: do not invest in it more than enough time to get to the store and take the product. Although this type of stores do not need to be in places especially comfortable, if they have to inform their customers about their location.
or consumer goods which the customer does not know, the new who you may know them do not purchase them, like smoke detectors or CD devices are products, until the consumer learns of its existence by means.
or property industrial, industrial goods are those who buy individuals or organizations to process them or use them in the management of a business. Thus, the difference between consumer goods and the industrial is based on the purpose for which can be bought. If a consumer buys a lawn mower for use at home, it is a consumer good. But if that same buyer acquires the mower for use at a landscaping business, becomes an industrial good.
Industrial goods are classified according to the way in which participate in the production process and its cost. There are three groups:
• Materials and parts. They are industrial goods entering completely the product, either through processing or as components. They are of two kinds, raw materials and materials and manufactured parts. Raw materials include the cultured products (such as wheat, cotton, livestock, fruit and vegetables) and natural products (such as fish, timber, crude oil and iron ore). The cultivated products come from many small producers who deliver them to intermediaries in the market, who, in turn, process them and sell. In general, natural products are handled in large volumes, have very low unit value and require long transport to take them from the producer to the user. There are smaller or larger producers who tend to send these products directly to industrial users.
• Materials and manufactured parts. They include components materials (iron, wire, cement or wire). These are usually processed here itself: for example, the iron ingot is transformed into steel and thread is woven into fabrics. Parties enter fully in the finished product, without change of form, as when placed in vacuum cleaner small engines and tires cars are sold. Most of the materials and manufactured parts are sold directly to industrial users. Price and service are the main marketing factors, while the choice of brand and advertising tend to be less important.
• Capital assets. They are industrial goods that come partially into the finished product. They include two groups: the accessory equipment:
• Installations are buildings (factories or offices). As the facilities are major purchases, they tend to buy directly from the producer after a long period of decision-making.
• In accessory equipment. Includes portable production equipment and tools (hand or Devils), as well as office equipment (typewriters and desktops, for example). These products do not enter to form part of the finished product. They have a lifetime shorter than plants and are simple auxiliary in the production process. Most of the sellers of accessory equipment used intermediaries, since the market is widely dispersed geographically, buyers are numerous and the orders are small.
• Supplies and services. They are industrial goods which do not enter in the finished product. Supplies include supplies for operation (such as lubricants, carbon, writing paper to machine or pencils), as well as maintenance and repair (paint, nails or brooms) articles. Supplies are property of common use in the industrial field, since usually can be bought without too much effort or comparison. Industry services include repair and maintenance services (cleaning of windows, repair of typewriters) and consulting (legal, administrative, or advertising) services. These services are usually provide under contract. Maintenance services tend to be in the hands of small farmers and of repair can be many times the own original equipment vendors.

The life cycle of a product

All the products that a company offers to the market suffer an evolution that the scholars have formalized and have been called life cycle of a product. It's the classic cycle of birth, development, maturity and death applied to sales of a product. The analysis of the development of a product on the market, albeit at a theoretical level, may be very handy to understand the evolution of this, trying to provide for their development and, of course, try to influence this evolution.

