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Outsourcing, leadership, process reengineering, relaxation, decision making, Brainstorming | Concepts of leadership

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Concepts of Leadership and Marketing

Table of contents

  1. Matrix organization
  2. Outsourcing
  3. Strategic thinking
  4. Systems thinking
  5. Strategic planning
  6. Power of leadership
  7. Neuro-linguistic programming
  8. Programming and performance of time
  9. Reengineering
  10. Relaxation
  11. Social responsibility in enterprises
  12. Information systems
  13. ERP systems (Enterprise Resource Planning)
  14. Solidarity in productive enterprises
  15. Stress
  16. Supply Chain Management (SCM)
  17. Types of intelligence
  18. Decision making
  19. Decision making in Group – techniques for decision making in Group
  20. Storm of Ideas (Brainstorming)


ITEM 01

Matrix organization | Definition

The origin of these matrix organizations, is linked to the organizations of projects, they have a double flow of authority (vertical from the point of view hierarchical and horizontal from the technical point of view or project), this type of structure is formed by the formation of teams with members from various areas of the Organization to carry out a project ceasing to exist with the same conclusion.
A matrix organization is an organizational approach that assigns different functional departments specialists working in one or more projects led by a project manager.
The matrix structure creates a double chain of command that explicitly violates the classic principle of unity of command. Functional departmentalization is used to improve the economy of specialization. But, at the same time functional departments, is a series of managers who are responsible for specific products, projects, or programs within the organization.
Along the vertical dimension, add the various projects that the company is developing. Each project is led by a manager which integrates staff from each of the functional departments. The inclusion of this vertical dimension to the traditional horizontal functional departments, weaves together elements of the departmentalization of functional and product, hence the term matrix or matrix.
Employees in the matrix have two heads: the head of the functional Department and project manager. Project managers have authority over the functional members that are part of the project team. The authority is shared between the two managers.
To work effectively, the two managers must communicate regularly and coordinate the demands on employees that are common to them.

Advantages

• Brings together several experts on a computer
• Greater flexibility in the Organization
• Allows you to assign resources to projects of greater importance from the strategic point of view.
• Helps mitigate conflicts between objectives generated by the different functional areas of the organization.
• Members tend to motivate you more.
• Serves for the training of chain of heads.
• Helps increase the involvement and commitment of the members of the teams.
• Prevents promiscuity among members of the teams and members of organizations that protect.

Disadvantages.

• The double flow of authority sometimes causes conflict
• Can lead to stress in members of the teams having to be accountable to two Chiefs.

MATRIX ORGANIZATION DESIGNS

Each form of organizational design has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. If the functional structure is adopted, the projects are delayed; If you choose the project organization, technologies are less developed. Matrix design tries to achieve the benefits of both"
When designing this type of matrix organization, one faces the problem of choosing group activities that relate to a common product, common client, common geographical area, common business functions (marketing, engineering, etc.) or common processes each has benefits and costs.
The functional structure facilitates the acquisition of specialized inputs (recruitment of specific specialists), and meeting resources and specialized times. Offers in addition a career workers; so the organization can recruit, use and retain specialists.
The capabilities of this type of organization are necessary to continue developing high-tech products. However, the tasks that the Organization should play require different amounts of specialized resources applied in varying sequences. The problem is created, so that all tasks can be completed simultaneously time, requiring large amounts of information and time.
The product or project has the exactly opposite set of benefits. Facilitates coordination among the specialties to achieve the completion on time and torque stick to budget targets. But if you have two projects, and each requires, for example, a part-time and a part-time electro-mechanical engineer, electronic engineer project organization must hire two electrical engineers and reduce the specialization, or recruit four engineers (2 e and 2 electromechanical) and incur a duplication of costs
In the ' 60s, in full space race, aerospace firms faced a situation that both the technical performance as coordination was important: the result was the design matrix.

How to choose a design?

While not all firms would benefit from a pure array form, if many would do with cross functional forms.
There is a wide range of alternatives between a pure functional organization and an organization of product pure, while the matrix in the middle. There is a continuum of organization between the functional forms and designs of products. Design is specified by the choice between the structure of authority; the integration of mechanisms such as the forces of tasks, equipment, etc. and by the formal information system.
These design variables help to regulate the relative distribution of influence between the considerations of products and functional operations of the firm. There is then a choice of mechanism of integration, structure of authority, information systems and distribution of influence. The factors that determine the choice are the diversity of the product line, the rate of change of the product line, the interdependencies between units, level of technology, presence of economies of scale and size of the organization.

Product lines

Greater diversity between lines of production and higher rate of change of the products in the line, greater is the pressure to move towards structures of products, because it is difficult for Directors General and functional to maintain a knowledge of all areas.

Interdependence

The functional division of workers in organizations creates interdependencies between specialized subunits. I.e., a problem of action in a unit has direct impact on the good achievement in the other units. If there is time, then the functional problems can solve their own problems. But when there is little time (in the case you have to respond quickly to market changes), it is not good that a unit affects another, because it slows down the whole process
Then, while most just programming, greater is the force to move to the right.

