Wednesday, October 07, 2015

Corporate strategy, management, emotional intelligence, social skills, Management, motivation | Concepts of leadership

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Concepts of Leadership and Marketing

Table of contents

  1. Corporate strategy
  2. Instructional strategy
  3. Fundamentals of communication
  4. Management
  5. Management based on values (GBV)
  6. Identification of the stage of organizational development
  7. Emotional intelligence
  8. The ISO and the Corporate Social responsibility (CSR)
  9. Leadership
  10. Social skills
  11. Thoughts and its effects
  12. Management
  13. Media of instruction
  14. Continuous improvement
  15. Six-Sigma methodology: Industrial quality
  16. Models of Decision making
  17. Motivation
  18. Level of complexity of the learning
  19. Levels of cognitive behavior
  20. ISO standards


ITEM 01

Corporate strategy | Definition

MODEL OF CORPORATE STRATEGY


STRATEGIC THINKING

STRATEGIC TARGET

STRATEGIC PLANNING

STRATEGIC MANEUVERS

CORPORATE VISION

CORPORATE ANALYSIS

CORPORATE STRATEGIES

CORPORATE PHILOSOPHY

INTUITION

PERSPECTIVE

RESEARCH

POSITION

PREPARATION

PLANS

EXECUTION

PERFORMANCE

TENETS OF CORPORATE VALUE

A tenet of value identifies the responsibilities of the Organization towards persons with which it interacts. Who do you value the Corporation?
A corporate tenet outlines the operational assumptions on which the organization focuses its activities and targets its resources. What you see in the Corporation?
A tenet of value prescribed desirable standard patterns in the behaviour of employees and establishes appropriate methods to get results. How can the results be evaluated?

POSTULATE OF CORPORATE VISION

A postulate of vision is an image clear, scalable, and challenging the future of the Organization, in the manner as the management thinks that it can and should be.
A postulate of vision is an ideal state that is designed to inspire and motivate.
A postulate of vision responds to questions of management "to where you are going".

Identifying the strategic supports.

Strategic brackets are a required competitive issue that unites different independent activities and locate the power of different groups within the Corporation about the most important things in the market.
Strategic media is a concept that communicates and shares an understanding of why a business unit is better that competition and what to do to register and stay in front - capture a leading position.
A strategic intention is an ambitious look towards the future that is not proportional to the resources and capabilities of ordinary of the Organization; This represents an important development for the organization.
A strategic intention is a concept used by the management to draw the future of the Organization through the development and location of the promoters of resources.

COMPONENTS OF THE CORPORATE ANALYSIS

MATRIX MATRIX UNIT
BUSINESS ANALYSIS OF PLACEMENT
STRATEGIC RESOURCE ACCOUNTS
(SBU)
ACCOUNTS ANALYSIS

ORGANIZATIONAL SCRUTINY

ARRAYS OF THE PORTFOLIO OF ACCOUNTS

CONSIDERATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

PARTITION OF MARKET

MATRIX BCG (*)

MARKET GROWTH

STRENGTHS OF THE MARKET

MATRIX GE (*)

ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE INDUSTRY

COMPETITIVE POSITION

MATRIX ADL (*)

MATURITY OF THE INDUSTRY
(*) = BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP = BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP
(**) = GE =
(*) = ADL

BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP
ACCOUNTS ANALYSIS MATRIX

HIGH = HIGH
STARS = STARS
QUESTION MARKS = QUESTIONS
INDUSTRY GROWTH RATE = RATE OF GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY
LOW = SOFT
CASH COW = FLOW COWS
DOGS = DOGS


STAR

COWS OF FLOW

QUESTIONS

DOGS

MARKET SEGMENT

INCREASE MAINTAINED

MAINTENANCE

INCREASE IN SEARCH

DEEP SEARCH

LEVEL OF BENEFIT

HIGH

UNDER

LOW WITHOUT LOSS

LOW LOSSES

CASH FLOW

NEGATIVE RUPTURE

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

NEGATIVE POSITIVE BREAK

TYPES OF CORPORATE STRATEGIES

REORGANIZATION STRATEGIES = REORGANOZACION STRATEGIES
RETRENCHMENT = REDUCTION
RESTRUCTURING = RESTRUCTURING
TURNAROUND = RATE OF RETURN
GROWTH STRATEGIES = GROWTH STRATEGIES
DIVERSIFICATION = DIVERSIFICATION
INTEGRATION = INTEGRATION

REDUCTION STRATEGIES

Reduction strategies are applied to the reduction of biodiversity and the total number of businesses in the portfolio corporate.
Reduction strategies represent a strategic retreat of industries and markets without benefits.

RATES OF RETURN STRATEGIES

Rates of return strategies are efforts to restore the financial integrity of the corporate portfolio, a money-losing situation becoming a return of benefits.
Return strategies are used with business to:
They have solved problems in the short term.
They are part of an attractive industry or growth.
They are strategically important to the overall success of the portfolio of the organization.

RESTRUCTURING STRATEGIES

POSTPONE?
DO REPROJECT?
DELETE?
Restructuring strategies are highlighted strategic moves to renew structural corporate portfolio cover and/or modify the formal relationships of components within that portfolio.
The restructuring takes the forms of: changing organizational components, or changing the relationships between the components.

INTEGRATION STRATEGIES

The strategy of establishing a strong position or leadership role within an industry given through its chain of supplies or business of competition control.
Vertical integration from the back
Horizontal integration
Vertical integration from the front

DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES

Diversification is the strategy to add attractive business whose nature and operating format are different to today's business.
Diversification strategies have a range between:
Highly continuity of completely
Related unrelated diversification

APPROACH BASED ON COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN THE MARKET.

A philosophy based on the market which focuses on obtaining benefits from the gear between the unique capabilities of a strategic business unit and the critical factors for success in an industry that allows such business unit to exceed its rivals.
A competitive advantage is a perceived uniqueness in one or more commercial operations that consumers appreciate and evaluate.

ESSENTIAL COMPETENCE APPROACH BASED ON THE RESOURCES

Essential capabilities are a philosophy based on the resources that focuses more on a portfolio of capabilities that on a business portfolio.
Essential capabilities are specific tangible and intangible assets that provide the organization with a unique and sustainable capabilities in one or more commercial activities.

ESSENTIAL CAPABILITIES

• A distinctive combination of applied technologies
• Differentiation toolset that create benefits to the customer.
• Unique set of processes of businesses that are sustainable.
• Set of resources that can create competitive advantage.

ITEM 02

Instructional strategy | Definition

The selection of an instructional strategy should worry about man from the first moment in which decided to teach something. Certainly, there is a number and diversity of literature, experiences and research concerning the use of certain 'techniques' or 'methods' of teaching and learning, however, the determination of appropriate for an instructional situation strategies is one of the least developed in the study and application of the instructional design process.
What seems to be missing in most studies, is the use of a systematic approach to consider the instructional strategy. Firstly, because the technique or method represented by a series of activities is only a part isolation, but in the context of its interrelationships with the other elements of instructional design.
From what was said above, it is evident that the selection of instructional strategy is a fairly complex process because of all the factors that come into play. Given the limitations of this course, do not delve the study of this aspect with all the depth that you require, but if feasible an approach to the systematic approach in its treatment.

Definition of instructional strategy

We will use the term "Instructional strategy" to describe the way how to organize and carry out teaching and learning situations. At least, it involves consideration of the following factors:
• Technical or instructional method
• Events of instruction (activities)
• Organization of groups
• Control of the instructional sequence
• Organization of the environment
• Organization of time

EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION

Events of instruction is called a series of previously planned activities to motivate students and facilitate the achievement of the learning objectives. They often constitute the cornerstone of the "Plan of class"

ORGANIZATION OF GROUPS

In general terms it is considered that the grouping of students for purposes of instruction, can take three different forms:
1. large group
2. small group
3. individual
Small group, in which occurs the maximum possible interaction between all its members, allowing the intervention of each of them is called. Estimated ideally which, according to research carried out in this respect, a group with those characteristics not normally exceed twelve members (Davies).
He is called a large group, that in which it is no longer possible interaction that involves the participation of each one of its members without exception.
In terms of the individual form, it occurs when student interaction is set with a tutor or instruction material. Generalizations from research results suggest that:
• Cognitive and affective objectives of low level, large groups are not inferior to small groups.
• For the achievement of high level cognitive and affective objectives, it is optimum organization of small groups of five to seven students.
• If level cognitive and affective objectives only pursue more high, (evaluation and characterization), the one-on-one (one to one) is higher than the small groups
It may be noted that in the case of objectives at low level, the Organization of groups can decide according to administrative convenience since significant differences of learning does not occur by the use of one form or another.
Most likely there is no ideal way of grouping for all learning situations, since they usually have different types of goals combined in the same situation.

THE INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE CONTROL

At this stage of the selection of the strategy must be defined or who will exercise control of the instructional sequence.
This control can be focused basically on:
• The instructor
• Instructional materials
• The student
In the first case, the instructor directly regulates the instructional sequence, as in a class type Conference.
When the materials are delivered to students and contain sufficient instructions to guide the learning experience, such as with a programmed text, we are in the second case.
The student is in the center of the sequence control, when one organized by if same steps of instruction, as in learning by Discovery.

ORGANIZATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

Organization of the environment tends to be dismissed in the instructional planning, despite its decisive influence on learning. The aspects to consider in this case are:
• Physical plant (dimensions of the room, workshops and laboratories, free indoor and outdoor areas)
• Visual environment (distance, angle of vision, colour and lighting)
• Acoustic environment (effects and reducing noise, music or background noise, directionality of sound)
• Climatic environment (temperature, humidity, and ventilation)
• Distribution of furniture

ORGANIZATION OF TIME

The traditional distribution of instructional time in "hours of classes" is just one of the ways as school hours can be arranged. Taking into account the other aspects of the selection of strategies and instructional design, you should determine whether to use other forms of organization of the time. Among them:
• Schedule divided into regular periods of shorter duration than the time, for example one hour divided into three 20-minute periods
• Schedule structured by the student according to the pace of their learning
• Schedule with certain fixed periods and other structured by the student
The selection of strategies and other aspects of the instructional design:
Currently, it is not difficult to be aware of the interrelationships between the instructional strategy and the other elements of the design of instruction. As an exercise, it would be convenient at this time place the list of design steps ahead and think about how you affect the steps leading to the selection of strategies and vice versa, as this affects the previous steps and subsequent.
In this case, if we had to choose the two minimum criteria more important and inescapable that must be taken into consideration in each step of the selection of strategies, they would be:
• The objectives that you want to achieve
• The characteristics of the students
Finally, it would also be desirable to take into account the efficiency with respect to time, facilities and equipment available or commercially available. For example if the group size is not important to the purpose and characteristics of the students involved, it might be more efficient to do a presentation to a large group, saving time for use in other circumstances a tutoring job wherever it best suited.

ITEM 03

Fundamentals of communication | Definition

Communication is a value that helps us that I share as the most effective possible our thoughts, ideas and feelings with people around us, always and when there is an atmosphere full of cordiality which look for the personal enrichment of the parties involved (emitter, which is who gives the message and recipient that is who captures the message).
Some people have great and pleasant conversation but do not have the same ability to communicate effectively, transmitting in the majority of cases transmit expertise, experiences, information and some experiences that have had, but with the exception of not offering any chance to other people to express themselves or to share their own points of view; Although this is not entirely bad, but we must be alert and we must not fall into excesses.
You have to make it very clear that the Act of communicating does not just tell, express or emit some messages (this work made it the media), what is being sought is to engage in dialogue with others, having the opportunity to know their way of acting and thinking, their character, their tastes and preferences and some major needs in a few words we learn of their experience knowing them through the development of our ability to understand.
To achieve a better communication need to stop sitting some features that not everyone know:
• You should listen to the person with care,
• Do not be should monopolize the word,
• Do not to discontinue,
• Use a mild language.

KEY ELEMENTS FOR
ACHIEVE A BETTER COMMUNICATION

• Demonstrate interest in the person who communicates the message. Our total attention should be reserved for all people. Anyone who comes close to us can be considered that he has something important to say, can try to express ourselves to an idea, a feeling or concerns; you could also ask some advice or any help.
• Be aware and know to ask the sender of the message. Some people make efforts to express things clearly but these ideas are not always taken in the sense more correct, and is thus how after an argument or conflict will reach consensus to be talking about the same thing in different terms. As one of the various causes can review the lack of knowledge or little coexistence with people, being distracted, exhausted or tired. We must not get us with questions, we need to clarify what does not seem to us right, if one of the parties is wrong to avoid the conflicts that in addition to being uncomfortable turn out to be useless that they leave only guilt and resentment.
• We must learn to give up. Stubborn people who have some kind of experience or having the best opinions or knowledge; they are predisposed to convince others, and force if necessary, that many of them feel identified with his own way of looking, thinking and acting, this brings as consequence that subtracts value judgements and opinions of others. Nor is it strange that are born feelings of dissatisfaction and criticism and they will be people engaged in constant conflicts, the last people that no one will want to try.
Through effective communication are achieved to strengthen interpersonal relations.
• Demonstrate sincerity. We must express in the best way all what we feel and think. Little justifiable is shut to keep from hurting someone close or important by the simple desire to achieve and to ensure the welfare of others. It is very important to offer to the other good advice that otherwise may continue to commit the same mistakes and not accomplish some important goal.
In addition to these elements, it is necessary to point out some others that help us to effective communication:
• Understand the feelings of others as if they were their own. We must avoid criticism them, ridicule, or inappropriate comments regarding it is expressing. Any aspect can be corrected if necessary.
• Analyze every gesture or movement, try to pay attention to the intonation with which will say things, because there are people who do too much depth to the talk. First interrogates the way more subtle then becomes clear to avoid form wrong judgments.
• Observe the State of mind of the person. To avoid these misunderstandings also must understand that all we express ourselves in different ways when we feel we are animated or sad. They should know what they should say to choose the best way of acting.
• Include topics of interest in the talks. Some topics are used to form criteria or better yet we can serve to help improve other people. Talks trivial in most cases get bored or tired.
• Demonstrate courtesy. If it has no time to properly serve persons, agreed between them any other time where chat agreeably. Do not show hurry to finish, it is rude and very impolite.
Decide live in perfect harmony and chart a new course, get a better communication with those around him.

COMMUNICATION IN THE COMPANY

The communication process acquired greater importance and relevance thanks to globalization and the great mass of people who today are part of the world of business processes.
When you know how to express ourselves well, we have a fundamental tool for our performance, which involves having the power to transmit effectively new concepts and ideas.
When there is a lack of incentives and lack of clear and precise objectives is causes a loss of authority of employers; arises also insecurity and frustration in employees, and as a result, things are done poorly, fail to organizational objectives and produced results that did not want.
Essential human capital lies in information and not just job security. So that this information can be transmitted in a satisfactory manner, it is useful to avail themselves of the good humor, some gestures and interaction with the public. It must also take into account the management of time and worry about truth in the message reaches as clear as possible.
Our primary goal will be to make things done without the best way without any misunderstandings or unforeseen.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION

• Vertical communication: when given pattern to their employees is called a downward vertical communication. When is of the an employee towards your employer receives the name of ascending vertical communication.
• Horizontal communication: occurs between the same hierarchy of staff (among employers, or between employees).

THE COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS
WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS

• For non-organic activities, it engages in informal communication.
• To activate or to publicize policies and/or programs.
• To motivate employees, as the case may be, to implement the standard or program.
• To carry out the goals of the entire Organization (set of actions).
• To provide and transmit any information.
• To control and feedback schemes.

FORMAL COMMUNICATION

When we relate to communication with the Organization, said that a formal communication has been established. To run the Organization drafted the so-called formal filters and channels (these depend on some specific types of communication that exist within any organization).
• Verbal communication (short length) - formal filters. The formal filter in this case would be for example when an employee wishes to talk to his boss, in the first instance is targeting its Administrative Secretary or personal assistant.
• Written communication: this can be through:
or completion of letters and memoranda. These are used to transmit information in brief and condensed form, clarifying who or who are the transmitters and who or who are the recipients of such information. They circulate internally. They are generally used to send messages between two different areas or departments in a large organization.
Letters, are used to establish relationships between the Organization and any external environment, i.e., that its use is extended to the border of the same.
or preparation of reports and records. The reports contain information preset and standardized, while the minutes are transcribed in between managers in meetings or tips. Are they usually signed at the end of the same by the participants.
or completion of manuals. In order to establish within the Organization policies and procedures in certain situations, proving to be very useful when you are entering new staff to the ranks of the organization.
or completion of records. It is a type of document which is adding information about various topics that are linked together. The different views is issued a report so thus the final decision you can make.

INTERRELATION STRUCTURE - COMMUNICATION

• Formal channels of communication. Communication becomes less fluid when there are many levels.
• The authority structure. Barriers occur when they are established relationships between two persons of different hierarchical levels.
• Specialization of labour. It is the fundamental cause of the emergence of a kind of different language between different areas of the organization.
• Ownership of the information. Employees of areas considered by the Organization as vital or confidential information is handled will feel more "important" than others.

INFORMAL COMMUNICATION.

This type of communication occurs with people within the Organization, but they also have a casual relationship outside it.

DIMENSIONS OF COMMUNICATION

Related to those involved in the communication process, the communication could be:
• Intrapersonal: It gives the same person inside. The Organization cares since it comes to relate the knowledge that each person with his acting work.
• Interpersonal: Occurs between two people of the same or of another level of hierarchy.
• Staff - Group (or vice versa): occurs first at one and then at the group.
• Intergroup: Occurs between two groups in the same or different hierarchy.

BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION

They are regarded as barriers or obstacles to communication the following processes:
• Short: It occurs when skip some important detail within the structure of the message.
• Deformation: It is considered to be a semantic problem, i.e. that is related directly with the language and its different frames of reference: way of thinking, of acting, parenting, among others.
• Lack of acceptance: the lack of acceptance by the recipient of the message could be attributed to the lack of clarity of the same.
• Filtration: Occurs when the information is handled according to the intentions of the sender. It usually occurs in the ascending verbal communication.
• Synchronization: There should be coordination and correspondence between the time and the information that is broadcast or performed.
• Overload: If there is any exception principle, it must communicate what is malfunctioning.

ITEM 04

Management | Definition

Management is a position held by the director of a company which has within its multiple functions, represent the company against third parties and coordinate all the resources through the process of planning, organization, direction and control in order to achieve objectives. From there, in many cases management serves different functions because the person who plays the role of manage has to navigate such as Manager, supervisor, delegator, etc. Hence the difficulty in establishing a concrete definition of that term.

TYPES OF MANAGEMENT

In the management there are four types which are:

Patrimonial management

This type of management is on the property, the main posts of formulation of principles for action and a significant proportion of other senior positions in the hierarchy are retained by members of an extended family.

Political management

Political management is less common and like the heritage Directorate, their chances of survival are weak in modern industrializantes societies, she exists when property in key senior positions and the key administrative posts are allocated on the basis. affiliation and political loyalties.