Phases of the life cycle

The life of a product can be understood as a succession of several phases in which the product has a different behavior. The life cycle of a product can be divided into the following stages:
Introduction: When a product is launched on the market sales normally not soar the first day. The market does not know the product and therefore must make an effort to know and grasp the first customers. In addition the cost of producing each unit is high, with that introduction prices also tend to be high. In spite of this, many times the performance of the product is negative and must continue to invest in to publicize the product and get the first customers.
At this stage, it is important to take these losses and more fight for the recognition of the product or the brand than by the possible benefits. Of course, this does not imply that to assume losses should be unlimited. The margin of confidence to the product should be broad but not at the expense of the survival of the company.
Therefore, linking the creation of a company to launch a unique product should be aware of this strategy and be very attentive to the evolution of sales. However, this does not mean that a new company should necessarily begin their activity with a very wide range of products.
Development: when the product begins to be accepted in the market sales begin to grow and the benefits also begin to grow. This is due to that per unit manufacturing costs are reduced, either by a greater experience in production, either by higher volume production.
Appear loyal customers that repeat purchase and added new customers and, what is worse, competitors who have realized the attractions of the product and its growth. It is time to decide how to react to this new competition. The alternatives are multiple but in any case they must be carefully analysed: impact cost reduction on the price, reinvest all the resources generated in further promoting the product, to differentiate the product from imitators, etc..
Manage the growth stage is perhaps the most complex part of the process of exploitation of a product.
Maturity: there comes a time in which the product has carved a market, even for the competitors. The demand is more or less wide and costs, have probably continued to decline. At this stage, initially, the resources generated by the product are high and the company is starting to reap its fruits not reinvesting the total generated funds.
Later, sales stabilize and, given the intense competition that has been generated, even the benefits may be reduced. Before this, the company can choose the specialization in a segment, the redesign of the product, etc. However, late or early product will lose its attractiveness for clients either for companies.
Decline: Finally, to the saturation of the market some competitors begin to retire and are substitute products - competing as a minimum by the income of clients. The benefits can be turned into losses and sales start its descent announcing the death of the product if no action is taken by the way.
Methodology for product development
The process of product development, is that the opportunity to meet a need for a consumer, is attained through study, research and design of the product and its subsequent launch to the market.
This methodology is made up of the following stages:
• Identification of the opportunity: process that allows the generation of the idea.
• Design: This constituted by the technical design, cost calculation, process manufacturing, physical resources quantification of demand, pricing, strategy, evolution of the flow of the resulting Fund, etc.
• Test: will allow us to verify the delivery of the product and the perception of the consumer.
• Specification: At this stage is documented the information necessary for the manufacture of the product, plans, standards, list of materials, process diagrams, process, formula, etc.
• Introduction: Defines the necessary plan of action for the release of the product to the market, defined this, cast, thus initiating its life cycle.
Environmental considerations to take into account
Now, already we we can not ignore the care for the environment and the analysis of the environmental impacts that will result in the manufacture of a new product. Therefore, in the design stage, it is very important to bear in mind that it will allow the minimization of the lags in the manufacturing process, also the raw materials used must be able to be recyclable.
In the design of the production process should analyze which will be waste that it can generate and what would be its treatment and subsequent disposal.



If we consultáramos in a dictionary of the Spanish language the word promotion we would find it defined as "action promote, initiate or promote one thing trying to their achievement". This meaning, if we apply it to the sale, gives us a very broad promotion, as virtually all actions and policies that are held in the company have intended, at least indirectly, the achievement and the increase in sales. This direction is which currently has been going to this expression. But against this broad concept has been emerging also another much more concrete meaning of the promotion, which identifies it solely with sales with gift. Promotion, according to the same, is supported in the gift sale and nothing else.
We will not get to discuss the reasons for one and another meaning. We say simply that identify promotion with everything what is done to sell more and better we don't like, because the excessive scale of consciousness without content to the promotion, but that, on the other hand, considered exclusively as a gift sales action seems instead a unfair undervaluation of the possibilities that can be if it is considered as a policy as a technique able to drive mark a whole strategy varied each time, product and market. Thus we have valued it and thus will study it.
We can define the promotion as a "set of diverse communication actions whose use is situated within the framework of a general policy of marketing aimed mainly at the development of sales in the short term".
Two characteristics can be deduced from this definition:
• The promotion must act within the framework of a marketing policy. It should not therefore be somewhat sporadic, disconnected or improvised, as well as either a resource of breaking when everything is already lost.
• The promotion has, however, its raison d ' être in the dimension in the short term.
To clarify more the spirit which, in our view, should have the promotion, we list the following peculiarities:
• To promote, in the strict sense, consists of a non-product "tangible" incentive. Improving quality, his change of container, its most appropriate distribution, are actions of marketing, but not sales promotion in the strict sense of the consumer goods market.
• The promotion is an independent advertising incentive. Advertising gives the product a (psychological, for example) "intangible" benefit. Promotion gives the product a "tangible" benefit. We can say that advertising informs and motivates, to help the sale. On the other hand promotion drives immediate selling. It is a means of action in the short term.
• Advertising and promotion move to different and even conflicting dimensions. Both tuned with the politics of marketing at different wavelength. Advertising can be expensive in the short term and profitable long-term. The promotion provides amazing results in the short term but can be eventually dangerous and actually is. The confusion comes from advertising for the promotion, demand for commercial action in the modern market, which blur the boundaries of both strategies.
• The promotion must be a discontinuous incentive. Discontinuous in time, in the form and in its nature. It has to be radically alien to any idea of periodicity, since, if the promotion is incorporated in the product long or even permanently, it ceases to be promotion to become a feature or product advantage. We can find many examples: when Coca-Cola launched its family 1 liter bottle, this policy had a promotional home which had undoubtedly affect its sales in the short term. To maintain this type of packaging in the market, its promotional momentum disappeared. We have other examples of this kind in the launch of Nescafe from his flask of 200 grams, or the passage of envelope of 1 litre cans of five in the soft drinks market in powder.
This need of innovations requiring promotional policy is, as we see, one of the great difficulties and risks of their jobs.
THE promotion of sales covers a wide range of incentives for the short term - coupons, prizes, contests, discounts - whose purpose is to encourage consumers, trade and the sellers of the company itself.
sales promotion spending has grown faster than the advertising in recent years. Sales promotion requires that objectives are set, the tools are selected, to develop and test the programs before implementing it, and assessment of their results.

