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Biography of Ruhollah Khomeini

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The Ayatollah of iron September 22, 1902
June 3, 1989

Who is Ruhollah Khomeini?


Ruhollah Khomeini, m. imam who led the revolt of Iranian Shiites against the Shah Reza Pahlevi, was born in 1902. He studied in the Holy City of Qom and witnessed the desecration of the mosque of Fatima by the founder of the dynasty of Pahlevi, Reza Khan, in 1927.

Always with great force against Westernization and the "modernization" of Iran, causing serious social problems. It all began in 1935, when the Shah Reza Shah accused of germanofilia, and after having involved the country in World War II, abdicated in favour of his son Mohammad Reza, retreating in the face of two anglo-Russian occupation. Employment ceases, the Iran was initially a revival and constitutional democratic freedoms, euthanized immediately by Mohammad Reza. But a kind of national consensus on the issue was economic independence, which culminated in the nationalization of the oil and in the conflict with Great Britain (1950-51). The victory by Prime Minister M.H. Mussadeq (1951-53) with the ouster of the British opened up new possibilities. A serious political crisis generated by the contrast between the Shah and Prime Minister ended in the spring of 1953 with the fall of the Shah: Mussadeq Mohammad Reza began to take an increasingly active role in the management of the State thanks to substantial financial aid from the United States, so Iran was placed in a position to overcome financial difficulties , then an even greater place thanks to revenues from oil. Overall, therefore, it can be said that at that time the Iran undoubtedly had a decidedly pro-Western orientation.

In other respects, though, the changes in Iranian society were entirely unsatisfactory. For example, the social inequality tended to increase, excluding profits not only the grassroots and the working class, but also the middle class, professionals and merchants, already deprived of access to any form of decision-making power. Everything was reflected a harsh crackdown on political and cultural life of the country by the Shah. Since 1977, there was strong growth in the movement of opposition to the regime, whose direction was quickly conquered by the Ayatollah Khomeini's Shia religious who, following his opposition activities had previously been arrested and expelled. Found refuge in France, where he continued to produce speech that was then sent to his country, to support those who, from the inside, fighting against the despotic regime of the Pahlevi.

In the autumn of 1978, despite bloody crackdown, the Shah was forced to leave Iran as the army disgregava. In 1979 the Shah was finally ousted and Khomeini was able to set up an Islamic Republic. His return was greeted by an explosion of joy among the Shiites. Ayatollah appointed a provisional Government and assumed the direction of the country. On April 1, following a referendum, was proclaimed the Islamic Republic of Iran, and in December another referendum approved a new Constitution which included a religious leader of the country (this position was attributed to Khomeini's life).

Meanwhile, in September 1980 the Iraq initiated hostilities against Iran, reopening old territorial matters. The offensive was halted and gave rise to a bloody conflict ended only in 1998. Within the country, meanwhile, the 1980 election saw the victory of the Islamic Republican Party (PRI). The legislative elections of 1984 brought the character of one-party State by now assumed de facto from Iran, but in 1987 the PRI was dissolved by Ayatollah Khomeini, who declared sold out its tasks.

Since 1988, therefore the elections saw the participation of candidates is no longer tied to party constraints, although belonging to groups and different currents within the Islamic regime. The presidential election of August 1985 confirmed head of State Ali Khamenei (first elected in 1981); in 1989 these happened to Khomeini, who died in June, which religious leader in the country, and the Presidency of the Republic, was elected a. RafsanJani. A constitutional reform approved by referendum the same year, abolishing the post of Prime Minister and strengthened presidential powers.

Peace negotiations between Iran and Iraq, started after the ceasefire of August 1989, were in fact blocked until August 1990, when the international crisis started with the occupation of Kuwait by the Iraqi army induced Baghdad to recognize the Iranian sovereignty over some areas. This allowed the reopening of diplomatic relations between the two countries in September 1990. Since 1997 the Office of President of the Republic is covered by Mohammad Khatami.

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