Management by objectives

Management by objectives is defined as the end point (or goal) to which the management directed their efforts. The establishment of an objective is indeed, the determination of a purpose, and when applied to a corporate organization, becomes in the establishment of the reason for its existence.

THE NEED FOR MANAGEMENT

A company always gives the need for good management and for this us is necessary the development of two types of key questions such as what and when management is necessary?
The answer to this question defines, in part, an aspect of the nature of management: management is responsible for the success or failure of a business. The assertion that management is responsible for the success or failure of a business tells us why we need a management, but does not tell us when it is required.
Whenever some individuals forming a group, which, by definition, consists of more than one person, and such group has a goal, it is necessary for the group to work together in order to achieve this objective.
The members of the group must be subordinate, to some extent, your individual wishes to achieve the Group's goals, and management must provide leadership, direction and coordination of efforts for the action of the group.
In this way, the question is when answered to establish that management is required whenever there is a group of individuals with certain objectives.

MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

When we studied management as an academic discipline, is necessary to consider it as a process. When management is seen as a process, it can be analyzed and described in terms of several basic functions. However, some caution is required. To discuss the management process is convenient and even necessary, to describe and study each function of the process separately. As a result, it would appear that the management process is a series of separate functions, each of them tightly fitted in a compartment apart. This is not so though the process, so that it can be understood, must be subdivided, and each part component discussed separately. In practice, a manager can (and indeed frequently does) run simultaneously, or at least in an ongoing basis, some or all of the following four functions: planning, organization, direction and control.
Planning: When management is seen as a process, planning is the first function that executes. Once the objectives have been determined, the means to achieve these objectives are presented as plans. The plans of an organization determines its course and provide a basis for estimating the degree of likely success in the fulfilment of its objectives. The plans are prepared for activities that require little time, years sometimes, to complete, as well as they are also necessary for short-term projects. Example of long-range plans we can find them in product development programs and financial projections of a company. At the other end of the timeline, a supervisor of production plans to the performance of their work unit for a day or a week of work. These examples represent extremes in the extension of time covered by the planning process, and each of them is necessary to achieve the objectives fixed by the company.
Organization: to be able to implement and execute the plans, once they have been prepared, it is necessary to create an organization. The management function is to determine the type of organization required to pursue the realization of the plans that were issued. The kind of organization that has been established, determines, in good measure, which plans are appropriate and fully appropriate. At the same time a company's objectives and the respective plans that allow their realization, exert a direct influence on the characteristics and structure of the organization. A company whose goals is to provide shelter and food to the traveling public, needs a completely different organization of a firm which aims to transport natural gas through a pipeline.
Address: This third management function involves the concepts of motivation, leadership, guidance, stimulation and performance. While each of these terms has a different connotation, all of them clearly indicate that this managerial function has to do with the human factors of an organization. It is the result of the efforts of every Member of an organization that it manages to fulfill its purposes that lead the Organization so that they achieve their objectives in the most optimal manner, it is a fundamental function of the managerial process.
Control: The last stage of the management process is the control function. Its purpose, instant is measured, qualitatively and quantitatively, the execution in relation to the patterns of action and, as a result of this comparison, determine if it is necessary to take corrective action or remedy that you route the implementation in line with lar established norms. Control function is exercised continuously, and related to the functions of organization and management, is more closely associated with the function of planning.
The corrective action of the control results, almost invariably, a rethinking of plans; This is why many scholars of the managerial process considered both functions as part of a continuous cycle of planeamiento-control - planning.

OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT

Naming some of the objectives of the management we have the following:
1 position in the market
2. innovation
3. productivity
4. physical and financial resources.
5 profitability (income from benefits)
6 performance and management development
7 performance and attitude of the worker
8. social responsibility

MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES

The targeting, the use of these in the management process and the measurement of performance, both individual and the Organization as a whole, compared to these objectives are known as management by objectives (GPO). The GPO also implies that the objectives are set jointly or jointly by superiors and subordinates and that the performance of subordinates are appreciated or measured in terms of the degree of compliance or achievement of such objectives.
To understand the fundamentals of the GPO, it is necessary to define a target and highlight its importance in a precise and concise.
Definition: Manage a company without predetermined targets is so frustrating and pointless how to navigate a ship without destination. For management there is no direction for their efforts or effective coordination of resources, nor can either have the necessary direction and effective coordination so that you don't have with a goal or purpose set. Thus, a target can be defined as the end point (or goal) to which the management directed their efforts. The establishment of an objective is, in fact, the determination of a purpose, and when applied to a corporate organization, becomes in the establishment of the reason for its existence. To achieve the maximum effectiveness of its target-setting, an organization must determine them before the management of raising, organizing, directing and controlling process. Setting a target may require intensive research, but part of the planning process does not do this. The function of planning carried out jointly with the three managerial processes, with the purpose of achieving predetermined objectives.

TYPES OF LENSES

There is a unique or particular goal for a business organization. Some objectives are primarily of interest to individuals and organizations, and not part of the same organization. Other objectives are of particular interest to the Organization and it concerns them only to those who are members or owners of the firm. It is not, however question determine which goals are more important - the external or internal to the company - but, rather, how to achieve each set of objectives to the maximum degree.
External objectives: The national bus company, declares that it aims to have profit and, judging by the action taken, the implication is profit at all costs. However, a group of citizens rebelling to them requesting that you revoked the license or permit by which the national bus operated the company of transportation in El Paso. The application is made not because the group objects to the National Omnibus to get profit, but because it has neglected its primary function, which is to provide service appropriate to the users. Therefore, it would seem that on this occasion the service users is the main goal, and profit is a secondary or subsidiary objective. It must be admitted, by the way, that a passenger transportation company is a special case, since it's a public service.
Then the question of if, it is a firm whose activity is not providing a public service but produce items for public consumption, applies the same criteria; i.e., that the service (in this case the product which is put at your disposal) prevails over the goal of profit. Reply, we believe, is the same as in the case of a public service, although the problem may not be so actually defined. No commercial or industrial organization can exist unless a part of the public to acquire their services or products. Old fly swatter manufacturer serves as an example: from which it is producing a good fly swatter if anyone interested to buy it? The reader may, perhaps, what object this is a rather extreme example. Certainly, however, the same concept applies to the distribution of goods and services currently consumed, and thus demanded by the public. Being a product or service is not comparable, in term of price, quality and utility products and competitive services, it will be not checked in sufficient quantities to generate one sufficient benefit, allowing the company to stay in the market.
The desire for benefits and hope to share it encourages all the employees, particularly managers; but to create a benefit an organization must be well to their customers. Hence, the primary objective of any organization is a goal of service. The needs of the customer.
Other involvement that can be drawn from the case of the transport company of El Paso is the trade and industry are sanctioned by society in which exist and thrive. Indeed, in the case that concerns us, this is perfectly clear, since the city granted the concession to the company, and on the same road the city may revoke such permission when they fail to meet their obligations. In many types of businesses that are forbidden by law; for example, most countries or political subdivisions prohibit bancado or betting, play as well as they legislate to restrict the practice of business against the public interest, such as: the trusts and monopolies. Consequently, another objective of the business is a service controlled and sanctioned by society.
The objectives of an organization must be in accordance with the wishes of society, otherwise to that organization is not allowed to continue to operate.
Internal objectives: the two objectives, customer services and services to the community, with the company's external objectives. At the same time that these objectives are met, an organization needs to meet certain objectives which are of particular interest. These are internal objectives. The first one is the full position of the company in relation to its competitors; a company may want to be the most important, the most lucrative, the fastest-growing which produces the largest number of new products.
In the second place; There are objectives that relate to the staff of the firm. As well as this may want to attract and retain the kind of employee with the best possible qualifications or, depending on the nature of the business and management objectives, you can search for staff with minimum qualifications. At the same time, groups of employees can get own sub-goals, such as the desire of certain levels of wages and fringe benefits.
A third group of objectives is aimed towards the satisfaction of shareholders, and are considered them internally as shareholders, as such, they are part of the company and not necessarily clients or representatives of the society that punishes it. These goals usually define the profit as a goal, so shareholders can receive dividend on his investment in the company. The non-profit is also necessary to provide funding that will allow the achievement of the objectives inmates early, the desired relative position of the company with respect to its competitors.
In short, we can classify the objectives of a firm in internal and external. The first are service objectives; commercial enterprises must, if they will have to stay in the market, provide a product or service acceptable to customers and punished by society. The internal objectives defined a firm position with regard to competitors, and designates targets specific for different employees, individually or collectively in group. There are also internal goals aimed to satisfy the shareholders or owners investors. Profit, vital nerve of a commercial organization acts as objective and as motivation, but it is not achievable or attainable unless that consumers and users needs are met adequately and that its objectives may be punished by society.

MANAGER

Person with full legal capacity, who runs a company commissioned by the entrepreneur and expense. That person is entrusted the work of care, monitor, control, plan, people who are under his command.

TYPES OF MANAGERS

The term Manager to refer someone who is responsible for carrying out the four basic activities of the Administration in the development of their relations has been used. A way to capture the complexity of Administration is to understand that managers can work at different levels of an organization and different ranges of activities within them. After analyzing the level and scope of different types of managers, I know you will also see that different types of management reinforce different capacities and roles.

LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT

First line managers

The people responsible for the work of others, who occupy the lowest level of an organization, called first line or first-level managers. First-line managers direct employees who are not managers. they do not supervise other managers. Some examples of first line manager would be Chief or supervisor of production of a manufacturing plant, the technical supervisor of a Research Department and a large office supervisor. Frequently; first-line managers receive the name of "supervisors". A school principal is also a manager of first level, as well as a manager of a major league baseball team.

Media managers

The term middle management includes multiple levels of an organization. Media managers direct the activities of managers of lower levels and, occasionally, operations employees. Overall responsibility for middle management is directing the activities that serve to implement the policies of their organization and balance the demands of their managers and the capabilities of their employers.

Senior management

Senior management is comprised of a comparatively small number of people and is responsible for managing the entire organization. These people are called executives. Set operations policies and direct interaction of the organization with its environment. Some typical high management fees are "CEO", "director" and "Deputy Director".

ITEM 05

Management based on values (GBV) | Definition

A management based on the value, is the most powerful tool that has a company to measure and identify the sources of his generation within the company, as it allows the connection between financial decisions and strategies of the company long-term. I could also be defined as a comprehensive process designed to improve the strategic and operational decisions made throughout the Organization, through the emphasis on corporate value inductors
The fundamental objective of any company is to satisfy their satkeholders (shareholders, employees, managers, customers, suppliers, allied strategic, etc.), therefore the creation of value has become an imperative in all organizations. The GBV is a total administrative process that requires connecting corporate objectives with the use of resources, the development strategy with performance measurement and compensation according to this, and finally, with the creation of value. For the vast majority of companies, this requires a dramatic change in organizational culture, which generates tensions inside the companies that adopt it and how to improve these internal problems is the commitment and support of managers and senior management. Change is initiated by the head of the Organization, without this support and commitment, there is a risk of failure in the implementation of the system.

The awareness in the generation of value

A company creates value only when it is capable of achieving investments which rent more than the cost of average capital invested in the company. The first step of the GBV is to consider maximizing value as the main financial objective for the company, the traditional accounting measures, they are not always good approximations to the generation of value. But adopting a thinking oriented to create value and identify the key elements leads to the company only until the middle of the road. Managers should establish processes that involve all employees on the need to create value.
Four main processes governing the adoption of the GBV: first, to develop strategies to maximize the value; Second, to translate the strategy into targets of short and long term that focus on the main inducers of value; third, develop action plans and budgets to the achievement of the targets of short- and medium-term; and fourthly, to introduce a system of measuring results and schemes of compensation in order to monitor and encourage employees to meet their stated goals. These four processes must be connected at the corporate, business unit and functional levels. It is clear that the strategies and operating results should be consistent along the length and breadth of organizations to create value will be fulfilled.

How to evaluate the current state of the GBV in the Organization?

There are six features that measure the current status of the GBV in the organizations, even without starting to implement it, these are:
Performance: to see this feature should be measured, through benchmarking, if the overall performance of the company is improving or not.
Mentality: it should be noted, objectively, how decisions are made, based on which parameters (operating, financial, for short or long term, etc.)
Understanding and commitment: it evaluates what both commitment exists at all levels of the company, with the well-being of the organization. In addition, how much understands the management the operational part, to see if you can identify more later value inductors.
Communication: should assess whether the plans and strategies, in particular level, are known throughout the Organization, Furthermore, if the possibility of generating ideas that may favour the results to another level.
Motivation: you should analyze whether laid plans for compensation and the objectives and goals, motivate staff to achieve higher productivity and better results, both operational and administrative.
Cost: you have to assess whether the implementation of the system can result in high costs, which goes on the GBV contravia, since this should be a process of low-cost, that will benefit the organization.
These conditions should be evaluated before making the decision to engage in the GBV, knowing where you are, can operationalize the system more easily.
A true GBV requires a change of mentality to decision-makers at all levels, is a long and complex process that usually takes two years to be implemented. During the first year, the staff is trained so that you learn to use your tools, especially value inductors. The second year their knowledge become solids and, when there is trust that really works at all levels, one can speak of a compensation scheme based on the generation of value.

Keys to a successful implementation

Operacionalizar successfully the GBV has four key steps:
• Hire the best available human resources
• Delegate decision-making to those with the best knowledge to take them
• Use indicators of value to ensure the decision-making power to good use
• Align the incentives of executives through variable compensation plans

ITEM 06

Identification of the stage of development of the organizations | Definition

1. "New business"

"Start" a new organization, either as independent capitalist, or a new Department or section within an existing enterprise.
1. What is the Mission of the new organization? How is it, that he will do, that feeling will be?
2 How can this mission become action?
3. that resources are needed? Where you will leave the premises, equipment, money and people?
How 4 can we introduce into the market and start trading with the world?

2nd. "The pioneer organization"

Small with a leader or initiator group dynamic, pioneer
1. We remain small or we extend?
Would 2 if we expand, that new systems are required to adapt to one more business?
3. How does integrate new people?
Do 4. how work altogether initiators and newcomers?
5. succession. Who can replace the leader of the initiators? Do I need a new style of leadership?

3. "THE ORGANIZATION IN EXPANSION"

The company or independent section becomes greater and more complete
Doubts about the pioneers. There are questions about competition and complaints of authoritarianism. Times are changing and our way of doing things before already is not appropriate
1. new systems needed to place and order in today's creative chaos?
2 how you can use scientific methods of organization, ensure standardization, consistency and control?
3 functions of specialists should be set, for example, sales, management, personal research?

4. "THE ORGANIZATION ESTABLISHED"

that it has been formalized by some time, written procedures, and a logical, scientific, mathematical method applied to most aspects of its operation.
Can we treat the problems of rigidity and inflexibility, the paperwork and bureaucracy that have been created?
1. because there is so much apathy and low motivation in the environment?
2. that can be about the rivalry and competition among departments and functions; that would have to be used for the production, sales, and compete with the market? as we can decentralize and differentiate autonomy - to give more autonomy

5. "THE DESERT ORGANIZATION"

Which has lost its direction and has lost contact with the outside world. This is most likely the greater the age and size, especially in the case of bureaucracies.
How can we change our relationship with our buyers and customers?
1. would have to have new clients?
2 can we decentralize and differentiated to meet the needs of the buyer?
How 3 can change our unhealthy view of the outside world, including our customers, the community and the environment?
Should 4. what be our new moral purpose?
5 that it would create a healthy relationship, is to say, one of mutually advantageous collaboration with other plaintiffs including Government, customers, the community?

6th "Dying organization"

That has failed or broken, or whose initial mission has ended and cannot / should not continue.
Can anything be done to change the failure?. Can be rescue the Organization through fusion, surgery, sale of dividends or other means, to create a new life, a new vision and start again?
1. you would have to do something to change the process of death, or is natural and indeed desirable?
2. which can do to finish well? How can is do that at the end it is so painless and positive as possible?
3 are moral obligations towards the concerned - employees, customers, shareholders and community?
4. that new seeds may arise from the old organization?
In the early stages, when you first start a new business, people with imagination and dedication, that does not matter you work all hours and this is needed to see the rewards in the future. People with inventativa who can engage in anything that is present and respond quickly and flexibly in these early stages.
However, after a while, needs some kind of order. This means that quite different specialists who can divide the work, and establish controls and rigorous standards in the areas of work required people with qualities. However, again, after a while, things start to go wrong. The established organization needs people who can infuse energy to structures that have become rigid and artitricas due to the demarcation, division of work specialization and the bureaucracy. Now is looking for people who can work more beyond their limits, which have "Gift of people" and they are good coaches and negotiators.
In the desert organization, looking inward has become the biggest problem and it urgently needs people who can look out and work within the community to change the relationship between the Organization and the outside world. And in last stages of this need for people who may be carrying new initiatives is made even more urgent. Janitors and security guards are the key figures

WHAT IS PRODUCTIVITY?

Above all, productivity is a mental attitude. It is awareness of progress. The constant improvement of what exists. It is the security of being able to make today better than yesterday and tomorrow better than today. It is the willingness to improve the present situation, no matter how well that seems to be and no matter how good that can actually be. It is the constant adaptation of the economic and social life to changing conditions; It is the ongoing effort to implement new techniques and new methods.
It is faith in human progress.

ITEM 07

Emotional intelligence | Definition

Emotional intelligence is a way of interacting with the world that has kept in mind the feelings and includes skills such as the control of impulses, awareness, motivation, enthusiasm, perseverance, empathy, mental agility, etc. They are traits of character like self-discipline, compassion and altruism, which are essential for a good and creative social adaptation.
When we talk about emotional intelligence we could personally develop an exercise of reaffirmation and re - direction of Vision, mission and values personal, family members, professionals and citizens, through questions enable simulations and visualizations of the things philosophically influencing our lives, dreams and principles on which we base our action.
Currently the large and constant changes in all areas of our existence which is required to be prepared to deal with them, since these changes are larger, faster, more violent, much more traumatic, most linked to an environment of great uncertainty, a competitiveness that is had not before motivated globalisation imposed by all kinds of demands on organizations , causing risk to its personnel at times unaware of, our physical and emotional health, seeking development and talent as such, we could call it the subject key within organizations protagonists.
Recalling that we are first and foremost human beings, we have needs and goals, we accept them, or not rationally. One of the main needs is the empty staff of emotions, feelings and elements that must be filled, since this determines and organizes all the mental processes and addressed with motivation to achieve total behavior.