Types of promotion

Promotion of consumption-promotional sales to stimulate consumer purchases.

Instruments for the promotion of consumption:

Samples: Gift of a small quantity of a product that consumers try it.
Coupons: certified which translates into savings for the buyer of certain products.
Return of cash (or sales): return of a portion of the purchase price of a product to consumers who send 'proof of purchase' to the manufacturer.
Promotional packages (or savers): prices reduced directly by the manufacturer on the label or package.
Prizes: Free or offered at a low cost as an incentive for the acquisition of any product.
Customer rewards: rewards in cash or otherwise for the regular use of the products or services of any company.
Promotions at the point of sale (ppv): exhibitions or displays at the point of sale or purchase.
Contests, raffles and games: promotional events that give consumers the chance to win something by sounds or with an extra effort.
Sales promotion-sales promotion to get reseller support and improve its efforts to sell.
Promotion for sales force-sales promotion designed to motivate the sales force and achieve group sales efforts to be more effective.
Promotion to establish a franchise with the consumer-sales promotion that promote the positioning of the product and include a sales messages in the treatment.

Factors influencing the definition of promotional mix:

Companies take into account many factors when developing your promotional mix. We will examine them below.
Type of product/market: the importance of different promotional tools varies depending on whether a consumer or industrial market.
Consumer goods companies tend to invest their funds, firstly, in advertising, followed by sales, sales personal, and, finally, promotion public relations. On the other hand, the industrial goods placed most of its budget on personal sales, followed by promotion of sales, advertising, and public relations. In general, personal sales are much more used is expensive and risky assets and markets with few major sellers.
Although advertising is less decisive than the visit from a seller in the case of industrial markets, even in them, it has an important role. Indeed, this tool can create an awareness and knowledge of the product, develop sales trends and give confidence to the buyers.
Similarly, personal sales can contribute much to the efforts of the sale of consumer goods. Is simply not true that that "retailers placed products on the shelves and then removes them
advertising". For consumer goods, a well trained sales staff can make contracts with more distributors so they sell a brand in particular, convince them that you'll get more shelf space and encourage them to use exhibitors and special promotions.
Push VS strategy. attraction strategy. The promotional mix substantially change as you choose a push strategy or an attraction. A push strategy requires the use of a sales force and a commercial promotion for "push" product channels. Producers promote the product to wholesalers, they promote to retailers, and these, in turn, consumers.' On the other hand, an attraction strategy requires spending a lot of money in advertising and promotion to the consumer, to create a consumer demand. This, then, "attracts" the product per channel. If this strategy is effective, consumers will ask the product to its retailers, who will ask him to turn from their wholesalers, and these producers.
Some small industrial companies only use thrust strategies, and some direct marketing companies only used the attraction; but most of the large companies use both. For example, Procter & Gamble used advertising in the mass media to attract their products, and a large force of sales, along with commercial promotions, to push them through the canals. In recent years, consumer goods companies have been decreasing the percentage of attraction of your promotional mixes in favor of a greater thrust.
State of psychic available to buyer. The effects of tools vary according to different States of available to purchase already analyzed. Advertising, along with public relations, play an important role within the States of consciousness and knowledge, rather than the who may have "visits cold" sellers. On the other hand, taste, preference and the conviction of the consumer are more influenced by personal sales, followed closely by advertising. Finally, sales are closed primarily with sellers visits and promote
sales. There is no doubt that, considering its high cost, personal sales should be focused in the last stages of the buying process.
Stage of the life cycle of the product. The effects of different promotional tools also vary according to the stage in which the product is within its life cycle. In the introduction stage, advertising and public relations are used to raise awareness, and sales promotion it is useful to promote that product be proven immediately.
Personal sales should use me to the appropriate branch of trade distribute it. At the stage of growth, advertising and public relations continue to have force, while promoting see-tas, can be reduced since fewer incentives are required. In the stage of maturity, sales promotion again to be important in relation to advertising. Indeed, shoppers already know brands and advertising is only required to remind them of the product. In the stage of decline, advertising is only a reminder level, public relations are left and sellers pay too little attention to the product. However, sales promotion is still strong.