Level of technology

The use of new technologies requires experience in various technical specialties, which often can be purchased only at the same organization. For this reason, if the organization is to make more effective use of the experience, the functional way of organizing is superior. While the bigger the need for experience, greater is the force to move to the left

Economies of scale and size

Another factor favoring functional form is the degree in which facilities are used. It is usually more expensive to purchase small installations for divisions of product than some larger for functional departments. While older are the economies of scale, greater is the force to move to the left.
However, if the size of the organization is large, minors are the lost cost of specialization and economies of scale when it takes the form of product.

The choice

If the structure of the organization is functional, many of the Standard symptoms indicate a need for change. Do they are being brought executives above the day-to-day decisions to the detriment of the development of the strategy? If the response indicates overload, is then appropriate a move toward a matrix. The best strategy for this is a series of movements until the necks of bottles.
If the organization is organized according to product, movements toward an array should be more subtle: must be motivated by the monitoring of the respective technological means

ITEM 02

Outsourcing | Definition

Outsourcing is the latest trend of today's world of business, outside which was its own organization to get it especializoservicios of various kinds. This process links the crecimientonegocios with a range of advanced services and resources. Which means that now you can get out of your business for services you may want less effectively internally. Examples are accounting, information technology, human resources and Telemarketing. Outsourcing represents a new way to compete that can give a business competitive advantages if it looks like a legitimate business strategy.
Outsourcing is the transfer or delegation to a provider of external service operation and day-to-day management of business processes. The customer receives a service that performs a different function of business that fits into overall business operations of the client.
Outsourcing is a new concept of distributing the work of the company. It's outsourced services or functions that do not correspond to the essence of the business. The reasons to hire an outsourcing vary according to the type of enterprise, as well as the existing types of outsourcing. INFOWEEK visited some of the providers of it outsourcing in Chile, to arrive at a description of the current status of this activity in the country.

TYPES OF OUTSOURCING

Traditional outsourcing: Employees of a company are no longer performing the same jobs at the company. Rather, identifies the tasks that need to be carried out, and to service provider employees normally employed. For example, an information technology outsourcing can include a transfer of the responsibility of the management of data centers and networks (of LAN, WAN, and telecommunications). In the field of the management of facilities, individuals who acted as managers of the property were able to employees of a facilities management company.
Outsourcing of the Greenfield: The company changes its business processes without any use of personnel by the service provider. For example, the company could use to launch company to provide a new service, such as compute remote wireless, which was not previously managed internally.
Outsourcing is a new concept of distributing the work of the company. It's outsourced services or functions that do not correspond to the essence of the business. The reasons to hire an outsourcing vary according to the type of enterprise, as well as the existing types of outsourcing. INFOWEEK visited some of the providers of it outsourcing in Chile, to arrive at a description of the current status of this activity in the country.

REASONS FOR OUTSOURCING

In the market there are services institutionalized since before outsourcing as systems integration, maintenance of equipment and networks, and consulting. Currently, "the outsourcing market is growing among these and are taking a rather interesting leadership", says Prado.
There are different ways of interpreting what is happening with outsourcing in some countries, views vary according to how things are, there are those who say that the outsourcing market is mature and others who see it as still young. But what everyone agrees is the reasons that guide customers to make the decision to outsource services. According to Adrián Barraza, outsourcing of Tandem Chile area manager, "while more nimble wants to be a company, tends to deliver activities that are their specialty to others whom you trust". And this is only the beginning, among the more compelling reasons are looking for an economy of scale that allow greater competitiveness, with lower costs and better benefits, higher levels of service and better control over these levels, stop distract resources on activities that are not specific to the business, rely on specialists who ensure efficient and free of costs and investments involving the necessary technological systems renewal. In this way, is more understandable that "what the customer should be questioned is why want to do an outsourcing: may be to lower costs, or to exploit a new business, or to keep up to date technologies." You have to reach a level of reflection of what what you want and what can be delivered in return,"says Sendino.
On the other hand, once the decision of taking an outsourcing, consider other important aspects to choose the supplier indicated, as the degree of specialisation of this area and its financial to meet requirements back. In addition, "most of the time are specific opportunities and are evaluated case to case, so the offer varies according to the requirements of the customer," says Hinojosa. "Do outsourcing requires high investments, therefore business is by volume, the profit margin is low and the risk is high, the investment is recovered in the long run. There are areas where even is not outsourcing because the volume of the market does not to find the point of balance that makes the business profitable,"he added.
Definitely choose a provider of outsourcing should not be easy, but an important aspect to consider is that "the quality often is associated with benefits that you can get the quality of a service, there are to compare price, cost and benefits," says Navarro.
Outsourcing contracts are signed for 5 years normally in our country, while in developed countries it is normal do them for about 10 years. This implies a permanent relationship between the customer and the supplier. Depending on the business and what it seeks to achieve with the outsourcing. It is possible to transfer or not the ownership of those assets, as well as the employment contracts of those who develop this activity can be transferred or not and thus, variations may be several, as working from inside the company or outside of it.
According to Prado, "the most important thing to carry out an outsourcing is the will of the parties." This is understandable, because contracts are complex and demand high responsibility of the supplier, the fines set forth by non compliance and customer must have clear knowledge and understanding of what you will receive in the future and how stipulates that directly will respond to certain possible situations.
Some view outsourcing as a partnership to work together, not to make a company work to another, however others see it more as a specialized service that is engaged. Although they seem different perspectives, what is really important here is to understand that "we are in a world of interdependence where always depends on a third party. It is better depending upon someone who knows their work, are serious, responsible and with prestige, which depend on anyone", as Navarro said.
One of the most important things in software outsourcing, and surely it is more than in any other type of outsourcing is confidence, because the value of information today is incalculable, not only by the power that is lost when the information is no longer, also because of the risk that you run when this becomes improper hands; "the conjunction of ethics and professional capacity is what gives the confidence your provider customer," says Barraza.