Evolution of the emotional intelligence

The history of human intelligence can be explained as the effort of the human brain to seek efficient ways to communicate with itself.
When the first human being traced the first line, precipitated a revolution in human consciousness; a revolution whose most recent stage of evolution is made up of the mind map.
Humans have realized that they were able to externalize its internal "mental images", the evolution was more rapid. With the first representations made by primitive indigenous Australians into the caverns, the initial strokes were gradually becoming paintings. As civilizations evolved, the images began to condense in symbols and, later, alphabets and scripts; This was the case with Egyptian hieroglyphics or Chinese characters. With the development of Western thought and the growing influence of the Roman Empire, completed the transition from the image to the letter. And subsequently, over two thousand years of evolution, the considerable power of the letter acquired scoop about the momentarily
strong image.
Thus, the first human beings who made marks were pointing, literally, a giant leap in the evolution of our intelligence, because they so exteriorizaban the first signs of our mental world. In doing so, they not only placed their thoughts in time and space, they also thought they trained so that it could cover those same dimensions. Then, human intelligence could already begin to communicate with itself through the endless extensions of time and space.
In its evolution, symbols, images, and codes completed by configure script, and principal progress was the key of the emergence and evolution of outstanding, such as the Mesopotamia and China civilizations, whose inhabitants enjoyed obvious advantages over those other peoples who were still coming to the stage of writing, and therefore did not have access to the wisdom and knowledge that bequeathed to us the great minds of the past.
As the waters of a wide river tend to accelerate when it is forced to run by a narrow channel, the tendency to gather information has been accelerating over the centuries, to give origin to the current "information explosion". In recent times, this "explosion" has been caused, in part, by the assumption that writing is the only vehicle suitable for learning, analysis and the dissemination of information.
If writing effectively is the best way to take ownership of such information, analyze it and transmit it, why are so many people that have problems in the fields of learning, thinking, creativity and memory? Why do they complain of a basic disability, loss of confidence in themselves, of declining interest and reduction of their powers of concentration, memory and thought?
Common reactions to such problems include self-denigration, the decrease in performance, apathy and acceptance of rigid and dogmatic rules, all factors hindering even more the natural functioning of the brain.
We have become the word, prayer, the logic and the number the fundamental pillars of our civilization, with which we are forcing the brain to avail themselves of modes of expression which limit it, but that (such is what we suppose) are the correct ones.
Big brains effectively used a higher proportion of its natural ability and that (unlike his contemporaries who used a more linear thought) they were beginning to become intuitively the principles radiant thinking and mental mapping.

Emotional intelligence at work

The author of emotional/Daniel Goleman (1999) intelligence, (cited by Fernando Sanchez 2000) determines the intellectual conditions
Determines that the intellectual conditions are not the only guarantee of success in the professional field of work, but only a factor, that coupled with the emotional needs covered staff as a team, develop the performance and results of every leader and worker emotionally motivating them to be productive (p.33).
Once a person enters an organization so that it may give their best, do well their work, that not only his talent but will also do so with enthusiasm and commitment is necessary. First having its working equipment and who know what they have to do. Second, who knows how to do it. Third party who feel that what he is doing has a significant value, he's contributing and recognition you so emotionally.
We'll talk then the 5 powers for the management of business in 2000. "Let us think of people and begin to think about talent. We nourish their minds and souls", Rosabeth Moss Kanter, who in the ASTD International Conference, became the center of attention by ensuring, in its Conference, required five powers, which are associated with our fingers to be able to successfully face a changing society recommends.
Professionals in the consulting and training, gathered at the ASTD International Conference, to tell what the last year important global learning event and performance, celebrating the year in Atlanta, Georgia, United States, shared a lot of experiences and ideas along valuable conferences and workshops. We believe it is important to share with you part of that discussion for its validity and relevance.
The presence of Rosabeth Moss kanter, a professor at Harvard University, writer of several bestsellers, named one of the 10 most influential of the United States women and listed by the Times of London as one of the 50 most successful in the world women, noted for being one of the most energizadoras speakers. She says five powers are required to successfully deal with a changing society and a demanding market of buyers, where from purchasing food, through medical, financial, domestic, up to the purchase of information, the market really moves where are the best options regardless of where you are the supplier, given the shortening of distances by the incorporation of connection technologies such as Iridium and Internet.

1. the power of the voice:

Very good that it is an idea, a concept, a method, a theory, this has no life if it is not articulated. The best thoughts may die from not be shared. Moss Kanter says that learning, most organizations need most is education organizations, where the voice of those who know more or are prepared translates into the vehicle to empower more and more people in the key competencies of the business. As this power, highlights the ability to speak several languages and talk actively and productively.

2. the power of the imagination:

Companies and persons who handled successfully the next century will be those in his act, generate consistent behavior with the imagination that, as human beings, we are able to develop and use to believe in the impossible, view them, designing them, create them and put them into practice in our reality. People who see a present and future different, faster, more effective, more profitable and more enjoyable, with your imagination will be which will be when the actions of leadership in the new millennium.

3.-the power of retribution:

The last power has to do with the emerging topic of existential or spiritual intelligence and its influence on the world of work. Moss Kanter says that increasingly, companies are carrying out social actions of retribution to the communities with which they interact. The reason is that the staff develop a sense of connection with people that lifts the spirit and motivation, increasing identification with the firm and overall productivity. Presented as an example of IBM contributions to the education of several Latino and Asian countries, and another company from its list of clients that I think the Global day of service, in which all offices and employees of this company in the world performed a social work anonymously and no advertising, just looking for the personal satisfaction of each of them.

4.-the power of commitment:

A clearly opposite to that of his colleague at MIT, Lester Thurow, in regard to the commitment of the workers, Rosabeth Moss Kanter said that loyalty still exists and that they are a competitive advantage for people and companies that possess it. What he emphasized clearly was that for having committed people is required to comply with certain conditions that awaken the power of human talent: the work, the identity property to the company and its projects, the autonomy of action, the freedom to share ideas and make changes, as well as the possibility of allowing employee to take ownership of the process.

5.-the power of the Association:

Increasingly arise in greater quantity and speed the alliances between people, between companies, between people and business, between countries, between entities of different types. They do this by looking for leverage and enhance their differences, take advantage of creativity of one and other, the talent of one and the action of other capital, contacts one and force another. Alliances, even if not always successful allow us to move forward effectively in markets and societies in the current crisis. The power of the Association is the power to create, develop and maintain partnerships that enable to obtain results in a more effective and productive way.
Today, in a Venezuela like ours, we believe that developing and using these powers can make a big difference in our relationships, personal, family, labor and neighborhood, as well as create a remarkable impact in key indicators of our business in the new millennium.
Once the Organization has clear needs and achieved compatibility with the needs of its employees, both the Organization, as the people benefit. But then there are certain mechanisms that has all organization, which precisely are "skills of a Manager", because ultimately people are managed by other people. Then the Manager has to have certain abilities that allow them to influence the conduct of another s. And when I say to influence the behavior of others what I mean? We as a person have certain needs and preferences, and I as a manager should be able to d understand that and recognize the efforts and results of others and thus feel more at ease with me. I can be very competent, but if I do not give importance to people working to my around, do not recognise you their efforts, or if you want would like to inform you that I hope to do a good job, and I'm going to help in that work, I that I am generating in others are negative expectations and these are going to feel very uncomfortable they feel that they can not do so and whenever they interact with me as a supervisor will feel very bad.

Emotional competencies

The same Goleman and other authors define the success of managers leaders and workers in people's high level of performance, skills, technical and emotional skills well developed reaching capacity give feelings each time they become more competitive and needed in the family, management and society.
Emotional competencies to more recurred as decisive in the success of the leaders and their companies were classified into four categories, counting with several competitions each one to present, the 20 keys emotional competencies, which we will mention and comment below:
Self-awareness: The ability to recognize and understand the emotional States, feelings, traits, as well as its effect on others. The skills that are measured and developed in this category are: self-confidence, the ability to arouse emotional States happy and full of good humor.
Self-regulation: The ability to control and redirect impulses and negative emotional States, coupled with the ability to suspend judgments and think before acting. The skills that are measured and developed in this category are: Auto-control, reliability, awareness, adaptability, initiative and results-oriented.
Empathy: The abilities to feel and feel the needs of others and of the Organization itself, coupled with the opening to serve and meet the concerns of those around him. In this category are measured and developed: empathy, organizational awareness and service-orientation.
Socialization: It includes the domain of strategies and forms related to emotional and indeed others, creating networks of relationships, building effective, open and pleasant climates in their conversations. The competencies in this category are: development of person, leadership, influence, communication, change management, management of conflicts, building networks and team cooperation.

7 Ss of the competitive and happy person

1. healthy: Take care of your health, is exercised and fed properly to provide the energy required in their intellectual, emotional, and physical work. Performs a frequent medical check-up to prevent and address any potential condition. It is full of vitality and contagious energy.
2 Sereno: Management emotional responses generated by their feelings and States of mood, is firm when it has to be it, but employs auto - control, patience and tact in his act. Prevents your cerebellar tonsil causing outbursts of anger that affect their relationships. Enjoy the tranquility and mastered techniques of auto - relaxation.
3 honest: It acts in their conversations and actions based on ethics, honesty and justice. It is open to express their points of view, using his truth assertive and respectfully, with frankness and firmness, but with consideration.
4 simple: Handled in their personal and professional relationships with humility and simplicity, he doesn't know his value and his accomplishments, but recognizes that it can learn from every human being and that its successes is them due to other people. It avoids the pomp and excessive luxuries, as he knows to give the right value to the material, within a climate of abundance and prosperity.
5. Simpatico: Is courteous, friendly, educated in his talk, avoids the communicational vices of cynicism, sarcasm, ridicule, humiliation, discrimination and generalization trials no sustaining. Seeks to be assertive, but considerate and respectful climate of their conversations, flowing with good humor, joy and enjoyment in their human interaction.
6 nice: It uses the power of retribution and the service to arrive within the needs of others, taking charge of the concerns of those around him in his family, work and neighborly. He knows that through the service achieves a lifting spiritual that benefits you in other areas of your life, so go to the service as something honorable and valuable for your life and that of others.
7 synergic: It cooperates and creates a climate of cooperation and mutual support in their teams, both within the family, the Guild or the company. He is handled if same as a key part of a team and not as an essential part. This makes you aware of the importance of coordination, support, the humility to learn, common vision, creativity and freedom to generate impeccable in actions that take the different teams to which it belongs.
The competitiveness of a person, depends on its balance - linguistic, emotional and intellectual body, so that the development of these 7 s can help raise levels of perfection in our daily processes, helping us to live the life we deserve and we want to.
We hope we serve to inspire the continuation or initiation of ways of improvement and transformation. No matter how old and experts we are, no matter how well trained academically feel, there is always a way to improve, to re - evaluate, to re - launch, to re - direct our life's mission and our values within our family, our profession and our society.

Technical skills cognitive and emotional

It is notorious and evident that within the environment, there is a high degree of emotional dissatisfaction caused by the results of our system, such dissatisfaction is present in the views expressed by different sectors of the community, through the media and interpersonal everyday conversations.
Dissatisfaction is aimed to the quality, quantity, environmental conditions, knowledge, procedures, capabilities and skills, techniques as used in art and science, through education, training and entertainment. According to the great philosophers Plato, Marco Fabio, Juan Amos and others determine the education as: _ "the object of education is to provide to the body and the soul all perfection and beauty that one and the other are susceptible". _ "Education aims the improvement and well-being of humanity". _ "The true and natural education leads to perfection, grace, and the fullness of human capabilities". These big brains were not mistaken when they wrote these great truths, that for that society to convey the emotional and cultural heritage to other society and the contents of a good cognitive education, ideas, feelings, traditions, customs, habits, techniques, we could define education as the sum total of processes through which a society or social group transmits its capabilities and powers by reorganizing and rebuilding the emotions to suit the individual tasks that play in the psychological, social, and potential process this process is to encompass the entire life of the man in its entirety, which is changing through a series of successive stages, childhood, adolescence, youth, maturity and old age.
This is how develops the physical, psychological and emotional system within the social, political and cultural, by is reason it is important to improve our skills, capabilities and willingness to run the tasks, functions, decision-making in the Agency, company or institution where we serve as transmitters of universal human values and recipient bodies with grace, love, patience and tolerance.
These values mean important qualitative changes within any society, people or nation, so in Venezuela must do that this society is oriented toward change and social transformation as a final product for the full development of the personality and the achievement of a healthy, educated man, critic and suitable to live and function in a democratic society fair and free based on the family as cell fundamental and the valorization of work, able to participate in active, aware and jointly and severally with the processes of social transformation, overtake on the values of national identity and with understanding, tolerance, coexistence and attitudes that promote the strengthening peace among Nations and ties of integration and solidarity

ITEM 08

The ISO and the Corporate Social responsibility (CSR) | Definition

What is the social responsibility of enterprises?

The social responsibility of the company, also known as corporate social responsibility is a term that refers to the set of obligations and commitments, legal and ethical, to both national and international, which are derived from impacts that the activity of organizations produce in the field social, labour, environmental and human rights. In the same way that half a century ago companies developed their activity without taking into account the marketing or that three decades ago and the quality was not part of the main orientations of business performance, today's enterprises are increasingly aware of the need to incorporate the social, labour, environmental concerns and human rights, as part of their business strategy.

Origin of Corporate Social responsibility or CSR (acronym in English)

Although the phrase "Corporate Social responsibility" was used in the 20th century, companies have employed initiatives that promoted the interests of the workers, the community and the environment, since the 18th century. For example, in 1790, a boycott of British consumers concerning the sugar produced by slaves from the Caribbean, the East India Company changed their practices and bought its sugar producers "without slavery" in Bengal. Another example could be built cities Quaker Lead Company of England in 1800; for their workers, schools and libraries, for families, and water pumps used to recycle the water as part of its industrial process.
Ootras industrial companies such as Cadbury and Rowntrees in the United Kingdom, Guinness in Ireland, and Hershey in the United States have introduced programmes with a strong social responsibility dimension in the 19th century.
In India, the Tata Steel industri has been subject to Corporate Social responsibility activities since its creation in 1909.
Several of these example "beyond law initiatives" of the corporate sector had their origins inside or was strongly influenced by religious values, and focused on ethical conduct which revolved around three main aspects:
• ethical treatment of clients and business relations: i.e. treatment honest and fair to do business; not because is required legally, but because it was the way of doing business;
• Philanthropy: the idea of creating businesspeople to share with the community some of their wealth;
• Administration and paternalism: especially with respect to the welfare of employees; the notion of paternalism incorporated the idea that in societies that were in privileged positions or abundance debian decisions favor employees and create activities for those who are less fortunate and be range.
However, these early examples somewhat resembling the concept appear modern corporate social responsibility have been the exception rather than the rule, no part of the concerted movement evident in itself and identifiable by corporations of being social responsible. The ideas associated with corporate social responsibility today reflect attitudes and experience in what became the developed industrial democracies.

The Social responsibility of enterprises

The great social responsibility of companies is kept active, profitable, competing and taking place in the market. When a company is profitable not only produces a return to their owners or shareholders, but that it also generates very desirable social consequences, such as:
• new employment through its expansion and investment opportunities;
• provision of goods and services valuable to society;
• appropriate economic tools that the State can tax and with the proceeds of those taxes keep employees public working, develop infrastructure, human capital, provide health, social security and other services necessary to enhance national development.
The company should not be recharged with responsibilities and obligations that really does not have. The company should require efficiency, production, profitability, competitiveness, quality and innovation so that it can satisfy its customers, its employees, its suppliers and its owners or shareholders, in a new local or global environment.
The closure of a company is not simply the problem of a businessman, generates a very important social loss in jobs, stability, credibility and trust.
Then, it could be said that the social responsibility of the company is maintained as a company. This responsibility is more and more complex as the world goes global.
Does this mean that the company does not have to take actions of social solidarity or projection towards the community? Not only means that it is not obliged to do so. If it does so, and is very plausible to do so, is by means of voluntary social initiatives, it is a very broad field where is the entire concept of philanthropy.
Faced with the reality of poverty in Latin America, no one can be against that required actions aimed to produce social welfare. But the question is: rests you with companies that responsibility and obligations that has rigged? And what would be the degree of participation of the company in that responsibility?
It seems obvious that can not ask a certain level of small and micro-enterprises which perform a function that is not typically business, also it seems generally accepted that should not expect the company to replace the State, in activities such as education, security and other policies, but with the reduction of the size of the State comes the expectation that companies assume some or many of these activities.
Faced with the reality that more than 85% of the companies in Latin America are small or medium-sized, it is obvious that the concept of social responsibility for these companies is clearly reduced to keep operating, producing and competing, thus generate employment and welfare. Also, it is obvious, that these companies, as well as large or multinational corporations, have and will be inescapable comply satisfactorily, responsible labour standards and thus will be fulfilling its social responsibility.
Are there additional elements to be taken into consideration within the social responsibility for large companies? The answer must take into consideration several aspects:
• before globalization as know it today, the triangle of State, capital and labor (work) operated within a given geographical area and subject to a certain limitation in the capital mobility resulting from barriers to investment and trade. It was easy for the State to prescribe what was considered socially appropriate or other provisions that had to be met by employers.
• That environment was also suitable for organizations of workers exercising pressure on employers to increase their participation or the benefits they received, or to put pressure on the Government in order to increase the employment benefits.
• Today, the States are more limited, because capital moves more easily than labour and is no longer confined to a limited geographic area. States have less force to demand by means of statutory regulations, what they see as a socially responsible conduct for companies. On the other hand, the bargaining power of unions has been considerably eroded. Currently, the attempt of a State to require, by law, that the companies meet certain social responsibilities to remaining competitive can be motivating the flight of capital towards less inhospitable places.
• In many countries, with the idea of attracting investment, Governments are falling levels of taxes and obligations to workers. This has generated that, setting aside voluntary actions of the companies, the society, through social groups or consumers, and in some cases, even through investors, are concentrated in put pressure on companies to respect and apply certain rules. When companies Act, under these pressures, usually they do this to be competitive or do not lose their competitiveness.
• The need to respect certain standards is increasingly recognized and accepted by the companies. However, in doing so, also recognize that in a globalized world and each time with greater communication, arise dilemmas and difficulties to identify the ethical standards to be adopted, because these depend on expectations, sometimes contradictory, between different systems of values, culture and beliefs of people in different parts of the world.
• The political, economic and social liberalization combined with the explosion in technology information (driving force behind also globalisation) have undermined the authority and faith in the institutions and traditional structures, such as Governments, political parties and institutions, religious, international, or educational, generating a real crisis of values. This situation is difficult to manage for businesses, especially for those operating in different countries and in different parts of the world, because we have to have some sensitivity to social groups because the success of the company depends on its adaptation to the environment in which it operates.
• Social groups of consumers or for the conservation of the environment, have started to become increasingly important, as they have taken the power lost by the other institutions. It is important that the company today learn how to listen carefully these groups, they are directing and influencing the thinking and attitudes of society. Physical problems can have a correct answer, but problems relating to rights or claims human, have a wide range of solutions and, in general, found that a mixture of several answers is most satisfactory.
• Another dilemma for companies is the behavior of the capital. The growth of capital markets in an environment with ease for the movement of the capital has produced strong pressure on companies that are forced to improve financially, using points of comparison or benchmarking. The result is that companies need to maximize its profits and performance for shareholders, without which capital flies. All this has led, for example, shrinkage (downsizing) mass of the companies, with its negative social impact.
• It is curious to observe that among investors has begun to demonstrate the preference for making investments in companies that meet or satisfy a certain number of rules of conduct considered to be "socially responsible". On the other hand, it is increasingly clear that a good corporate conduct should not necessarily affect financial results and, on the contrary, in many cases you can improve them.
• Finally, question is the company's culture influence the way in which this reacts to the pressures and dilemmas, especially when the company or corporation operating in different cultures and ethical values are running in different directions? Some corporate cultures are oriented from the inside and have a unified pattern of conduct that tends to adhere to its own rules, when it is confronted with different rules in different national locations. These are called imperialist companies (but not in the negative sense). Others adapt to the values of the host country and why call them companies Chameleon. Others adopt the values of its parent or its country headquarters, that is why they are known as nationalist corporations. An additional category are corporations that have multiple sources of values and these are called pragmatic corporations.
Some of the current trends indicate, in relation to the social responsibility of enterprises, which "itself the social responsibility in the broadest sense refers to relations which has the company with their stakeholders (stakeholders), from its shareholders, suppliers, customers, employees, the families of employees and to members of the community of which he is part." Within such an approach considered that the company must be very transparent and open Exchange, participation and almost to co-management with its employees and the community.
Actually, the previous position seems too ambitious and contains aspects that would be unacceptable or impossible to fulfill obligations to the vast majority of companies in Latin America.
Approaches like the previous force to think that only the aspects arising from legislative or regulatory provisions should be mandatory and enter inside the corporate social responsibility. Everything else should be in the context of the will of the companies.
To clarify the scope of social responsibility for large companies, it is worth examining what has been the evolution of the subject in the world and how pressures and stakeholders in influencing the conduct of those have moved.