Selection of media:

These means, being the vehicles through which will be sent the message, according to the creative strategy designed, seek to carry out effectively the advertising objectives.
Each advertising media (radio, television, graphics in general (newspapers and magazines), via publishing, cinema, etc.) has a certain impact, reach a certain audience and you have technical conditions consistent with the purposes of the creative base and the objectives of audience.
Major expected features of the media used in the campaign:
• Newspapers
or opportunity message
or frequency of publication
or localized circulation
or penetration in general in all socio-economic groups
• Magazines
or deep and stopped reading
or a special kind readers selection
or national or regional distribution
or relative permanence of advertising in comparison with other media
• Radio, Television
or high entertainment value
or persuasive of the human voice
or flexibility
or more emotion

Goal of promotion:

Promotional action is framed in the global communication of the company strategy, but their specific objectives relate to:
• Sample service.
• The repetition of the purchase.
• The purchased amount or increase in the frequency of consumption increased.
• The consolidation of the image of your product or service.
• Optimization of the service to the public.
This promotional activity is prerequisite for advertising. Through it we try to demonstrate that the product is alive, which exists, to then advertise it.
The promotional activity is generated from the definition of the communication strategy. This communication variable should be considered and used as:
• A tactical tool in the marketing mix.
• A technique to capture the opportunistic consumer
• Best complementing the advertising when it is used correctly, and a latent danger when you use indiscriminately of the.



Sales promotion is a tool or variable mix of promotion (advertising), consists of short-term consumer incentives, the members of the channel of distribution or sales teams, seeking to increase the purchase or sale of a product or service.

Objectives of sales promotion

The objectives of sales promotion are usually associated with short-term results (sale), and not permanent outcomes (long term). If you wish to obtain permanent (long-term) results are two ways:
• 1) can be combined with the promotion of sales with the other elements of the mix of promotion (whose results are permanent and long-term effects)
(• 2) can be used promotional incentives in a permanent and continuous, which is not usually suitable for the impact on earnings due to the cost of these incentives, and that competitors may match or increase their own incentives, forcing the company to do the same, affecting this further costs. With this you can give a promotional war that may reduce the profitability of the industry.
In sales promotion the following objectives are among others:
• Increase sales in the short term
• Help increase market share in the long run.
• Achieve a new product test
• Break the loyalty of customers from the competition
• Encourage the increase of products stored by the client
• Reduce own stock
• Break seasonality
• Collaborate to loyalty
• Motivate retailers to incorporate new products to its offer
• Achieve greater promotional efforts by retailers.
• Achieve greater space on shelves of retailers
• Achieve greater support of the sales team for future campaigns