Main guidelines that guide the implementation or development of reports or Corporate Social responsibility programs

In general, most of the guidelines are intended to govern labour relations and the environment, and take as basis the Universal Declaration of human rights, the fundamental principles of the right to work dictated by the International Labour Organization, the United Nations Convention on the rights of children, particularly with regard to child labour, and the principles of Rio on environment and development.
In organizations that develop the guidelines and participate in the development of the processes of implementation and standardization organizations without purposes of profits (NGO) dedicated to social and environmental tasks, guilds and unions of workers and employers, representatives of the business community participate all the partners of a company, i.e. both in the elaboration of the principles and , in some cases, government agencies.
At the same time, these institutions can be divided into two well differentiated groups: those that dictate basic and general principles concerning the correct behaviour of the companies in its relationship with society and the environment; and those who directly take these principles or complement them with others and develop appropriate procedures for its implementation and reporting of results in the companies.
Within the first group we find mainly two institutions:
1) global Compact: it is an initiative of the United Nations that began in 1999 and whose objective is to promote CSR by developing universal values.
It aims to expand the benefits of globalization and avoid the negative effects of the same through the dissemination and call to employers to meet and take nine principles related to human rights, labour and environmental rights.
The Global Compact is directed and anchored by the programmes of environment and development of the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the Office of the High Commissioner for human rights.
2) OECD Guidelines: is a corporate code of conduct was created in 1976 and revised in 2000.
The guidelines are an instrument that seeks to improve the relationship between business and society making it clear rights and responsibilities of multinational corporations.
The main objective of the OECD Guidelines is to establish voluntary policies that promote transparency businesswoman specifically on labour relations, management of the environment, bribery, competition, consumer interests and dissemination of science and technology.
The institutions that belong to the second group are as follows:
1) Global Reporting Initiative (GRI): is an organization created in 1997 on the initiative of Coalition Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES) and the United Nations Environment Programme.
Its mission is to improve the quality, rigor and usefulness of corporate sustainability reports so that they reach a level equivalent to the financial reports. The GRI published in 2000, after two years of consultations and research, the "2000 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines" is a manual that presents basic principles and specific content to guide the preparation of sustainability of high-quality reports.
Currently, 184 companies in the world are still guidelines posed by GRI for the realization of their sustainability reports.
2) AccountAbility 1000 (AA 1000): it is a product launched at the end of 1999 by the Institute of Social and Ethical Accountability.
Its mission is to improve and increase the social accounting and ethics, as well as audits and reports related to this aspect within the companies. The AA1000 describes a set of processes that an organization can follow to post, manage and communicate their social and ethical development, without specifying or specify which should be the development.
3) Social Accountability 8000 (SA 8000): was developed by "Social Accountability International" (SAI), which is a non-profit organization, founded in 1997 (United States) and dedicated to improving the working environment and avoid labour exploitation through the voluntary implementation of labor standards in companies, combined with independent checks and public reports.
SA8000 provides standards for certifying the performance of companies in nine areas: child labour, forced labour, health and safety, freedom of Association, discrimination, discipline, hours of work, compensation and management practices.
The certification process is based on ISO models, but is added new elements of auditing social as for example, interviewing workers, customers, suppliers and others.
Social Accountability also creates a network of virtuous companies, since it requires participating companies that they lean by providers who comply with the requirements of SA8000. It's so SA8000 becomes a certificate that ensures fair and decent working conditions in enterprises and their suppliers.

The international standards organization (ISO) and the Corporate Social responsibility (CSR)

The capacity of the ISO to undertake work in the area of Social responsibility?
One aspect discussed by members of the Consultative Group on Social responsibility ISO (AG; created in 2002 by the ISO technical management board) was the need to consider if the ISO should proceed with the development of standards in the field of corporate social responsibility.
A view held that if standards of Corporate Social responsibility become process driven by the ISO.
Standards would probably include policy objectives such as universal human rights and the International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions so that ISO could need some help from international organizations.
The rules would include details in the policy goals he has pursued each of foreign bodies of the Social responsibility. Therefore, the strength of the ISO has to ask international organizations, non-profit organizations and other public organizations to participate in processes of preparation of standards.
The availability of the necessary resources to support the participation of stakeholders (particularly in developing countries) that have no underlying commercial interest in the standardization of Corporate Social responsibility, and which may need finance to participate effectively.
Others felt that the ISO is set only to make this work; because other organizations such as the Organization of the United Nations (UN) and the Organization for cooperation and economic development (OECD) do not have the technical capacity of the ISO.
Should be ISO developed the Social accountability standards?
The ISO could engage other stakeholders, organizations and institutions to the process in a variety of ways.
Some members of the Advisory Group of the ISO in Social responsibility (AG) recommended that this be done through national standards bodies. Request national committees to ensure the representation of diverse groups in their national delegations.
Other members of the AG expressed concern in this approach because national standards bodies would not be necessarily able or unwilling to properly delegate and representative form.
Some members of the AG suggested that ISO work in partnership with intergovernmental organizations, the UN and other global bodies.
If the process and or the mechanism created by the ISO is conducted through contracts to other interested parties and organizations, it is necessary to distinguish between the participating processes and the representative. Participation in the representative decision making process; weight is assigned to the various interests and you OO and include them in the process.
Capacity of the ISO published rules of Social responsibility
Some members of the AG considered that ISO could create specific rules and other tools. Others expressed certain concerns by industry standards. A concern was that sector-especificos standards could restrict cross-sectoral initiatives. Another concern was that a company's business operations are not limited to a particular sector and do not often involve various products, production processes or services. Therefore, some companies would have difficulty handling standards sector-especificos.

ITEM 09

Leadership | Definition

The vision that his boss workers have in general is that ordering, send, decide, say what should be done, impose criteria, distributed work, control and supervise the tasks.
The concern of management and control should be focused on creating such an image, his subordinates to catalogaran it as one partner more, guiding, listening to its people, confidence builder; accepted naturally by the group, good communicator who support and help, transmitting security.
Command that is leading work to be accepted by his charisma and his service to a team buying help and guidance to meet preset targets that have been previously negotiated.
The leader is the backing of the team, which empowers people to make their concerns, initiatives and creativity to develop. Encourages responsibility, team spirit, personal development, and, especially, is the craftsman of the creation of a spirit of belonging that brings together partners to decide the measures to take.
Unfortunately the answer is no. There is a double insurmountable problem but must take into account. The first is cultural and can be solved with proper training, don't think managers who, with a seminar of 15 or 20 hours, your commands will become leaders, but like any study or career with method, system, training and time, people can learn and implement effectively the principles of leadership.
The second is attitude, a little bit more complicated but not impossible solution. Many seminars should contemplate the change of skills within its objectives, allowing people to meet, analyze the origin of your character, temperament and relationships, to take decisions for change to help a more harmonious, successful coexistence so, healthy personal and relationships.
There are natural leaders; people are looking for leaders that represent it, guidance and support; It is also possible to learn to do it. Would you you be recognized as a leader of your team? If your answer is Yes, I congratulate you. Start-up time is short and the survival of the Organization and his position is at stake.

DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP

Rallph M. Stogdill, in its overview of theories and research leadership, says that "there are almost as many definitions of leadership as people that have tried to define the concept. Here, means the management leadership as the process of directing the working activities of the members of a group and to influence them. This definition has four important implications.
Firstly, leadership involves other people; to employees or followers. The members of the Group; given his willingness to accept the orders of the leader, they help to define the position of the leader and allow to elapse the leadership process; but had to send, the qualities of leadership would be irrelevant.
Secondly, leadership implies an unequal distribution of power between the leaders and the members of the group. The members of the group are not without power; they can shape, and indeed do, to the activities of the group in different ways. However, as a general rule, the leader will have more power.
The third aspect of leadership is the ability to use different forms of power to influence the conduct of supporters, in different ways. In fact some leaders have influenced the soldiers so they killed and some leaders have influenced the employees to make personal sacrifices for the benefit of the company. The power to influence leads us to the fourth aspect of leadership.
The fourth aspect is a combination of the first three, but recognizes that leadership is a matter of values. James MC Gregor Burns argues that the leader to ignore moral components of leadership will go down in history as a villain or something worse. The moral leadership refers to the values and requires sufficient information about the alternatives that it is offered fans so that, when the time to respond to the proposal of the leadership of a leader, they can choose wisely.
It should be noted that although the leadership keeps a great relationship with the administrative activities and the first is very important for the second, the concept of leadership is not equal to the body. Warren Bennis, writing about the leadership, to effect of exaggerating the difference, said that most of the organizations are sobreadministradas and sublidereadas. A person may be an effective Manager (good Planner and administrator) fair and organized, but lacking the skills of the leader to motivate. Other people maybe effective leader - with the ability to unleash the enthusiasm and the return - but lacking administrative skills for channeling the energy unleashed in others. Faced with the challenges of the dynamic engagement in today's world of organizations, many of them are appreciating more managers who also has abilities of leaders.

IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP

1. it is important to be a boss ability to guide and direct.
2. an organization can have a proper planning, control and process of organization and do not survive to the lack of a proper leader.
3. it is vital for the survival of any business or organization.
4. on the other hand, many organizations with poor planning and bad organization and control techniques have survived due to the presence of a dynamic leadership.

LEADERSHIP TRENDS

As conditions and people change, they change leadership styles. Today people look for new types of leader to help you achieve your goals. Historically, there have been five ages of leadership (and we are currently in a period of transition to the sixth). They are:

1. age of the leadership of conquest.

During this period, the main threat was the conquest. The people sought the omnipotent boss; the despotic and dominant President who promised people to safety in Exchange for their loyalty and their taxes.

2. age of business leadership.

At the beginning of the industrial age, the security was no longer the function main leadership people started to look for those who could tell as raise their standard of living.

3. age of the leadership of the organization.

Living standards rose and were easier to achieve. People began to look for a place where "belonging". The measure of leadership became the ability to organize.

4. age of leadership and innovation.

To increase the rate of innovation, often products and methods became obsolete before the Planning Board. The leaders of the time were those who were extremely innovative and could handle the increased speed of obsolescence issues.

5. the leadership of the information age.

The three late middle ages have developed extremely fast (started in the Decade of the 20). It has become evident that no company can survive without leaders who understand or know how it manages information. The modern leader of information is that person better it processing, one that interprets it more intelligently and use it in the most modern and creative way.

6. leadership in the "new age".

The characteristics of leadership that we describe, have remained almost constant during all of the last century. But with greater honesty, can not predict what special skills will have need our leaders in the future. We can guess only probable. Leaders need to know how new technologies are used will have need to know how to think to be able to analyze and synthesize effectively the information they are receiving, despite the new technology, its dedication must follow focused on the individual. You know that leaders lead people, not things, numbers or projects. They must be able to supply that people want in order to motivate those who are managing. They will have that it develops your ability to listen to describe what the people want. And they will need to develop their capacity to plan, both short and long term, to maintain a margin of competition.

ITEM 10

Social skills | Definition

SKILL

It is the ability or talent that one learns and develops to practice or do something more and better.

SOCIAL

It means how we get along with others (friends, siblings, parents, teachers).
That is why, the social skills, refer to our ability to treat and cope with each other.
We all know that there are many ways to talk to people. When we learn social skills, we try to assimilate the best to do so.
We get along much better with people, and through them is likely to have good social skills:
• To better understand yourself and others,
• You will find new friends and you will know better to those who already have,
• You can have better relations with your family and you'll be more involved in decisions that they make,
You can have a better school performance,
• You take better with your teachers and classmates.
If on the other hand have few social skills:
• Do not be able be able to communicate your needs and feelings of others,
• You will be very difficult to make new friends and keep you already have,
• Tea really apart from the important and fun things that can happen to you,
• You will find only, you will lose your friends or get into trouble with them.

TYPES OF SOCIAL SKILLS:

There are different types of social skills:
Simple skills: Example: compliments, praise.
Complex skills: Example: assertiveness, empathy.
Other examples of social skills are:
Express complaints, refute unreasonable demands, communicate feelings, defend their rights, ask favors, request changes, resolve conflicts, relate to the opposite sex, dealing with children, dealing with adult...

ASSERTIVENESS

Some authors suggest the assertiveness as the defence of rights.
"The behavior that allows a person to act based on its most important interests, defend themselves without anxiety, comfortably express honest feelings or exercising personal rights, without denying the rights of others." (Alberty and Emmons 1978.)
Other authors take the assertiveness as the ability to express feelings.
"... Allows the person to express properly (without measuring cognitive distortions or anxiety and combining verbal and nonverbal components in the most effective manner possible) opposition (say no, express disagreement, and receiving criticism, defend rights and generally express negative feelings) and love (give and receive praise, positive feelings in general) according to their interests and objectives respecting the right of others, trying to achieve the goal." (Walter Riso 1988)
There are different definitions, taking into account that this is a multidimensional concept.
ASSERTIVENESS is thus:
"A personal skill which allows, at the right time, and as the most appropriate, express feelings, opinions and thoughts." Without denying or disregarding the rights of others "."
The ability to be assertive provides significant benefits:
It increases self-esteem
Gives you the satisfaction of doing things with sufficient capacity, to increase confidence and security in itself same.
It improves the social position, acceptance and respect for others
A recognition of the ability of himself is. Personal rights are secured.
Assertiveness is often also used to solve psychological problems and decrease social anxiety.
It makes the person not very aggressive or very passive
To learn assertiveness it is essential to be clear about the fact that both be extremely aggressive or very passive, it will do to much in achieving the goals you want.

BE ASSERTIVE

An assertive person is one who:
• It is expressive, spontaneous, and safe,
• It has an active personality,
• Defending their own rights,
• Do not present fears in their behavior,
• Has a direct communication, proper, open and frank,
Their behavior is respectable,
• Accepts its limitations,
• Communicates easily with all kinds of people.
Being assertive is knowing how to express it without anxiety, i.e. what your views and your interests, without denying those of others.
This does not mean wanting to always be the reason, but express our opinions and points of view, they are these correct or not, with the right to be wrong.
The person who is not assertive shows a lack of respect for their own needs, and it aims to placate, pacify and avoid conflicts. The reasons why people are little assertive, is that they think that they have no right to express their beliefs or opinions. In this sense, should teach that people has the right to defend their rights in situations that tend to be unfair.
The cases in which it is not advisable to defend our rights are reduced only to those in which we run risk of aggression to our physical integrity or situations that are on the fringes of legality.
For everything there is a moment, and learn to find the right time to say things is also a skill.

DIFFERENTIATION OF ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOR

Assertive behavior

It is the direct expression of desires, rights, feelings, and opinions without being threatening, punishing, or infringe the rights of others. All of this implies respect for yourself and respect for the rights and needs of other people. Evaluating the consequences resulting from the expression of these sentiments.

Passive behavior

You are not able to openly express feelings, thoughts, and opinions, and if they do it in a way so defeatist that others can ignore you, being able to experience adverse consequences such as feelings of frustration, annoyance or even anger.

Aggressive behavior

It is the defence of personal rights and expression of thoughts, feelings and opinions in an inappropriate manner. Violation of the rights of others, being able to go from the humiliating comments to direct verbal aggressions (insults and threats).

EMPATHY.

Empathy is considered a very important phenomenon by diverse disciplines as psychology today. Many scientists have assigned a role of cultural mediator, to evaluate the different social behaviors.
EMPATHY is defined as:
"A skill, of the human being, that allows us to understand and experience the point of view of other people, or understand some of its structures in the world, without necessarily adopt this same perspective".
So that this ability can develop in the best way take into account some features of behaviour such as:
• The quality of interaction,
• Moral development,
• The aggressiveness, and
• Altruism (generosity).
We must also take into account:
• Emotional responses,
• The well-being that we orientate towards other people, and
• Some feelings empathetic (sympathy, compassion, and tenderness).
Empathy serves as motivation and information, since it is aimed at relieving the need for another person, allowing information about the way in which it is due to value the welfare of others.
This ability used rightly, facilitate us the progress of the relations between two or more people, becoming something as well as our social conscience, since sit or stand in the place of the other person, helps to understand what this experience at this time.
Be empathetic does not agree with each other, nor implies put aside our own decisions to take over as our the others.
We can be in full disagreement with someone, but we must try to respect its position, we must accept as valid of their own beliefs and motivations.
It is wise to remember that misunderstandings only ended when people understand the point of view of others. That is why we must be vigilant at all times, because not always what works you someone work to another.

BE EMPATHETIC:

• When a person is empathetic:
• Adjusts to situations,
• Listener, but better still knows when to speak,
• Influence and regulate the emotions of the other,
• Listening with attention and is willing to discuss problems,
• It is flexible and open to ideas,
• Supports and assists,
• Solidarity,
• Remember the problems and gives you a solution,
• Encourages teamwork,
It encourages participation and cooperation,
• Guides and teaches,
• Do not imposed by force,
• Trust in the Group and the individuals,
• Stimulates group decisions,
• Communicates openly,
• Demonstrates ability to self-criticism.
Be empathetic is simply to be able to emotionally understand people, which is the key to success in interpersonal relationships.
When people lack this ability they have difficulties to interpret correctly the emotions of others. They don't listen, are often inefficient, they are cold, insensitive people. These individuals will damage the emotions of those who treat them.
When there is a severe lack of this skill people are incapable of expressing the feelings and may even leave to properly perceive others
They become asocial elements, and more serious still can reach it become psychopaths, unbalanced individuals who do not have no consideration for others feelings and that can even manipulate them in own benefit.
Empathy must become a crucial skill to achieve excellence, but as most of the skills, is not enough to understand the other, must prove it, since the other person perceives that you understood you when:
Physically and psychologically we pay attention to your messages and body gestures (voltage, resistance and acceptance.
We do not evade important issues arising during our conversation, always maintaining cordiality, showing that we are willing to discuss the issues he considers important.
We know about emotional way that we understand your message. We grant you special attention to their responses.
We do not evaluate it, we judge them, nor much less descalificamos it. We understand it and we are always in place, assessing the situation from their perspective.
If there is something that he finds it interesting and to us no, we worry about only in understand why he feels it as well.

DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN
ASSERTIVENESS AND EMPATHY.

Both assertiveness and empathy are considered social skills.
When an individual is assertive has to express their opinions and feelings without constraints are off the mark or not, allowing the other person to comment on them.
When a person is empathetic, let others express them their views and feelings without restrictions, are off the mark or not, giving you the possibility to talk about them.
When you are assertive, you defend your convictions.
When you're empathetic, you understand the convictions of other human beings.
In both cases the opinions and beliefs of others follow.

ASSERTIVENESS AND EMPATHY SKILLS
TO IMPROVE RELATIONS.

Recent research has shown that any type of relationship may be affected by these (family, marital,) capabilities of work, since they are skills essential in many fields, including in work activities, but especially in those areas that have to do with the direct dealings to the public (sales, public relations, management, human resources). Your applications can be different, and could be used successfully in:
The formation of leaders,
• Studies of organizational needs,
• Studies of the market positioning,
• Psychotherapy,
• Medicine, among others.
Some executives believe that the development of social skills is not an important aspect within the functions that must be played.
You should know that you to sell (ideas, products and services) is required to capture more accurately the feelings of the people, without forgetting the personal convictions.
If you have a precise understanding of the needs and feelings of the employees, the customers and the of each who will be much easier to identify and find the form of motivation to apply.
This will allow to know what so hard you can work without having to get to the collapse.

ITEM 11

Thoughts and effects | Definition

"The soul attracts that which secretly harbors, what he loves, but also, what fears"

In many occasions we have heard to tell other people what your crops that is crops, and these crops will give fruits and seeds that are planted are useful or useless, we can say that these seeds are located all around the world that surrounds us, especially in our mind that is in charge of mastering our thoughts. If our mind is cultivated with useless seeds the immediate effect will be useless fruits that will continue playing throughout our lives, to accompany us and making us live scripts according to our learning, which will bring negative consequences for our development.
A man can cultivate your mind, wiping it all useless, evil and impure thoughts, carrying all this correct, useful and pure thoughts. It is necessary that we discover that we are the owners of our destiny, in order to not become at the end of our lives and we find all that we could be and were not because we decided not to take control of our destiny and our thoughts; with ever-increasing accuracy, we can tell that this force and elements of the mind are responsible for shaping our character, circumstances and fate.
The thought and character are one, and the circumstances and external conditions surrounding the environment of a person always were closely related to its internal state. Do not want to say that whenever the circumstances of a man are indicative of their character, but these circumstances are intimately connected with some element of vital thinking within if same.
There is a law of being, which considered that each human being is where this by thoughts that has built in its character have taken him up to there, considering that in our life nothing is random, there is no luck, the universe as stated by Deepack Chopra has a system of infinite and exact accounting, result of a law that does not fail.
We are beings that we are here to progress and evolve, we must learn and grow, learning to capture all the spiritual teachings that give us all the circumstances that surround our lives. We should not believe that we are victims of external circumstances since the same we will continue hitting, we must know our capability and the power of our thoughts in order to know that we can become masters and masters of ourselves. We must find our self purification and knowing that circumstances arise from our thinking, and in that we will produce a change in these, change our mental condition, causing a change which marks a progress.
All the seeds of thought that we planted in our mind gives its roots and produces fruit, leading us to the height of our aspirations or making us drop to the level lower than our desires, and the circumstances which are the environment is the means by which we receive ours, either an opportunity or a disappointment
Human beings possess a faculty learn both the happiness and suffering, our inner world of thoughts, pleasant external conditions and the not so, contribute to our good. When we give to our impure desires and thoughts, life at some point we will find the adjustment law, while if our thoughts are directed towards strength and commitment, we expect the growth Act.
Circumstances will not be responsible to make the man, the circumstances are simply the revelation of his thought, the conditions as fall into Vice and the suffering it entails can not exist without vicious inclinations that are typical of his thoughts, the same occurs with the rise of virtue and pure happiness exist only as a result of their aspirations and useful thoughts. We do not attract that which we want, but what we are, our whims, desires, ambitions frustrated at every turn, are fed with the food that we provide to you is this pure or dirty. An offender is placed handcuffs if same falls in prison as a result of his thought and action, and also released when the thoughts are noble, pure and fair.
We we are anxious at all times improve our circumstances but do not want to improve ourselves and look for these causes within us, only we are dedicated to fighting and rebel against the effects, but nurturing and preserving the cause in our hearts and thoughts, keeping us as a result tied. We must be prepared in one chance said that luck is when opportunity and preparation meet and we can say, that if a man aims to achieve wealth should be prepared to make big personal sacrifices before achieving his goal. We need to know the principles to avoid living with evil, cowardly and misleading thinking that does not allow us to lift us there, to understand the principles of healthy living, be prepared for prosperity.
In our daily life we observe that sometimes circumstances are complicated to understand by our minds, since happiness conditions vary both from an individual to another, we can view honest men in certain aspects of their life, suffering many hardships, we can see dishonest men who possess certain riches, but may have certain virtues which the honest does not possess that dishonest man , and this in turn can have some vices of hateful thinking that will be to the detriment of their own circumstances.
The law of the universe that does well for evil, or bad for good, is absolutely fair, and if we look back, towards our past ignorance, we know our life is perfectly orderly, and that all our experiences, good or bad, were the result of being in evolution, process in which we are each day.
Good thoughts and actions can never produce bad results, however in our personal development it is not very difficult to understand this law, and this is why in most cases we do not cooperate with it.
On the other hand the suffering is a result of our evil thoughts, indicative that we are not in harmony with ourselves, our thoughts with lack of mental harmony, a man feels wretched thanks to it, since it is not the result of having material possessions or not. If we want to become pure men only can do so when we stop complaining and insulting, and begin to search for the truth of what surrounds us in ourselves, leaving to see others as the cause of our misfortunes and condition, learning how to use as an aid to progress to all circumstances. By changing our thoughts to things and persons, the same change to us, the universe is okay and the laws that dominate it are accurate.
We sit in silence and carry out systematic a self-analysis and soul-searching. We must not believe that thoughts can be kept secret, they crystallize, reflected quickly in the habit, and habit solidifies in the circumstances. If we fall into the vices and lust, will be reflected in our physical and emotional health. Our thoughts of fear, doubt and indecision are reflected in circumstances of failure, poverty and servile dependence, feelings and thoughts egoistaza, act out them in bus is habits that become more solid in circumstances more and more painful.
Now well beautiful thoughts, which are that we must cultivate and who must go, go to reflect habits of grace, generosity, temperance, self-control, prosperity, confidence, freedom, productivity, free of selfishness and loving thoughts crystallize into habits of auto oblivion by others.
We must take into account that we can choose our thoughts and this gives us the advantage that we choose our circumstances indirectly.

"Good thoughts bear good fruit, bad thoughts bear bad fruit"


ITEM 12

Management | Definition

Introduction to the Management

"The good Management, in short, is primarily to show you
people common how can become outstanding people".
John D. Rockefeller
The history of Management comprises a large number of ideas emanating from the Oriental and Western cultures, and is closely linked to the level of development achieved by man in each of the social systems that has gone. Constantly come to light the secrets hidden in the antiquity and appear new fragments of facts and history.
Although it is difficult to exactly follow the step by step development of administrative practice, since the lost ages of the past to the present, it is clear that, in essence, in the history of the development of humanity the history of the development of Management can be found.
As soon as the men began to congregate in large groups, to undertake tasks exceeding their individual strengths, recognized the need in an orderly manner that resolved the problems posed such as critical tasks, then as it is today.
This whole process of thousands of years brought with it increased the knowledge of reality, its systematization and constant enrichment, its transmission from generation to generation, which emerged the scientific knowledge, as systematised reflection of the laws and principles that govern reality objectively.
Organizational development processes were not exempt from this trend, and with the emergence of organizations increasingly more complex needed to employ different methods, which characterized the era in question, and converted to the Management in a field of action defined, not covered by any discipline or existing science: organizations with their internal processes of relations between people, the internal structure and the resources it needs for its operation , within the framework of the processes of production and services.
The oldest record is referred to a system of "management" is the code of Hammurabi, which was compiled about 2000 years before Christ. At the time, the Bible and Egyptian Papyrus dating back to 1300 B.c. indicate the importance of the Organization and administration of public bureaucracy in the ancient Egypt. Similar references are related to Mesopotamia, Assyria, Greece, Peru, Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia and Chile.
Names such as Fray Luca Paccioli, Adam Smith, Charles W.Babbage, and Robert Owen may not be forgotten when it comes to an account of the rise of the Management. All of them laid the foundations, in one way or another, so in 1895 began to appear writings collecting activities of Frederick W. Taylor, who systematized them on a philosophy.
Here are born the theoretical roots of contemporary Management, at the end of the 19th century, where the interests of the capitalist owners made their way to the search for methods of management that respond to the needs presented in the time. The transformation of capitalism into monopoly capitalism premonopolista led to the growth of the role of the Administration, as well as to the study of these problems, both practical and theoretical interest.
All this provided the emergence, in the 20th century, a management science, achievement was attributed to F. W. Taylor more than any other, although some authors like Shay highlights that almost at the same time Elihu Root, reorganized the army of the United States and Henry Fayol, reorganizing a French mining company, carried out similar works that could be taken as a contribution to the study of Taylor. Others corresponded extend the philosophy to other functions, develop principles, models and management practices, forming what Harold Kontz termed "administrative jungle", enriched in the last decades of the 20th century.
In general, the Management, as a driver of organizational efforts, always answered, since its emergence as a science, to the improvement of the relationship between the Organization and its environment, focusing, pertinently, to the goal of resolving the contradiction between an external situation and the ability to adapt to it, and eventually the ability to change it for the sake of a gradual and continuous growth.
Admittedly, sometimes, thinking on how to deal with the environment have forgotten, by their own favorable conditions that allowed, without great risks, more direct effort toward the inside of the Organization to the outside. However, with the change of the was the stability of the turbulence was, others have been routes business performance and administrative thinking that has been answered, depending on the concrete situation, the needs of the organizations.
By previously commented, it is necessary to be stated succinctly the main contributions of the different schools, approaches, and philosophies of the administration up to the present, in order to achieve a general compression of the administrative process.

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION CLASSIC

The classical school of administration, whose main representatives were Frederick W. Taylor (scientific management) and Henri Fayol (anatomic approach), is a model of Administration used widely by American and European companies in the first decades of the last century. This approach aims at the improvement of the working methods and tries, with the proposal of tecnico-organizativos principles, create a management science.

HUMANISTIC SCHOOL

The humanistic approach of the Administration began immediately after the death of Taylor, but only from 1940's found acceptance in the United States, and their dissemination outside this country happened long after the end of the second world war. This school is based on authors like Ordway Tead, Mary Parker Follett and Chester Barnard, in what is known as transition theories, having as a point in common between them attempt to apply, for the first time, psychology or sociology to the Administration, which culminates with the theory of the human relations represented by Elton Mayo and Kurt Lewin , among many others.

STRUCTURALIST APPROACH

This approach consists of of the bureaucracy theory of Max Weber, and pretended to be the theory of the organization that would fill the void left by the classical mechanism and romanticism humanist, serving as well as guiding the work of the administrator. With the failure of the claims of the theory of bureaucracy, the structuralist theory came to represent a synthesis of the classical theory and human relations, inspired by the work of Max Weber and Karl Marx.

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION NEOCLASSICAL

The neo-classical school is a sign that points of view classic survived against the ravages of behavior Sciences placed according to the administration. This school is an eclectic and up-to-date version of the classical theory. Authors such as Peter Drucker, Harold Koontz, Cyrill O´Donnell, and Ernest Dale belong to this movement, but not worried about aligned inside a common orientation. One of the best-known contributions of this approach is the world famous Management by objectives.

ADMINISTRATION BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

This approach conforms to the behavioral theory of the Administration, by authors like Douglas McGregor, Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland, Rensis Likert and Herbert Simon, among others. Similarly goes to integrate this approach the theory of organizational development, known by authors such as William J. Reddin and Warren Bennis, Edgar H. Schein. Both theories brought a new vision of the administrative practice based on human behaviour within organizations. Under this approach arises the relative found difficulty in applying the concepts of the various theories on the Organization, each with a different approach and, often, in conflict with each other.

SYSTEMATICS OF THE MANAGEMENT SCHOOL

This school brings together in its bosom the Cybernetics, the mathematical theory of management, contingency theory and the theory of systems, and is represented by authors such as Norbert Wiener, Johann von Neumann, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Daniel Katz, Robert L. Kahn and Stanford L. Optner, among others. The systematic school proposes a new way of analyzing the Organization, recognizing the importance of the relations between the parties to achieve the purpose of the whole (systemic approach).

THEORY OF EXCELLENCE

Tom Peters, Robert Waterman and Nancy Austin were responsible for communicating the theory of excellence to the world through the publication of three books: 'In search of excellence', 'Passion for excellence' and 'Thriving in the chaos', aimed to permeate American entrepreneurship of the need for embedded in the processes of searching for excellence. While recognising that the process of research carried out by the authors contains interesting anecdotes on their criteria and concepts, it should be noted that the theory only stays on point to good examples, but he doesn't get to be as good as them.

TOTAL QUALITY CONTROL

The development of Total quality as a management system began in the United States at the beginning of the last century, was perfected by the Japanese between 1960 and 1970, and the quality management returned to the U.S. in 1980. Many personalities like Walter. A. Shewhart with statistical Control, Joseph M. Juran with his trilogy of planning, Control and improvement, Edwards Deming with its model of administration, Philip Crosby with the movement of zero defects and its emphasis on costs, Armand Feigenbaum with Total Quality Control and Kaoru Ishikawa with quality circles, among others, have contributed to the development implementation and dissemination of this form of management, which presents an approach to comprehensive analysis of the organization where proposed ideas that everyone within the company, form a binomial supplier-customer, and where the main task is the search of the quality according to the requirements of the customer. For the first time proposes the principle of continuous improvement.

THEORY Z

William Ouchi proposes the theory Z, based on his studies on the managerial practices of Japanese companies and the type of management that they develop certain American companies. Ouchi, in this theory, collect the prevailing ideas in Japanese business culture, proposing a way of managing Ringi called. It is an eminently participative principle, which is to combine the interests of workers with the Organization in search of a better quality in the service to the customer and better organizational performance.

REENGINEERING APPROACH

Michael Hammer and James Champy are taxed, with its reengineering, in 1994, a new form of administrative behavior, whose essence is the discontinuous thought, proposing radical and spectacular improvements, based on the reinvention of organisational processes oriented to the satisfaction of the customer. Its concrete proposal lies in the conceptualization of a new paradigm on how to organize and conduct the business, creating new principles and operational procedures. Subsequently, James Champy presents a new work that includes, as the essential point, the reengineering of the correct administrative process, based on the conviction of the vital role that this plays in the transformation of the remaining processes within an organization.

CONCLUSION: A PROPOSAL OF PRINCIPLES

Beyond administrative fashions and semantic mutations that enrich the language of Management, should seek true principles that govern the behavior of organizations. It should be noted that if the science of Administration is prolific in something, is in the establishment of principles, but should note that in General, are not teorico-generales principles and tecnico-organizativos principles. Many of them have transcended a school to another, this allowing to generalize some of these ideas, taking them as pillars for the administrative process unfolds on solid foundations.

EARLY THEORETICAL - CONCEPTUAL OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

AUTONOMY
The Management must have, to make decisions on behalf of your organization, with a full correspondence between responsibility and authority.
HUMAN COMPETENCE
Good Management depends on the effective and efficient management of the human resources of the organization.
OBJECTIVITY
Only with a thorough knowledge of the laws that govern the performance of the Organization will be able to act objectively for its improvement.
THE SYSTEMIC QUALITY-ORIENTED
The aim of the organization defines the purpose for which you have ordered media and their relationships.
IMPROVEMENT
Maximum power of an organization, is achieved when it is held continuously in movement of improvement.
LOCATION LIMIT
Organizations face steadily situations limits that are opposed to their improvement.
CONTINGENCY
The Management is consequence of the analysis of the concrete conditions of the organization concerned, to derive from there how to act in a practical way in each case.
RESTRICTION
Entire organization sees braking the growing trend of performance by any limitations introduced in its operation that define the border of the system and make it possible to explain the conditions under which it operates.
INTERCHANGEABILITY
The goal of the organization can change according to the stage of development that this passes.
SUFFICIENCY
The key is to own and control resources and core competencies that constitute the essence of the organization.
CONNECTIVITY
Any organization is only formed as a result of the interaction of the parts that make it up.
MANAGEMENT UNIT AND INFORMATION
The Management is embodied in decision making, but only can decide on what is known, and this makes missing determined amount and quality of information.
MEASUREMENT
If it can not be measured, nor you can manage, and therefore little can be done for improvement.

ITEM 13

Media of instruction | Definition

The components that determine the system of teaching and learning among the means of instruction, which are multiple ways for the achievement of the objectives, are source of stimuli that motivate learning and allow students to be agents of their own training.

DEFINITION OF THREE MEANS OF INSTRUCTION

There are several definitions of means of instruction, we in this course will use the following:
"On the content of the process teaching and learning means means any person, body or object to provide the information necessary to facilitate a particular learning of knowledge, attitudes or skills"
In some books use the term average audiovisual to refer to media of instruction, in these cases the term audio-visual is used as generalizante since more than 90% of the learning is acquired through sight and hearing, which does not exclude the use of the other senses
Is also common to find the term resources for learning as synonym of media of instruction, however, this term we are going to use it to refer to all media, materials and other elements which are involved or are used to facilitate learning
THE EVALUATION FUNCTIONS
1 it is diagnosed
2. training
3 summative

It is diagnosed

It is diagnosed

Summative

Input

Process

Product

1 it is diagnosed

Diagnostic evaluation aims to provide information about the problem. It is closely related to the area of exploration. To establish the nature of something that already exists (person, program, System), and is presented as a problem to solve. The basic of this type of assessment purpose is the obtaining of information about the State of the person, program or system. The emphasis placed on the entrance, it aims to prove something.
to acquire information about the teaching process - learning
b to correct that same process in progress
c with the purpose or intention of guiding us

2. training

The formative evaluation aims to provide information about progress toward the solution of the problem. Answers questions such as: how she is progressing the participant from the beginning?
The main purpose of this evaluation is to educate the person in the achievement of the objectives

3 summative

The evaluation aims to provide product information
You have to make a decision based on the quality of the product that is being evaluated.
It puts emphasis on the product, when it seeks to make decisions about something or someone
It is assumed that once achieved the results feedback is given
The evaluation is a continuous process, where qualitative and quantitative, aspects which uses various procedures and which relates inescapably with the objectives of the programme are taken into account.
Objectives general product-specific learning objectives of behavior changes of conduct
These steps of the procedure, clear the importance that has to be evaluation techniques directly related to the specific objectives of the learning that I know is evaluating. This is the only way to be sure that we are really evaluating the process of the participant in the direction of the objectives that we have selected:
Product-specific learning objectives General changes of conduct evaluation techniques
An overall evaluation plan consists of a list of all the goals and all the specific products of learning. With an indication of the type of technique of evaluation of all the goals, that being positive leads to change behaviour in the process of teaching - learning

ASPECTS COMPRISING THE EVALUATION OF LEARNING

The following aspects should be considered in the evaluation of the learning of the participants.