Sales promotion tools

There are many tools used in the promotion of sales, among others:
• Samples: delivery free of charge and limited to a product or service for your test.
• Coupon: Gift certificates that can be used to pay part of the price of product or service
• Refunds: refund of part of the money paid for the product or service offer. Usually on the next purchase.
• Package price: discount prices directly marked on the package or label.
• Awards: Goods free or reduced price that are added to the product or service basis.
• Advertising gifts: useful items with the mark or logo of the owner which are delivered free of charge to its customers, prospects or the public in general.
• Loyalty Awards: prize money, species or conditions by the normal use of the products or services of a company.
• On-site sales promotion: exhibitions and shows at the point of sale.
• Discounts: Reduction in the price of a product or service, valid for a time.
• Events: Fairs and conventions to promote and demonstrate products and services.
• Sale contests: contests between sellers or between channel members.
• Association of product: give a sample or a gift to the client that will encourage the sale and purchase.



In the area of marketing, new product development is one of the most exciting and fascinating areas. Many specialists in the field have come to consider it so sensual that in many companies, are directed efforts to spare and become even neglecting areas or activities with proven returns, which depends on the survival of the company: in general, few products or well-established brands maintain healthy finances of successful companies.
There is a standard pattern in the development of new products. In many companies even exists a formal area of new products, so the responsibility is diluted among multiple stakeholders. Despite this, the launch of a new product, is preceded by four phases, which does not necessarily have a structure in series;
1 scan/generation of Ideas
2. development of concepts
3. product development
4 integration of concept and product to the characteristics of the market
After the launch, we have an extremely important phase, which is the follow-up, whether formal or informal, of the performance of the product in the market. For this testing of concepts which constitute an absolutely critical phase in the launch of new products, but they require plenty of talent and experience to make them useful. Qualitative or quantitative approaches can be used in these tests. The latter, however are particularly relevant for market research that aims to make predictions.
The crucial stage to make proofs of concept very useful utility, is the establishment of limits or key parameters and the values of reference (benchmarks) that must be present in these parameters so that appropriate performance of the concept. If we omit to do this, this fact that occurs frequently research can be poorly targeted or used, and perhaps would be better but it worth not having it done. To establish the benchmarks should be based on previous experiences and knowledge of the market. In fact, this is one of the most important outlets for several agencies and their databases and the ability to extract useful benchmarks. There is also the classic paradox of the market researcher: which establishes that any exercise of market research should not be done for the first time, as in it, there is no way to fully interpret the results, but which instead splitting of investigations already carried out.
Concept tests, are considered as this search between the new product and as it reaches the consumer, is sought with this set if consumers understand the concept, they believe in the benefits that he says, settle down the suggestions that they would do to the product, in this research is intended to obtain information which allows us to determine the orientation that we must give to the product among other figures that are consulted have that you may ask you reasonable price, who takes the decision to purchase about one certain product, among others in his family would be to the consumer according to his judgment. For the purposes of the prediction of taste are very important however, they can become a double-edged weapon, since the interpretation of the collected information critically depends on several factors:
(a) the evaluation is blind or identified (branded)
(b) the evaluation is done with price or no price
(c) level of "Finish" of the concept: with photography, drawing, dummy.
(d) level of verbal description in the concept: a simple phrase face a string of ideas and benefits.
On quantitative concept tests, the corresponding numerical values may differ, depending on the previous four factors, that if there is a basis
Data from similar studies for the category of interest or similar categories, with similar characteristics, we can never know if a top box 34% purchase intent is a good indicator or bad. We must take into account that under the context of inexperience and/or no systematization of the information obtained in the past, concept testing becomes a sterile exercise.
Despite the benchmarks, they can commit errors in the interpretation of numerical values, if they change the conditions of the study, or if the databases do not correspond to the market conditions. For example, it is well known that forms of reply of consumers in different countries are not homogeneous and a percentage obtained in a country, does not necessarily have to be obtained elsewhere, so it must be very careful interpretations of benchmarks relating to other countries.
The most common dimensions in which the concepts are evaluated are intent to purchase and uniqueness or differentiation. The latter is the basis of all the art of building brands.
One aspect of unique importance which must be taken into account in conducting proof of concept, aimed at the achievement of successful product launches, is evaluation in a group goal or target broad and not reduced to what has been mapped as a primary target. This is due to that if the target is very small, perhaps the concept can be very attractive to the target, and volume projections can be extremely optimistic, the test becoming a kind of prophecy of self-indulgence. Another important point is that it can be wrong compare scores of tests in a group reduced with the broader populations. The scores of small groups are generally higher, but this does not mean may have greater potential volume. The recommendation in this regard is testing with groups extended with the possibility of having oversamples of special interest groups.
Own an attractive concept for a product is a breakthrough, even in situations where the inspiration has been present, but it cannot act alone is necessary that is one with a product that is not only a good performance, but in addition, there is congruence with the concept. In this, product tests, play a fundamental role.


On the other hand there are proofs of concept and product that are carried out in order to assess the entire mixture.
We previously mentioned that search was presented with the proof of concept with respect to the evaluation of the consistency of the product and the concept, one of the main goals is to determine the volume or share that reached the new product within a reasonable time after its release, as well as the profiling of the consumer group.
This area of research, of Grand adrenaline is already considered that if it is supplied a number compromising, you must take into account that it will have in the future the ability to be verified.
There are many variations of the concept and product tests, many of them extend product testing until you have reliable estimates of repurchase. In all cases, however, attempting to measure the rate at which new product will be bought by consumers, i.e. the rate at which new product "spreads" on the market. This approach to modelling, test-based initial/repetitions is known in the middle of market research as Fourt Woodlock model, since it is based on the original work of the researcher.
Worldwide, there are different models offered by various agencies of research based on the scheme of Fourt Woodlock. Typically, the process consists of two phases:

1 - the first becomes the initial proof of concept, and with this estimate of the rate of initial test
2 - in the second, is the proof of product, with their respective variants, to estimate the rate of recurrence.
Since then both rely on information obtained from longitudinal designs, type panel.
Prediction of sales volumes and market, based on studies of market shares, represents a risky exercise, and there are a number of cases where more sophisticated models not have been able to predict with a reasonable degree of accuracy sale volumes and shares them. The reasons why this happens can be:
a. in many simulations is there with the final product, or packaging, and sometimes, even of the concept. The reality is that companies want to get a feeling of the market in the early stages of the development of a new product before spending or investing a lot of money. Therefore many concepts are sometimes used on boards, rather than final advertising and dummies instead of the final packaging of the product. The importance of this aspect will be varied and depends on that sometimes a concept of Board can be even more effective than the final advertising to communicate the key benefits. But clearly, it is not the same present a Board for a product that will be moved by image, a product that will be moved by the performance, so it is necessary to take into account this function
b when carry out simulations with groups or reduced socio-demographic profiles. If done this way it is necessary that those volumes that are projected refer, only this group of consumers and not to the entire population, because that can bring as a consequence the lack of precision that we previously discussed. Since then is can not omit to speak of the "spillover effects", who will be safe: i.e. product consumption by population segments not referred to in the initial evaluation. In particular, must take into account that behaviour in consumers of urban population will not be equal to the behavior of consumers in rural populations.
c research the majority must take into account that direct data obtained from the answers of the interviewees, contain natural biases: the manifestation of an intention to purchase, even genuinely taking it at the time of the interview, not being translated into real participation or purchase. For this reason, it is very important to know truly what means a value in the scale used, and therefore experience and the intelligent use of information are the best allies.
d on many occasions, failures that may occur in the performance of a product do not come from poor or insufficient research market or poor analysis carried out with them, but a series of factors or other causes, which do not belong on occasions, even to the scope of the brand, eat:
• The anticipated higher costs
• Of the company and the product's very slow response arrives late to the market
• The company and the product too fast response does not well developed market
• Unexpected reactions of the competition
• Adverse economic environments
• Inexperience in the management of the release
• Failures in production and distribution
• Failures in communication: bad publicity or lack of advertising investment
• Defects in products (not stable formulas)
Proofs of concept are a useful and powerful tool to determine if a product has viability in a market. In order to use them properly, requires much experience in the interpretation of data from studies of market, the proper use of reference values as benchmarks, to diagnostics, in the design of research and occasionally up to good luck, talent can be so that the proof of concept can be used for the purpose of predictions the most accurate possible.