1. skills development

Development of skills and desirable habits relating to the operational aspect of occupation (motor skills) assessment must have as a requirement that the teaching of this in terms of judging that cognitive development has taken place through the classification of the conduct of the student.

2 acquisition of knowledge

The acquisition of basic knowledge, technology and related theory of nursing. The categories that are included under this heading are referred to the memory of specific data, principles and generalizations, methods and processes identified in any field of study.
Items primarily stimulate memories or knowledge of cognitive materials stored across situations which require a precise identification of the content deposited in mind.

3. skills development

The development of intellectual skills and cognitive strategies that allow the definition and solving new problems.

4. development of ideals and attitudes

The development of ideals, attitudes, interests and insights translated into actions and favorable feelings toward people, objects, events and situations.

ITEM 14

Continuous improvement | Definition

Over the years employers have managed their businesses drawing only limited goals, which have prevented them to see beyond their immediate needs, i.e., plan only in the short term; which leads to not reach optimum levels of quality and therefore a low profitability in their business.
According to the managerial groups of Japanese companies, the secret of the most successful in the world companies lies in the own high quality standards for its products and its employees; Therefore the total quality control is a philosophy that should be applied to all levels in an organization, and this implies a process of improvement
Continuous has no end. This process allows for a broader horizon, where will always seek excellence and innovation that will lead entrepreneurs to increase their competitiveness, decrease costs, directing efforts to meet the needs and expectations of customers.
Also, this process seeks that the entrepreneur is a true leader in your organization, ensuring the participation of all that involved in all processes of the productive chain. To do so he must acquire deep commitments, since he is primarily responsible for the execution of the process and the most important driving force of your company.
To carry out this process of continuous improvement both in a particular Department and across the enterprise, should be taken into consideration that such a process should be: economic, i.e., should require less effort than the benefit provided; and cumulative, allow the improvement that is done open the possibilities of successive improvements to ensure the full exploitation of the new level of performance attained

Definition of continuous improvement

James Harrington (1993), for it to improve a process, means to change it to make it more effective, efficient and adaptable, what changed and how to change depends on the specific approach of the entrepreneur and the process.
Fadi Kabboul (1994), defined the continuous improvement as a conversion mechanism viable and accessible to the enterprises of developing countries close the technological gap that remain with respect to the developed world.
Abell, D. (1994), gives a mere extension of the historical one of the principles of scientific management, established by Frederick Taylor, which States that every method of work is likely to be improved (taken from the course of continuous improvement by Fadi Kbbaul) as a concept of continuous improvement.
L.P. Sullivan (1CC 994), defines continuous improvement, as an effort to implement improvements in every area of the Organization to what is delivered to customers.
Eduardo Deming (1996), according to the optics of this author, total quality management requires a constant process, which will be called continuous improvement, where perfection is never achieved, but always wanted.
Continuous improvement is a process which describes very well what is the essence of quality and reflects what companies need to do if they want to be competitive over time.

Advantages and disadvantages of continuous improvement

Advantages:

• Concentrates the effort in organizational areas and specific procedures.
• They get improvements in the short term and visible results
• If there is reduction of defective products, brings as a consequence a reduction in the costs, as a result of reduced raw material consumption.
• Increases productivity and organization towards competitiveness, which is of vital importance for the current organizations.
• Contributes to the adaptation of processes to technological advances.
• Eliminates repetitive processes.

Disadvantages

• When the improvement is concentrated in a specific area of the Organization, is lost the perspective of interdependence which exists between all the members of the company.
• Requires change across the Organization, since the participation of all members of the Organization and at all levels is necessary for success.
• Given that the managers in small and medium-sized enterprises are very conservative, continuous improvement is a lengthy process.
• We have to make major investments.

Causes of the continuous improvement

The customer is King

According to Harrigton (1987), "In the market of buyers today's customer is the King", i.e. that the customers are the most important people in the business and therefore employees must work according to meet the needs and desires of these. They are a fundamental part of the business, i.e. it is the reason why this exists, therefore deserve the best treatment and attention required.
The reason why customers prefer products of the foreigners, is the attitude of business leaders to claims for errors that are discussed: they accept their mistakes as something quite normal and apologize to the customer, for them the customer is always right.

The process of improvement

The pursuit of excellence includes a process that consists in accepting a new challenge every day. This process must be continuous and progressive. You must enter all activities carried out in the company at all levels.
The process of improvement is an effective means to develop positive changes that will allow you to save money for the company and for the customers, because quality failures cost money.
This process also involves investment in new machinery and more efficient high-tech equipment, the improvement of the quality of service to customers, the increased levels of performance of the workforce through continuous training, and investment in research and development, allowing the company to keep up with new technologies.

Basic improvement activities

According to a studied improvement processes implemented in different companies in the United States, according to Harrington (1987), there are ten activities of improvement that should form part of any company, whether large or small:
1 to obtain the commitment of senior management.
2. establish a Board of improvement.
3 get the full participation of the administration.
4. ensure the participation in teams of employees.
5 get individual participation.
6 establish teams of improvement systems (process control equipment).
7. develop activities with the participation of suppliers.
8 establish activities that ensure the quality of the systems.
9. develop and implement plans to improve short-term and long-term improvement strategy.
10. establish a system of awards.

Senior management commitment:

The improvement process must begin from top executives and progresses as to the degree of commitment that they acquire, i.e. in the interest to overcome and be better every day. Board of Directors of the improvement:
It consists of a group of top-level executives, who will study the process of improving production and seek to adapt it to the needs of the company.
Participation Total of management: The management team is a set of responsible for the implementation of the process of improvement. That implies the active participation of all managers and supervisors of the organization. Every Executive should participate in a training course that allows you to meet new standards of the company and the respective breeding techniques.

Employee participation:

Once the team of administrators are trained in the process, the conditions will be to engage employees. This takes place the Manager or first line of each department supervisor, who is responsible for training their subordinates, using it techniques he learned.

Individual participation:

It is important to develop systems that provide media all individuals so that they contribute, be measured and recognize their personal contributions for the benefit of the improvement.

Equipment improvement of systems (process control equipment):

Any activity that is repeated is a process that can be controlled. This prepares process flow diagrams, then measurements, controls and feedback loops are included you. For the application of this process must be an individual responsible for the full functioning of this process.

Activities with participation of providers:

All successful improvement process must take into account the contributions of the providers.

Quality assurance:

Resources for the quality assurance, dedicated to the solution of problems related to products, should be reoriented towards the control systems that help to improve operations and thus prevent issues

Quality short term plans and long-term quality strategies:

Each company must develop a strategy of long-term quality. Then you must ensure that all administrative group understand the strategy so that its members can develop detailed plans in the short term, that will ensure that the activities of groups match and support a long-term strategy.

Recognition system:

The process of improving aims to change the way of thinking of people about errors. There are two ways to strengthen the implementation of the desired changes: punishing those who fail to do their job all the time, or reward to all individuals and groups when they reach a goal with make an important contribution to the process of improving.

Needs improvement

The Presidents of companies are the main cause of an advanced success in the organization or on the contrary of the failure of the same, is for this reason that members directed all responsibility and trust the President, taking into account their ability and a good performance as an administrator, able to solve any kind of problem that can be present and successfully achieve the success of the company. For many companies today, the word quality represents a very important factor for the achievement of the objectives. It is necessary to carry out a global and detailed the Organization's analysis to make the decision to implement a study of needs, if required by the company.
It is important to mention that for the success of the process of improvement, will depend directly on the high degree of support provided by the team that makes up the management of the company, therefore the President is on duty to seek the views of each of its members of the management team and of the heads of Department that make up the organization.
Executives need to understand that the President plans to carry out the implementation of a process which benefits across the enterprise and can also provide employees with best elements for the good performance of their work. It must be clear that any appropriate, quality is the responsibility of the directors;
Before the final decision to implement a process of improvement, it is necessary to calculate an estimate of the potential savings. Begin by performing a test detailed figures for costs of poor quality, in addition, of the savings in costs; the process of improvement implies an increase in productivity, reduction of absenteeism and improving morale. It is important to note that a production of best quality will reflect the capture of a larger share of the market.
To achieve these savings, the first years, the company will have to invest a small percentage of the cost of the product, to develop the process of improvement; After this investment, the cost of maintenance of the program will be insignificant.
On the other hand, for the effective functioning of the process of improving not only it is necessary to count with the support of the Presidency, but with the active participation of it. The President should personally measure the degree of advancement and reward all those who in one way or another contribute significantly and make observations to those who do not contribute to the success of the process.
A very effective way to determine if team general managers consider the need to improve, consists of carrying out a survey of opinions among them. The elaboration of the survey will help to detect how the management group believes the company and think how much it needs to improve. Questions can be:
What good is cooperation of people?
What good is the co-operation of the departments?
She is much concern to address the quality of work?, among others.
However, topics may include such as: communication, organization and productivity; taking into consideration that the value of the survey will depend exclusively on the honesty of the answers from members.

Importance of continuous improvement

The importance of this management technique is that your application can contribute to improve weaknesses and enhance the strengths of the organization.
Through the continuous improvement is achieved to be more productive and competitive in the market which belongs to the Organization, on the other hand organizations should analyze the processes used, in a manner such that if there is a problem can be improved or corrected; as a result of the application of this technique, it may be that organizations grow within the market and to become leaders.

ITEM 15

Six-Sigma methodology: Industrial quality | Definition

The manufacture of the products in the industrial area mainly involves three stages:
• The input (personnel, material, equipment, policies, procedures, methods and environment),
• The product or service (process) and
• Output (providing a service or a product).

Errors and defects:

In these stages is talk about errors that affect the quality of the product and/or service.
Every day a defect is created during a process (stage), this takes additional time for testing, analysis and repair.
These non-additional activities require space, equipment, materials and people.

World-class methodology

There are methodologies that help the prevention of errors in industrial processes, one of them being the Six-Sigma (6 or), which is a world class (initiated by Motorola in 1986) quality methodology applied to offer a better product or service, faster and at a lower cost.

The method

Sigma (o) is a lyric taken from the Greek alphabet used in statistics as a measure of variation.
6 methodology or based on the curve of the normal distribution (to know the level of variation of any activity), which is to develop a series of steps for the control of quality and optimization of industrial processes.

Low quality

In industrial processes is the cost of low quality, caused by:
1. internal faults, of defective products; rework and problems in the control of materials.
2. external failures, of returned products; guarantees and penalties.

Products and services

Because of this, it was decided to apply the methodology 6 or in industrial processes to prevent the cost of low quality and thus have processes, products and efficient services.
The Six-Sigma methodology allows to:
• Comparisons between businesses, products,
• Processes and services similar or different.
• Provides tools to determine the level of quality of the company and at the same time provides direction with respect to the company's growth objectives.
Globally, the majority of industrialized countries applied the Six-Sigma methodology, including this Mexico which has a large number of foreign and domestic companies mainly on the border with the United States.

Benefits

A study conducted in 1997 showed that the best companies in its class have 6 quality levels or.
A company that does not use the methodology 6 or, spend on average 10% of their earnings in external and internal repairs.
Instead a company that applies the methodology spends on average 1% of their profits in external and internal repairs.

Quality systems

To achieve Six Sigma, use certain parameters (control of total quality, zero defects, procedures of ISO-9000 (procedures globally of quality of the product, statistical process control and statistical techniques).
Mission of the Six-Sigma
The Mission of the 6 or is to provide adequate information to assist the implementation of the maximum quality of the product or service in any activity, as well as create confidence and communication between all participants, since the activity of the business part of the information, ideas and experience, and this helps to raise the quality and administrative management.

Levels of application

The Six-Sigma is a program that is defined at two levels: operational and managerial.
• The operational level statistical tools are used to develop the measurement of variables of the industrial processes to detect defects (6 or has a range of 3.4 defects per every million).
• The management analyzes the processes used by employees to increase the quality of products, processes and services.

Building blocks for quality Six Sigma program.

1 define the product and service.
2. identify the requirements of the customers.
3 compare the requirements with products.
4. Describe the process.
5 implement the process.
6 measure the quality and product.

The measures of quality should contain the following features:

1 production processes can use the error tolerance.
2 detect defects per unit (DPU).

Quality improvement tools

1. process flow diagram; with which the stages of the process through a sequence of steps, as well as the critical stages are known.
2. cause and effect diagram; It is used as a brainstorming to detect the causes and consequences of the problems in the process.
3. Pareto diagram; applies to identify the root causes of problems in major retail and thus reduce or eliminate process one by one (starting with the largest and then subsequent or whatever more accessible).
4 histogram; with which are observed data (defects and failures) and are grouped in the form Gaussian containing the lower and upper limits and a central tendency.
5. run graph; It is used to graphically represent data with respect to time, to detect significant changes in the process.
6. graph control; applies to maintain the process according to an average value and the upper and lower limits.
7. scatter diagram; with which you can relate two variables and get an usual estimate of the correlation coefficient.
8. regression model; It is used to generate a model of relationship between a response and a variable input

Improvement strategy.

Stage1 (measurement). Consists of selecting one or more product features: such as the dependent variables that identify the process, take the necessary measures and record the results of the process in "control cards", estimating the short-term and long-term capacity of the process in the manufacture of the product.
Stage 2 (analysis). It involves the implementation of measures of the product key. An analysis of interval is taken usually to identify common and successful factors of execution: which explain the best ways of application. In some cases, it is necessary to redesign the product or the process, based on the results of the analysis.
Stage 3 (buff). Characteristics of the process that can be improved are identified. Once done, the characteristics are diagnosed to know whether the improvements in the process are relevant
Stage 4 (Control). It helps us to ensure that the conditions of the new process are documented and monitored way statistical process control methods.

Training to implement

In the Six-Sigma methodology is the training of personnel in order to obtain a good quality. The training provides candidates with the knowledge and features to guide and direct the implementation of the methodology Six Sigma in your company. The two weeks of the training series are completed with five days of instruction in the classroom, followed by 30 days of application.
The people responsible for putting in practice Six Sigma are classified by their ability to analyze processes and shown below:
Leader (Champion): Are leaders of top management who suggest and support projects, help get resources and eliminate the obstacles that impede the success of the project. It includes participation in review and ensure that the Six Sigma methodology is developed.
Master black belt (Master Black Belt): they are full-time experts, trained in the tools and tactics of Six Sigma, are responsible for the development and implementation of the Six Sigma strategy for business
Tape black (Black Belt): Are leaders of teams responsible for measure, analyze, improve and control processes that affect customer satisfaction, productivity and quality, the duration of training is about six weeks.
Ribbon green (Green Belt): They are assistants of a black ribbon, your training is three to four weeks.

Conclusions

The Six-Sigma methodology is applied to industrial processes in order to obtain a good quality of products (goods and services). Most of the companies around the world use 6 methodology or developing electronic and Visual inspections and applying statistical tools, with which you can see the behavior of processes.
Once observed the behavior of the process, is to minimize the defects in the products or services, and achieve full customer satisfaction. Japanese companies are an example of where applies Six Sigma, since production processes used in the system vendedor-cliente, at each stage of the process and each stage is responsible for their activity and should deliver the product with good quality (without defects).
The application of Six-Sigma in B.C., has generated a breakthrough in systems of quality and therefore on products. Companies that we visited ascended quickly to the application of the methodology and results have been reflected in a short time, according to the capabilities of companies and the personnel that work in them.

16 ITEM

Models of Decision making | Definition

The models are abstractions of real life. They are very useful in the taking of decisions on two grounds: reduce complex issues to more simple and easier to handle and provide a means to predict which will be the result of a decision.
There are several types of models that are used for decision-making in trade, and especially in the production such as: physical models, schematic models, mathematical models, which in turn are divided into deterministic and probabilistic.
The last test of a model is whether it is useful or not to provide an understanding of the real situation. Furthermore it is suitable that the model has some potential of predictions so that concerning decisions to future cases can be done with relatively clear prediction.
A mathematical model deterministic is a statement expressed as equations of relations between variables and constants associated with a problem. A deterministic model predicts the exact results under certain facts and assumptions. For example the equation of a line Y = a+bx is a mathematical model deterministic that may well apply to the linear projection of predictions, the intersections of parameters in linear programming and the intersection of the total cost and the total income on equilibrium point analysis.
When you insert the appropriate letters for numbers to (intersection in and) and b (slope), can be expressed algebraically straight a line to find the points of intersection, the expressions that represent a line are equal with the other and resolve with certainty.
A probabilistic model is a statement of relations between variables and constants which is associated with statistical probability. In other words, there is uncertainty.
Several factors affect decision making in production since alternative courses of action have been developed. Among them are the following:
1 predictions of expected outcomes of alternative courses of action.
2. odds of these expected results.
3. systems of value to consider alternative courses of action.
4. objectives of the company.
5 parameters which affect the application of the alternative courses of action.

Decision making in the enterprise

Decisions are hugely important to the business world, however, is little known to what is such activity. It is due to the quality of the decisions, more that to external factors, which depend on the success or failure of a business. For this reason, it is that every entrepreneur must have skills of analysis for decision making. During this section will discuss the concepts of resources and cost benefit that are included in any decision.
In a decision, the following elements are present:
On the right side of the diagram values and/or utilities make reference to what the decision the decision attaches importance. He makes a decision and rejects other alternatives precisely for what is important to him, what are you searching. Before information which has about things, and his knowledge, available resources to establish alternatives. Each of them carries risks and benefits. Opt for those that provide best results according to their values. In business what is sought is the profitability. Importantly, utilities, are based on, inter alia, of economic well-being that produces.
To begin with, decisions about resources available. Resources are a means to achieve goals. The typical experience of an entrepreneur is to have scarce resources. Is faced with a shortage that has sense to assess what is the best use of a resource, with unlimited resources don't need to invest in analysis to decide. Given the case that usually the company has a goal and scarce resources, it is up to evaluate possible uses can give to these resources in order to achieve maximum well-being, the utility. Time and physical space are scarce resources, other four basic and important resources in any business, are:
Corporate culture: The productivity is easier in an environment which fosters it. To achieve a culture of efficiency and productivity management style is very important.
Personal: It is the most valuable resource of the company, is through the effort that executes the objectives are achieved. The corporate culture is essential for optimal use of personnel skills and attitudes.
Technology: Is understood in a broad sense. Not only machines are included, but also, technology in human resources is to establish internal organization to facilitate the achievement of results. Increased availability of information technology. While better informed they are, will be in a better position to make decisions.
Capital: This resource is as important as the others. Many times to not capitalize on the resources listed above, translates into a higher cost of capital resources. A poor organizational culture implies higher costs of friction. This inefficiency means more investment money to achieve the goals. For example, more procedures and controls are created, it increases bureaucracy.
In decision-making must be present the alternative use can be given to resources. When a resource is used to benefit is this sacrificing another benefit. The analysis is to establish the possible benefits of each alternative. The decision is justified at the time that the benefit that is sacrificed is less helpful than the benefit to receive. To be satisfied with the decision taken is decided based on the benefit to get to offset which is sacrificed.
In terms of decisions is concerned, managers sometimes give for granted fixed costs to achieve goals. They do not see that being more efficient in their processes, such costs can be reduced. Seek to reduce cost by using new procedures to achieve goals.

Benefit:

In the decisions, ignore this consideration of the sacrificed profit, cost, hinders the development of the business and may lead to the failure business. What is commonly known as absence of vision is the not having been able to identify the benefits that are sacrificed at the time of deciding. Not identify the hidden benefits, makes the decision more expensive from what had been estimated.
From the managerial point of view, regular analysis is to maximize profits. There is a website called Maximin. It is to choose the best among the worst negative outputs. This is not an analysis to the most optimal, but with Maximin question rotates if the risks can be tolerated. If you can tolerate that not much affects business, other systems, most optimistic analysis are used.
The benefits of corporate activities precisely are justified, not so much for the effort invested, but risks that are incurred. The benefits are based on having taken decisions in which the consequences are not guaranteed. Until where you get with such uncertainty, is the key directive. Define when you are in a situation of high risk and establish if the worst outcome can be tolerated, is fundamental to business success.
Many companies, pending reduce expenses, should keep in mind that deleting cost necessarily eliminates a benefit. Managers, in its efforts to reduce costs, create bigger problems when they do not take into account the benefits that sacrifice, be it explicit or implicit.
Another aspect in the decision-making is therefore ask ourselves how well informed are when deciding. While better informed is, less the State of uncertainty when making the decision. Business activities that start will fail, precisely because he is believed to have all information in situations that are uncertain.

The model to optimize decision making

It describes the way in which people should behave to make decisions to maximize results.
Steps of the model to optimize:
• Recognize the need to make a Decision.
• Identify the decision criteria.
• Assign a weighting to those criteria.
• Develop the best alternatives.
• Evaluate alternatives.
• Select the best alternative.
• Select the best alternative.
• The assumptions in this model:
• Is focused on goals.
• Are all options.
• Preferences are clear.
• Preferences are consistent
• The final selection maximizes the result.
• The final selection maximizes the result.

The bounded rationality model

This model, which some authors call also the Satisfactor model, considers that the decisions as an administrative person, who has a limited capacity to process information, which although I would like to make the best decision, not always does so, mainly for two reasons: due to a lack of monitoring and as prefers the satisfaction.
In this model you opt for the first alternative "good enough", i.e. that which satisfies and is sufficient.

Stages of the process of limited rationality

1 identify the problem to be solved or the target goal to be pursued.
2. determination of the minimum or standard level that should satisfy all acceptable alternatives.
3. election of a feasible alternative that addresses the problem.
4. evaluation of the alternative.
5. it is determined if it meets the minimum levels that were established.
6. If the alternative is not acceptable, another is looking for and is subjected to evaluation.
7. If the alternative is acceptable, it is in practice.
8 once it is put into action determines the ease or difficulty so feasible alternatives were identified, and this information is used to raise or reduce the minimum level of acceptability in similar future problems.
9. When this model with the above compares is apparently limited rationality model seems to be a more realistic view of decision making.

Other models for decision making

The simplified model of reality

According to existing evidence, it seems that the majority of those responsible for taking decisions use a simplified model of reality. When facing situations similar to others that have solved in the past, used the same overall strategy if they were successful, and will opt for a new method if the previous strategy did not yield good results.

The implicit favorite model.

Another model that applies to complex, non-routine decisions is the model of the implicit followers. Decision-making model in which which makes the decision implicitly selects its preferred alternative in the early stages of the decision-making process and diverts the evaluation of all other options.

Intuitive decision making

Another way that people use is the intuitive taking of decisions, as an unconscious process that is created from the filtrate that becomes experience, and often complements the rational analysis

ITEM 17

Motivation | Definition

People are the basic unit for the study of organizations, there is the importance of studying actions and reactions within the organizational setting. Behavior patterns are the modes that people thrive in their daily activities and to understand the relationships between people and, a minimum knowledge about the motivation of their behavior is necessary.

CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION

The word motivation means putting in motion, i.e., what drives the action
Motivation refers to those conditions or internal state that activate or give energy to the body and lead to conduct directed to certain purposes.
Motivation refers, generally, to internal States that energize and direct behavior toward goals specific
Oswaldo Garcia Romero
A person knows that this motivated when he thinks, feels and acts to achieve something.
The reason is not a stimulus, both possess the power of incite behaviour. The stimulus produces a response determined in relation to a momentary situation.
The subject encompasses many answers and exists until it appears the stimulus
The reason is different from the incentive. The incentive comes from outside of the individual, the reason comes from the inside.
Why is everything that encourages the person to act in certain way, or at least gives rise to a propensity to conduct specific. This reason can be caused by a stimulus external that it comes from the environment and can also be generated internally by the individual's cognitive processes so that the acts of a person can be guided by what the thinks, believes, plans, etc.
The motivation is associated with the idea of force active, driving, translated as desires. The reasons are expressions of the needs.
The motivations are different people, needs vary from an individual to another, resulting in different patterns of behavior, social values are also different, capabilities to achieve the objectives are also different. The capabilities, values and needs vary in a single individual over time.

NEEDS SOURCES OF MOTIVATION

The a. Maslow hierarchy theory

Motivation human is cyclical-oriented or different needs, whether they are physiological, social and psychological.
The needs are arranged in order of predominance, in which successive needs arise only as basic needs are sufficiently met.
The dynamic quality of the hierarchy of needs, has important consequences in the motivation of the people at work. To the needs of lower level are relatively satisfied, become directly less motivating behavior. The person is motivated mainly by the next level of unmet needs. Any Manager is to influence human behavior, you should consider which needs are relatively dissatisfied and can therefore serve as a lever of motivation.

FACTORS RELATING TO THE MOTIVATION TO WORK

The factors of F. Herzberg theory.

While the requirements describe the motivation, there are factors that have an impact or influence on it.
Employment, or extrinsic factors such as: administrative policies, monitoring quality, relationships with supervisors, relationships with peers, subordinates, pay, job security, working conditions, social position, which are not motivators but are a source of dissatisfaction and generated strong negative feelings. These factors are called hygiene or maintenance, because they are required to maintain a reasonable level of satisfaction of employees and in the best of cases the presence of these factors provides workers a neutral State.
There are other working conditions that operate primarily to increase motivation and satisfaction on the job, but his absence is rarely very unsatisfactory. They are: Achievement, recognition, work itself, progress, possibility of development, responsibility.

STRONG NEGATIVE FEELINGS

DISSATISFACTION

NEUTRAL

STRONG POSITIVE FEELINGS

SATISFACTION

HYGIENE FACTORS

MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS
There is a single trend in one or another direction in people: there is no absolute address. No factor is completely one-dimensional in their influence.

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS MASLOW

THE TWO FACTORS OF HERZBERG THEORY

Self realization

* Challenging work, achievements, growth at work

Esteem or Status

* Progress, recognition and Status

Affiliation or acceptance

* Interpersonal, political, administrative relations of the company. Quality of Supervision

Security

* Conditions of work, safety, quality of Supervision.

Physiological needs

* Salary, Personal life.
* Motivating
* Maintenance factors.
In another order of ideas, the motivation for the work comprises a complete relationship between variables such as: to) the expectations which vary according to the needs and aspirations over time. (b) the relationship between results and the possible rewards, and the same rewards in itself.
EXPECTATIONS AND MOTIVATION

Theories of the expectations of VROOM

EXPECTATIONS:
It is a momentary belief concerning the likelihood that a particular Act will be followed by a particular result.
According to this author, the strength or motivation to act in search of particular outcome, this determined by the expectation and the value that we have attributed to this result.
THE STRENGTH OF A TREND TO ACT DEPENDS ON:
1. in the expectation that an act will be followed by a given consequence and
2. of the value or appeal of that consequence or result
There is an association between action and outcome; This means that the results depend on action to implement. The action refers to the effort (amount of work) and hours of dedication or more generally to the instrumentation required to ensure the success of the expected outcome.
"The expectation is the estimate that an individual makes on the probability of achieving a result based on the effort that aims to make"
FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE EXPECTATION
1. the same situation
2. the full experience
3. the self-esteem
4. the perception of the situation by others (corrective force)
OTHER FACTORS
1. the causal attributions
2 variable locus of control or internality
3. the motivation to achieve

SOCIAL MOTIVATIONS

THEORY of social motivations DAVID CLELLAND Mc.
Besides views theories, there are others: David McClelland has developed research on socially acquired motivation: motivation or need for achievement, power and affiliation. These motivations predispose the person to behave in a way that they affect criticizes the performance of many jobs and tasks.
ACHIEVEMENT motivation: is the need to set realistic goals, persist after the conquest of these goals productively, and demand excellence in the evaluation of the results.
PEOPLE WITH MOTIVATION TO ACHIEVE
1 fight for personal achievement than the if awards
2 feel desire to achieve something better or more efficiently
3 feel desire to make things better
4 looking for situations to assume personal responsibility for solving problems
5 they need to receive immediate feedback on your performance
6 they set goals of moderate difficulty
7 avoid easy tasks or too difficult
8. the same chances of success or failure allows them to experience feelings of achievement and satisfaction for the same efforts
MOTIVATION to power: it is the need to control and manipulate others and is associated with the idea of achieving Status
PEOPLE WITH MOTIVATION TO POWER:
1 they prefer the Status-oriented and competitive situations.
2 worry by the prestige before which a proper performance
3 they tend to control others
4 they tend to manipulate people to achieve their own ends
5 influence people to do a few things and others don't
6 they are thinking as obtain and exercise power and authority
7 can help your group to set goals and assist them in their ability to meet these goals
AFFILIATION motivation: It is the desire to enjoy the appreciation and acceptance of the people
1 they struggle to conquer the friendship
2 they prefer situations of cooperation to the competition
3 they want including high degree of understanding
4 they tend to think often about the quality of their relationships
5. they appreciated the pleasant moments that have passed with some people
6 they worry about the shortcomings of their relationships with others
7 seek be required, this is to give and receive affection
Once more the different motivations tend to express themselves in different behaviors, when a need or motivation in someone, its effect is to predispose the person to the behavior that has been associated with the satisfaction of that need. For example, having a high achievement motivation predisposes the individual to set goals, trying to improve their performance to reach them and use the feedback of their performance realistically, the motivation to achieve not puts emphasis on the need to interact with people
"within the motivations of the adult man there is one that is essentially linked to productive work, and this motivation explains in large part the tendency of man to use the work as a means for personal and social growth. This motivation is indeed associated with the progress of individuals and Nations. This motivation is the need for achievement"(Oswaldo Romero Garcia).
INTERNALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
One of the motivational process components is the internality and this impulse is associated to the idea of exercising control over our own behavior; the location of this control makes that it differs a type of internal control and a type of external control
Investigations into this motivational component initially threw its quality of being part of the motivation to achieve, research recent she has shown that it is a motivation more than the human behavioural repertoire. Internality refers to this external or internal perception of control behaviour also called LOCUS of CONTROL; which means responsibility for own conduct
The internality as all motivation must be energized behaviors, does it, and for this reason is conceptualized as an intrinsic need to control the results and efforts contributing to that outcome
There are people who are seen as cause and their own conduct by which are responsible of what they do; contrary to this, there are people who do not see the connection between their actions and the results of those actions
Recognize the differences between a person and another is of vital importance to understand the motivational functioning of human beings. Let's see now they are such differences:

INTERNAL PEOPLE

EXTERNAL PEOPLE

They attribute the causes of outcomes to internal sources; lack of effort, lack of attention

they make attributions of causality to external agents; luck, other powerful

It energizes behavior towards tasks perceived as controllable

It energizes behavior towards goals already controlled by be very easy or very difficult goals determined by chance and not by the capacity

In the implementation of the goal it tends to plan

In the implementation of the goal it tends to improvise

Persistence implies productive use of the feed-back, demonstrating control over the effort and results

Persistence implies stubbornness, which means mindless repetition of the same conduct

Some judgments about the internality and one of them is determining the persistence, persistence, in turn, determines the incentive value of the results, and the incentive value determines the final execution are known. As for the externabilidad, it is perceived as a trend that pervades the thinking of the person in all of its activities; and a generalized externality leads to a low motivation
Achievement which, in turn, leads to a poor performance, whatever the type of execution.

STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING GOALS

1st. step:
The first condition to self-improvement, is to set the goal, with very particular characteristics, the goal must be controlled and in this sense the goals initially vary between being:
Intrinsic or extrinsic
Controllable and uncontrollable
Really know what you have to do, that really what you want to achieve; that is what we want to achieve; This means anticipating the result through a display of their actions
2nd. step:
Set time; Really know the meaning of a week, two or a month, the time is not controlled; the time is between a fact and a succession, the time is today, immediately, you must calculate how long is required to reach the goal, you must define exactly
3rd. step:
Determine resources. The capacities, skills and abilities are also an irreplaceable condition for achieving the goal. In addition to this is needed to estimate the cost in money that requires you to invest. Money, time, skills and other resources defined "with which" we will reach the goal.
4th. step:
Define activity. All information about resources is relevant pair Conquerable, and realistic goal without this setting information can not implement the achievement motivation. Implement means to define activities for the implementation of the goal, i.e., as they will perform a series of actions that organized efficiently lead to the achievement of the goal.
5th. step:
Face obstacles. That means persistence, when a reason is actually intrinsic your property to maintain and direct behavior toward the goal, is never lost. Persistence implies changes in the behavioral strategies that allow you to overcome obstacles
6. step:
fix criteria of excellence. When the goal is controllable, achievable and truly stimulating requires establishing levels of excellence for a perfect execution, implying a sense of quality that is of course relative, because the dimensions of quality and perfection vary from one person to another. The important thing is to seek satisfaction for doing the best in all and each one of the goals that the person intends to

STRATEGIES TO STIMULATE GROWTH TO ACHIEVE

Whatever the relationship: father-son, supervisor, subordinate, or teacher-student, the interaction between two people is that one of them stimulate to achievement, and the other will be a person willing to grow and to overcome their situation.
The process consists of defining behavior, acknowledge feelings, explain the behavior and set expectations, in terms of the conduct of the person is in a situation of growing.
In a work situation, frequently can occur a relationship like this, here is an example:
Ask a supervisor to identify an employee worker who in his opinion must be motivated. Motivated for that?. to make it work more to pay more. What worker behaviors that make think that you need to be motivated. The worker is an irresponsible, before he was a good worker, but when a new project is started, change completely all the time seems unconcerned.
When the supervisor is a person like this, feel displeasure, rejection and desire to punish him. Looking for explanations about this situation, the supervisor thinks that worker is irresponsible, careless, and unproductive. What is expected of this worker to assign the next task; Surely he neglected, will do things in any way and not end in time what I have to do.
Immediately feels a vicious circle:
• Inefficient performance
• Feeling of rejection
• Thinking of irresponsibility
• Expectation of failure
• Reproduction of the initial inefficiency
If the behaviors are initially built in terms of achievement, feelings, thoughts and expectations as a result generated by the supervisor, will be different, a greater potential motivational content.
How do stimulated is to achieve growth?
in response to this question is again to the initial example?
1. conduct:
The worker is someone who is doing something that doesn't know to do, and had not received any training for this purpose.
2 feeling:
The supervisor is a promoter of the personal and professional development, their role is to guide and this is stimulating.
3. thinking:
The causes attributed to the results depend on the form as running the effort dedicated. This effort, of course, can be improved, and an attribution of this type are invited to work together
4. expectations:
When the causes are due to effort, understood as a modifiable internal factor, then the worker and the supervisor think that they are able to determine more and better results with greater effort.
PERSONAL GROWTH AND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
Develop our own achievement motivation is a particular way of perceiving, feeling, and thinking about the events that daily occur in our life.
Achievement is a motive, something inside, a State of cognitive - affective that impels us to get the best out of ourselves
When we are developing the achievement motivation in another person, what we are doing is to teach you to perceive, feel and think in a certain way, that it will always be a person.
"The aim is that person to unleash your inner strength for personal growth"
THE MOTIVATION FOR DECADES
The challenges more serious for the guidance of personnel in the future will certainly be:
• Increase the productivity of employees
• Reduce costs and waste operations
• Improve the knowledge and techniques of personnel
• to increase worker morale
• increase the motivation
Industrialized societies it is incorporating an employee that:
• You have more interest in achieving objectives to follow rules or procedures
• It is more loyal to his profession to his boss
• It is more interested in the quality of working life
• This more interest for its realization and its work
In general, they are workers with new values:
• They want meaningful work
• They want attention and energy at the time of training
• Combination of high confidence and fear show
• Are indifferent to the traditional penalty for poor performance
• They have a strong need of feedback and not custom awards.
• Show a great urgency with regard to the time which translates into the predisposition not to expect too much in the success of his career
• show a developed desire for autonomy, the authority to carry out the work and participation in decision-making
• Has a strong interest in information and less rigid authority of the structure of the company
• Are engaged in a wide range of lifestyles
making a supervisor to motivate and retain employees more valuable:
• Assume the role of Director of the results
• always define a person's work and expected results
• Treat each employee as a person
• Provide opportunities for employee participation in planning and decision-making
• Stimulate development itself and redefining progress opportunities
• stimulate creativity and get work to be the most challenging possible
• Establish effective communication channels
• offer praise and confidence when needed
• Be aware of the changing values, attends to the way of thinking of the workers and their links with the opportunities offered by the private company.
Attitudes, ideals and objectives of the employees are changing. The address by authority are giving way to address motivation, objectives and team work.
To the extent that supervisors will adapt to these changes, greater impact on the results of the work of their subordinates and their own managerial success shall be observed.

18 ITEM

Level of complexity of learning | Definition

Once the teacher gains mastery of the technique of the formulation of objectives required the adoption of a framework that allows the rational treatment of another aspect of importance also fundamental as it is the determination of the levels of complexity that must be teaching and learning, i.e., that behavior changes should be done in students depending on their characteristics and school level as well as the economica-social reality and the type of professional who intends to form.

CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (BLOOM'S TAXONOMY AND COLLABORATORS)

The educational objectives are classified in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.
Domains are divided into categories which are also subdivided into subcategories according to the nature of the behaviors included.