Advertising is a technique of mass media, aimed at spreading messages through the media in order to persuade the target consumer audience. It is also defined as an object of study complex due to the number of dimensions including: economic, psychological, sociological and technical dimension.
Advertising as such is a commercial fact because it is one of the variables that must be the company to be able to learn more about the products and close sales through the use of the most logical, efficient and economic method. From this point of view, advertising is a marketing tool.
Advertising is a professional technical fact, is an economic fact, is a social, cultural, and communication.
Propaganda: the dissemination of ideas and cultural values, it differs from advertising in its pursuit of profit. Propaganda copy techniques from commercial advertising and research of market (public image). EJ. Driver education, AIDS and political campaigns).

Types of advertising

• Brand advertising: brand reaches to reference the product in question, this is only for consolidated brands, sometimes a symbol or a logo is used to identify the brand.
• Advertising to local (retail) or detail.
• Political propaganda
• By directory
• Direct response
• Business-to-business
• Institutional or corporate
• Community services

Agents involved in the advertising.

Advertisers, agencies, media and receptors.
The media have the ability to multiply messages receiving.
Receivers integrate and form part of groups, they model the way of perceiving the reality of the message. It is difficult in the mass media the influence of our message, there is not a linear reading.

Contemporary advertising

Talk about the industrial revolution, the last decades of the 19th century, capitalism, production, routes of communication, etc.
Advertising in Marketing.

1. product:

It is the raison d ' être of the advertising... In the product, it is important to work in regards to the brand (image) and packaging (capture attention). According to the life of the product, advertising can change objectives
• If the product is at the stage of release should be a product launch campaign. At this stage the advertising is characterized by knowing the product to the market goal, by the high costs of campaigns, the low volume of sales and the sparse distribution.
• In the growth stage the objectives of advertising is the position the brand and promote its purchase.
• The stage of maturity there is a strong competition therefore advertising is based on strengthening brand image and differentiate themselves.
• The stage of decline, may relaunch campaigns or eliminate advertising.

2. square:

It refers to the distribution channel which are all those that move products from the manufacturer to the consumer. Wholesalers, retailers and transport are parts in the channel of distribution. All these agents can become transmitters of advertising messages and influence. Common is the use of cooperative advertising that allows the producer and distributor share placing advertising and save costs, but also ads or promotions are made independently.

3. price:

The price charged is based on the demand in the price of the competition, in the intertemporal consumer choice and the ability for the consumer to appreciate the value of the product. There are psychological techniques for the pricing of products, for example. If the price is very high quality feel, on the contrary if the price is low can give feeling of low quality or a temporary special promotion.

4. promotion:

Advertising, personal sales, sales promotion, public relations, sales force and sales and packaging points represent the main technique to communicate with the target audience.
• Advertising can be a separate technique that helps sales
• The promotion consists of some type of gift or benefit to the consumer
• the PR are linked to institutional advertising and running to check the company profile. It also means a set of activities and events.
• The sales points are important when placing products on shelves and exhibitors.
• In the packaging can include messages for the consumer.
• Sales force means a direct contact between the client and the market.

Media and advertising

Graphics media, newspapers and magazines
Internet - TV - radio - public roads and cinema.

Other alternative media.

Semiotics of advertising.
Defined semiotics as a science that deals with the study of the meaning of things in social life. It helps insofar as it provides tools to build meaning in advertising.

Functions of advertising according to semiotics.

Emphatic function. The emphatic function makes the difference with other ads, encompasses the originality with the idea of generating a positive difference of the product which is announcing.
Predicative function. It says something about the product, features and attributes.
The implicativa function aims to catch the perceiver.

Levels of analysis

Denotative message. It is the message that is seen at a glance and provides the basis for the connotative message. At a glance you can see that type of advertising is, advises.
Connotative message. It is the 2nd level of analysis is a message that is clear or is inferred. It is not evident to the naked eye. It depends on the denotative message. It gives a concept, charging of values to the product, the subliminal message can be contained in this map. It is a totally abstract message, sweetness, confidence, beauty, sympathy, etc.
Its function is the load values to the object and create a favorable disposition about the advertised product.

Levels of Visual codes

1. chromatic subcode. It refers to the use of colors
2 typographic subcode. It refers to the type of letter or source.
3 subcode representation system. Photography and drawing techniques used to highlight the object through the manipulation of scale.
4. morphological subcode. It refers to the construction of the advertising image, using the spatial location of the different objects in order to highlight the surfaces that contain information. EJ. axial focused construction, construction in depth and sequential.
Political marketing: is the set of research techniques, planning, management, and communication that are used throughout a political campaign, either electoral or institutional dissemination.
• The conditions to allow the political marketing are: democracy, an independent electorate who convince, the acceptance that the principal means for the accomplishment of the campaign should be the TV and that votes by the adaptation of messages, will achieve without appealing to the benefice or physical coercion.
• The advertising techniques adopted by the political markets are opinion polls, market research to learn a society to determine motivational voting network.
The use of the audiovisual media and TV generate a feeling of proximity and veracity.
1. need: the owner is a problem trading with regard to your product or service. It is complementing the commercial ends with the advertising.
2. sources of information to evaluate solutions: patterns of sales, competition, positioning, SWOT analysis, experience in previous campaigns, the media expertise.
3. objectives:
or marketing (primary) refers to the objectives of sales, market, consumer and product.
or advertising objectives. Make the product, to introduce new features or not of the product-service. Promote or strengthen brand image. Strengthening the penetration of markets. Overcome or counteract competition campaigns. Support the action of the distribution channels. Develop new unconscious needs, i.e. to find niche markets.
3 budget
How much money will spend? In this step the owner prepares the operating costs of the product-service relationship of the set financial policy and its impact on the achievement of the objectives.
4. selection of the Agency
Usually companies have already selected advertising agency. There are also companies by size or diversity of products using 2 or more different agencies. In the event that the company does not have a fixed Agency, this can be chosen for history contest or contest campaigns. This last option is not recommended because there is a risk of choosing one that has had a situational success or showing only campaigns that succeeded.
5 Brief
The brief is a document that lists all data deemed by the owner may be useful to make the agency work. It contains elements that refer to advertising and does not mention a total information about marketing.
It should preferably be schematic, brief, with notes and clear pictures that make a quick understanding to those who read it.
The minimum information which must contain the brief is as follows:
Identification of the company: name, career, business, image and positioning.
Product: definition, own and differentiating features, marks, packaging or presentation, etc.
Market: market classification (current and target), advertising areas.
Sales: policy prices, distribution, sales, sales arguments policy.
Consumers: arguments of sales to consumers, definition of the segment (ABC1), behavior purchase, habits, purchase reasons, factors of influence, motivation to exploit (cash purchases, credit, guaranteed, with card...)
Promotion: policy previously used, systems employed, results obtained.
Advertising: types of previous advertising, objective and results above, earlier communication proposals, etc.
Research plans: test packages, product test, test of ladders benefits to the consumer, motivational studies, image brand, etc.
Up to this point the structure of the campaign was based by the effort of the owner, in the next stage the major actions will be in the hands of the advertising agency.

Creative strategy

It is the Assembly if the message on the basis of ideas.
What will I say? how it am I going to say? with what resources or arguments?
In this stage the Brieff importance.

Communicative tone

It has to do with the basic approach what I say and how I will say?
Is the one who have to give unity and identity to the campaign, so if they perceive different notices of a same campaign messages relating to the same.

Media plan

The role of the media is plan the place a message (ads) to a target audience. Planning decisions include: the audience that has become, where (geographical emphasis), when (time), long (duration of the campaign) and intensity (frequency) must have exposure. Planning is a mixture of marketing skills and knowledge of the mass media.
The budget has a fundamental significance when it comes to planning (costs of space and time).

Concept of opening

Opening is the ideal time when the consumer is more predisposed to buy or receive information and when their attention is high.
In media planning, it is important to present messages to potential consumers at the moment of opening.
Detect this opportunity is difficult to study and complex, the success depends on the accuracy of the market research.
Extracted from the website: Liderazgo y Mercadeo
This is a translation published for educational purposes and may contain errors or be inaccurate.