COGNITIVE DOMAIN

The cognitive domain refers to behaviors that range from remembering or reproduce what they learned, to some forms of original and creative combine, synthesize, draw conclusions and evaluate information.
Regarding the principles of law that served as a basis to the cognitive domain we have that behaviors are sorted from the most simple to the most complex.
The cognitive domain is divided into six (6) categories in order of increasing difficulty.
These categories are:
1 knowledge (information)
Included under this heading all those forms of behaviour that emphasize memory and remembrance as mental processes, by recognition or by the memory of ideas, materials and phenomena. The classification of these objectives is done from the types of conduct more specific, concrete me simple to the more complex and abstract.

1.1 KNOWLEDGE SPECIFIC
Aislables, own information can be found within this class and specific for each field of knowledge, that should be used by specialists, as an element of communication in their respective fields. Specific expertise are extremely numerous, so they have to be selected for educational purposes.
1.2 KNOWLEDGE OF TERMINOLOGY
Refers to the knowledge of verbal and nonverbal symbols of the respective sectors of knowledge that can be selected in order to specify the communication and synthesize the information. Students should know the meaning of descriptive or operational terms most commonly used in the area that they are studying.
1.3 KNOWLEDGE OF SPECIFIC FACTS:
It includes knowledge of dates, events, people, places, etc. You can also include such period approximate historical facts, or the general order, or the order of magnitude of one phenomenon either approximate or relative information
1.4 KNOWLEDGE OF THE WAYS AND MEANS WITH THE SPECIFIC FACTS:
Refers to the knowledge of the ways to organize, classify, express and judge ideas. In addition, includes chronological sequences, methods and research techniques, as well as knowledge of the criteria or standards used to evaluate any material.
1.5 KNOWLEDGE OF CONVENTIONS
It refers to conventional modes of treat and present ideas and phenomena
1.6. KNOWLEDGE OF TRENDS AND SEQUENCES
This includes knowledge of processes, orientations and dynamics of phenomena in relation to time.
1.7. KNOWLEDGE OF CLASSIFICATIONS AND CATEGORIES.
It includes knowledge of classes, assemblies, divisions, and that any arrangements that may be as fundamental to a certain matter, a purpose, argument or problem.
2 - UNDERSTANDING
It represents the level of understanding. The Lonely Guy must capture the direct meaning of communication verbal, pictorial, symbolic, etc. No need to find him other implications.
3 - APPLICATION
The use of abstractions in particular and specific situations. These abstractions can be seen in the form of general ideas, rules or procedures, or methods. Abstractions can be also of technical principles, ideas and theories that have to be given and applied.
4.ANALISIS
It represents a grade more complex abstraction with respect to the previous categories. Stresses the ability to divide a whole into its parts, and understand their interrelationships and modes of organization.
5 - SYNTHESIS
The synthesis includes the fact unify the elements and parts so that they form a whole. It involves the process of working with parts, parts, components and the arrangement and combination of them constitute a pattern or structure that were not previously clear.
6 ASSESSMENT
It involves capacity to judge, to give judgments of qualitative and quantitative values based on pre-set criteria.

AFFECTIVE DOMAIN

This covers the educational objectives that have to do with the feeling, emotion, with the setting and the degree of acceptance or non-acceptance.
Affective field ranges from simple care essential for the selection of events to more complex attaches the character and consciousness; attitudes, insights, values, affinities and differences.

PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN

Include objectives that emphasize some muscle or motor skills how to manipulate materials or objects or any act requiring coordination neuro-muscular like writing, reading, etc. The modern science of behavior raises the problem of the human being ever think without feeling, acts without thinking, etc. It seems very clear that everyone always respond as a total body. However, a report by Maghew (1958), points out little relationship between changes of attitudes and increase of knowledge in a course of a University College.
This division into three fields, which is conventional has its raison d ' être to ensure that teachers and professors as well as the gliders of curricula, to make distinction between these three types of learning, also facilitates assessment.

19 ITEM

Levels of cognitive behavior | Definition

1 - knowledge:

Memory, ability to remember, to mind the listed material.

2 - comprehension:

Ability to capture what is communicating and making use of an idea without linking it with other ideas or material or already seen meaning. It requires knowledge of factors, principles, conditions, etc.

3 - application:

Ability to use ideas, principles, theories in particular and specific situations. It requires understanding and knowledge

4 - analysis:

Ability to interrupt a communication in parts which constitute a better and clearer organization of ideas, having as a requirement the application, understanding and knowledge.

5 - synthesis:

Skills for group parties or elements in the fusion of an organization or group. Analysis, application, compression and knowledge required.

6 - evaluation:

Ability to sort the values of the ideas, systems, or methods, using appropriate criteria. Requires the application, compression, and knowledge.

20 ITEM

ISO standards | Definition

Currently around the world ISO standards are required, since they guarantee the quality of a product through the implementation of comprehensive controls, make sure that all processes involved in its manufacture operate within the planned features. Normalization is the starting point in the strategy of the quality, as well as for the subsequent certification of the company.
These rules were written with the spirit that the quality of a product is not born of efficient controls, if not of a production process and supports operating properly. This is a rule that applies to the company and not the products of this. Its implementation ensures the customer that the quality of the product he is buying will remain in time. To the extent that there are companies that have not been certified a differentiation is the norm in the market. However over time it will become commonplace and will begin the discrimination towards non-certified companies. This already occurs today in developed countries where large corporations supplying departments require standard to all its suppliers.

What is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), born after the second World War (founded in 1946), which is in charge of promoting the development of international standards of manufacture, trade and communication for all industrial branches except for the electrical and electronics. Its main function is the seek the standardization of products and safety standards for companies or organizations at the international level.
ISO is a network of institutes of national standards of 146 countries, on the basis of one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), based in Geneva, Switzerland, is composed of Government delegations and non-governmental subdivided into a series of subcommittees responsible for developing guidelines that will contribute to environmental improvement.
Developed by ISO standards are voluntary, understanding that ISO is a non-governmental organization and does not depend on any other international body, therefore has no authority to impose its rules on any country.
As "the International Organization for Standardization" would have different abbreviations in different languages ("IOS" in English, "OIN" in French), is Decius use a Word; that was the Word Greek "ISOS", which means "equal". Therefore, regardless of the country, regardless of the language, the short form of the name of the organization is always ISO
International standardization began in the electrotechnical field: the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was established in 1906, while the research work in other fields has been done by the International Federation of the associations of national standardization (ISA), founded in 1926, but ISA was emphasis in mechanical engineering and for this reason in 1946, gather 25 countries in London and has decided to create a new international organization which would have intended "to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards". The ISO officially began operations on February 23, 1947
ISO standards provide great benefits in quality system to enterprises, but although she is designed to add value in quality system, not always complies is the goal, not because of the same standard.
The negative effect may have origin in different ways, the most common, is that not in all companies adopt the standard as a system of quality and motivation towards the ISO is more a necessary certificate that grants competitive advantages, away from the original purpose of the same rule, so the interest is focused more on improving , certification and what it means, and the other reason is that you begin the implementation process without first making a due process of awareness that facilitates it, because all companies are not in the ideal conditions to initiate a process of certification in ISO.
For the above reasons, it is not difficult to find that there are various cases in which the ISO standard ceased to be an added value to the improvement of the quality system, becoming a serious problem affecting the organizational environment, and the worst, which negatively impacted the same satisfaction to customer. The problem is not the standard itself, is the degree of awareness of the entrepreneur, the seriousness with which is taken, the understanding of it and the capacity of flexibility and adaptation of the company.
Implement a system to ISO 9000 quality requires more than the standard education, is necessary to make a process of awareness raising involving all stakeholders in the company, understanding the awareness as an academic process phase or as a conceptual framework, awareness must be more than that, should be a process of facilitation and awareness to change which will provide elements that create a favorable environment for the new system of quality in the company.
It is necessary that before starting a process ISO, is involved the company's culture and the same climate, orienting it towards a favorable or favorable position to receive the quality system proposed in the ISO system.
"If the organizational culture is not previously addressed, and if the conditions of the working environment are not created, the effect of the ISO quality system will be seen as another of the many trends or administrative theories which have made part of the proliferation of so many organizational approaches that go out of fashion".
As business consultant, or simply as a customer or user of them, I can see that many certified companies achieved was that, "a certificate", as its internal and external problems continued and in some cases is exacerbated. Some certified companies have stayed equal or worse you were like, but with a certificate.
It could be said that ISO is of fashion, and many companies seduced by fashion of the certification, decide implementation without being culturally prepared.
"All in good time", this premise also applies to the ISO, because it is not expedient that an organization with an immature culture, or uncommitted entrepreneurs, or a company without any structure and processes, look for ISO certification.
To implement the ISO standards, rather than for the certification, companies must have minimum conditions, which should be valued by the entity that audits them, because if a company that does not yet favorable conditions and opt for an ISO certification, commits a sin, but the company that audited it, commits an act of irresponsibility for us as well as to the same standard, as this is a form of lending to corrupt rule.

Who develops ISO standards?

ISO standards are developed according to strict rules to ensure that they are transparent. The reverse side of the coin is that this may take time to develop the general agreement between the parties concerned and to examine the public agreement in review in the countries members of the union of ISO. For some users of standards, particularly those working in sectors of technology changing so quickly, it may be more important to agree on a technical specification and publish it quickly, before examining the various checks and have an agreement on a new standard in all members of the international ISO. Therefore to solve these needs, ISO has developed a new range different specific data categories, allowing publication in an intermediate stage of development before the full general agreement: specification publicly available (PRIMACY), technical specification (TS), technical report (TR), agreement of international workshop (IWA).
The body responsible for the implementation of these standards is ISO (International Organization for Standardization), through its technical Committee TC/176. ISO is a worldwide Federation of national standards bodies, with headquarters in Geneva (Switzerland).
ISO standards are analyzed periodically to decide if they need to be confirmed, revised or canceled. The purpose is to ensure that they take into account technological and market developments, and that are representative of the State of science and technology.

Objective of ISO standards on quality assurance

Its purpose is to ensure that there is a quality system and that it is following. This requires two basic actions:
• Establish appropriate controls of quality management.
• Documenting these controls.
• The standard does not define the quality system applied by the companies. What it does is to describe the requirements that must respond said quality system.
The only way in which it has to show that it really complies with the requirements set out in the standard is through the certification of the quality system.

Main standards ISO 9000

To be able to reflect modern management approaches and improve standard organizational practices has been considered very useful and necessary to introduce structural changes in standards, while maintaining the essential requirements of the regulations.
The family of ISO standards is made up of three basic rules, supplemented by a small number of other documents (guides, technical reports and technical specifications). The three basic rules are:
• ISO 9000: Sistemas de Gestión de la Calidad - Conceptos y Vocabulario
• ISO 9001: Sistemas de Gestión de la Calidad - Requisitos
• ISO 9004: Sistemas de Gestión de la Calidad - Guía para llevar a cabo la mejora

Principales Características de las Normas ISO 9000

Las nuevas normas ISO 9000 se han reestructurando con la finalidad de facilitar una introducción, más comprensible para el usuario, de los Sistemas de Gestión de la Calidad en una organización.
La estructura común de ambas normas sigue el formato típico de los principales procesos de una organización y permitirá que el Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad este alineado con sus operaciones.
Incluyen la continuidad y compatibilidad entre las antiguas y nuevas versiones de las normas. La nueva y única norma ISO 9001 elimina el problema de elegir entre las normas ISO 9001, 9002 y 9003. El Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad cubre, con la nueva norma ISO 9001, todas las actividades de una organización y esto proporcionará a los clientes, la seguridad, de que todos los procesos de una organización han sido tratados.
En la nueva ISO 9001 se ha introducido el concepto de la "mejora continua" para estimular la eficacia de la organización, incrementar su ventaja competitiva en el mercado y así responder mejor a las necesidades y expectativas de sus clientes.
La coherencia de ambas normas permitirá una suave transición a aquellas organizaciones que deseen pasar de la norma ISO 9001 a la norma ISO 9004.

Ventajas e inconvenientes de la certificación ISO 9000

Antes de examinar la idoneidad de las ISO 9000 para el sector educativo y formativo, será útil analizar las ventajas y los inconvenientes sentidos por las empresas. Cada vez se efectúan más estudios, a escala tanto nacional como internacional, para examinar las virtudes y defectos de la certificación ISO 9000.
Una encuesta detallada efectuada en el UK ("¿Son operativas las ISO 9000?") efectuada en 1995 por la Manchester Business School por encargo de la SGS , halló ocho motivos para obtener una certificación, señalados cada uno de ellos al menos por la mitad de quienes contestaron a la en-cuesta. Son, por orden decreciente de importancia:
• la probable demanda de los futuros clientes de una acreditación ISO 9000;
• aumentar la coherencia de las operaciones en la empresa;
• mantener/mejorar la proporción de mercado;
• mejorar la calidad de los servicios;
• la presión por los clientes;
• un buen elemento de promoción;
• dar mayor eficacia a las operaciones;
• mejorar la calidad de los productos.
Esta encuesta concluía también que:
"Las pequeñas empresas aspiran funda-mentalmente a cumplir la norma con el objetivo de mejorar su proporción de mercado y de promocionarse. (…) Cuanto mayor es la organización, más probable resulta que ésta cite la presión por los clientes como motivo para lograr una certificación. El sector de los servicios resalta la importancia de incrementar su pro-porción en el mercado y la necesidad de mejorar la coherencia de sus operaciones y la calidad del servicio (…)".
Estos resultados, interpretados dentro de un contexto educativo o formativo, coinciden con los míos propios y mis expe-riencias con ofertores de enseñanza o formación.
Pero esta misma encuesta permitió detectar también una serie de obstáculos y problemas importantes con respecto a la certificación ISO 9000:
• el tiempo requerido para escribir el manual
• el intenso papeleo necesario
• los altos costes de implantación de las normas
• el tiempo requerido para llevar a término la implantación
• los altos costes de mantenimiento de la norma
• la falta de asesoramiento gratuito
• la falta de coherencia entre los diversos auditores
• el tiempo empleado en controlar la documentación antes de las auditorias
Sólo el primero de estos inconvenientes resultó mencionado en la encuesta por más del 30% de los participantes; el último punto lo fue sólo por un 16%. Resumiendo los inconvenientes, la encuesta señalaba:
"Todos los grupos consideraban que el problema fundamental con las ISO 9000 consiste en los elevados costes de implantación, traducidos en tiempo, documentación y dinero empleados. Las pequeñas organizaciones tendían por lo general a considerar los inconvenientes superiores a los beneficios con mayor frecuencia que las grandes empresas. La misma tendencia se apreciaba también con respecto al mantenimiento permanente de la norma (…)"
En mi opinión, los argumentos indicados en favor y en contra de las ISO 9000 resumen buena parte del debate sobre los beneficios y los inconvenientes que las empresas asocian a estas normas. Resaltan también que la relevancia y la rentabilidad de una certificación dependen grandemente del contexto específico: tanto de las demandas y oportunidades exteriores como de las necesidades y posibilidades internas.
Así pues, no debe sorprendernos que sigan existiendo numerosas compañías que a pesar de su alta calidad y éxito comercial no poseen una certificación ISO 9000. De hecho, el lábel "ISO" constituye simplemente una forma de desarrollar y mantener un sistema de la calidad, de operar el proceso de aseguramiento de la calidad y de participar en una espiral de mejoras continuas. Pero constituye también un método muy visible por el mundo exterior (a diferencia de otros sistemas de la calidad) y que fija las perspectivas muy claramente para los trabajadores de una empresa.
A mi parecer, evolucionamos gradualmente -con mayor rapidez en algunos países europeos que en otros- hacia una situación en las que las ISO 9001 o 9002 pasarán a estar consideradas como un requisito "mínimo" de la calidad para las empresas del sector productivo. Este ya es el caso de algunos sectores industriales en algunas regiones europeas. Esta idea penetra también en el sector de servicios comerciales, si bien a un ritmo menor y de manera menos homogénea (debido en general a que la relevancia del certificado no resulta obvia, o por la existencia de alternativas interesantes, p.e. normas específicas sectoriales). No obstante, no podemos aún vaticinar si la implantación de las ISO 9000 en el sector público no lucrativo (incluyendo el mundo de la enseñanza) será fuerte o no. Ello depende de su idoneidad, su interpretación y sus costes, y de la cultura de la calidad en las correspondientes organizaciones.

La norma ISO 14000

La norma ISO 14000 es un conjunto de documentos de gestión ambiental que, una vez implantados, afectará todos los aspectos de la gestión de una organización en sus responsabilidades ambientales y ayudará a las organizaciones a tratar sistemáticamente asuntos ambientales, con el fin de mejorar el comportamiento ambiental y las oportunidades de beneficio económico. Los estándares son voluntarios, no tienen obligación legal y no establecen un conjunto de metas cuantitativas en cuanto a niveles de emisiones o métodos específicos de medir esas emisiones. Por el contrario, ISO 14000 se centra en la organización proveyendo un conjunto de estándares basados en procedimiento y unas pautas desde las que una empresa puede construir y mantener un sistema de gestión ambiental.
En este sentido, cualquier actividad empresarial que desee ser sostenible en todas sus esferas de acción, tiene que ser consciente que debe asumir de cara al futuro una actitud preventiva, que le permita reconocer la necesidad de integrar la variable ambiental en sus mecanismos de decisión empresarial.
La norma se compone de 5 elementos, los cuales se relacionan a continuación con su respectivo número de identificación:
• Sistemas de Gestión Ambiental (14001 Especificaciones y directivas para su uso - 14004 Directivas generales sobre principios, sistemas y técnica de apoyo.)
• Auditorias Ambientales (14010 Principios generales - 14011 Procedimientos de auditorias, Auditorias de Sistemas de Gestión Ambiental - 14012 Criterios para certificación de auditores)
• Evaluación del desempeño ambiental (14031 Lineamientos - 14032 Ejemplos de Evaluación de Desempeño Ambiental)
• Análisis del ciclo de vida (14040 Principios y marco general- 14041 Definición del objetivo y ámbito y análisis del inventario - 14042 Evaluación del impacto del Ciclo de vida- 14043 Interpretación del ciclo de vida - 14047 Ejemplos de la aplicación de iso14042- 14048 Formato de documentación de datos del análisis)
• Etiquetas ambientales (14020 Principios generales- 14021 Tipo II - 14024 Tipo I - 14025 Tipo III)
• Términos y definiciones (14050 Vocabulario)

Principios de las Normas ISO 14000

Todas las normas de la familia ISO 14000 fueron desarrolladas sobre la base de los siguientes principios:
• Deben resultar en una mejor gestión ambiental;
• deben ser aplicables a todas las naciones;
• deben promover un amplio interés en el publico y en los usuarios de los estándares;
• deben ser costo efectivas, no prescriptivas y flexibles, para poder cubrir diferentes necesidades de organizaciones de cualquier tamaño en cualquier parte del mundo; como parte de su flexibilidad,
• deben servir a los fines de la verificación tanto interna como externa; deben estar basadas en conocimiento científicos; y por sobre todo, deben ser practicas, útiles y utilizables.
Extracted from the website: Liderazgo y Mercadeo
This is a translation published for educational purposes and may contain errors or be inaccurate.

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