ITEM 03

Strategic thinking | Definition

In the last three decades of the twentieth century have seen, in the field of administration, the advent and the disappearance of many theories and fashions that have created styles of strategic management in enterprises. Companies are constantly faced with alternatives involving follow fashion, clinging to tradition or challenge the past and find new perspectives for a world that is rapidly changing.
Strategic thinking is one of the most useful tools that could cultivate any entrepreneurial or professional, is an invaluable investment, mainly because strategic thinking has to do with the achievement of objectives and the resolution of their problems, within a specific contextual framework. I.e. is a tool to get what we want, in the best way and overcoming difficulties.
Strategic thinking has always been linked to the military sector and it is here where more has developed, however, the business world has been very linked to strategic thinking, even exchanging sources, knowledge and inspiration, then, ultimately, the essence of things is the same, there is an ultimate goal, winning a war or establish itself in a market, and there are a number of ways to do the strategy attempts to elucidate the best of all of them for a specific case.
Own strategic thinking is to have a key to open the door that we want to and cultivate it is much easier than it may seem.
Strategic talent allows you to sort the confusion and discover the best way to move forward. As the other talents, it is not a capability that can be taught. It is a process of singular thought, which allows you to have a special perspective of the world. This perspective allows you to capture different models or patterns where others cannot see more than an option or complexity. Attentive (a) to these patterns, you contemplate different alternatives, always wondering what would happen if the chosen option is not correct. Either what would happen if had happened another thing; these recurrent questions help you to anticipate and assess possible obstacles. Led (a) from this position, you can select the most suitable way. It will likewise discarding those roads that do not lead anywhere, that cause resistance and those that are confusing. Thus, you eliminate, defines its strategy and acts. The characteristics of their talents are summarized after anticipate difficulties and choose alternatives.
It is not something of geniuses, it is a result of the work and common sense, we are going to give a series of keys to implement strategic thinking to what we do and increase the chances of success with that which we, as here shown, strategic thinking is based, essentially, on the knowledge and analysis.

Step 1: Know yourself.

There is no greater truth or axiom that repeat, many times we find ourselves with questionnaires about the personality or the entrepreneurial skills of the people from a company and 90% many people obvious them with disdain. It is very true that many of them are true platitudes, but there is nothing more blind to the obvious. We need to know what are our personal and what capabilities our weak points, that will help us, among other things, to know when we should delegate to form balanced teams of people, to compensate for these weaknesses and that can not be exploited by competitors etc.
Online circulating amount of questionnaires regarding this, sometimes, fill one and meditate the conclusions can discover some flank by cover or some quality to exploit, but what is certain is that the time is not lost.
The end result should be to know our own strong and weak points, as well as those of our team if we have it.

Step 2: Your company:

Know your company strong and weak points will make you to know which options will be correct and which are most likely to fail. Analyzes its production, distribution, finances and any part of its structure or operation that you seem important, must know it well, to know if two months of low Treasury going to drown or if distribution in time or the service is our strong point, which we will have to develop and inculcate in the minds of our customers.
The end result must possess an internal analysis, mainly carried out in enterprises through the F.O.D.A. (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) methodology and based on something as simple and complicated at the same time as reflect, analyze and translate these elements in a paper written. This will greatly help the execution of this task, after which was a series of highlights that will surely work to optimize the business. Mainly at the time of, as already has been named, exploit strengths and cover weaknesses.

Step 3: Know the terrain:

Following the analogy military the same is not a battle at sea be one ambush in the mountains, so if you know the terrain you can prepare yourself properly and you will not appear with your hiking boots to cross the ocean.
This analogy is to see strategic thinking has always in mind and seeks out the context in which moves our activity, i.e. the market and those who compose them, customers as much as possible.
Taking into account that such customers are like the SAP that gives life to our company, this should be an element known to exhaustion, or otherwise we run the risk of stand up one day and see that they are no longer there. As well as to think strategically we must plan our actions according to the 'ground' where are they going to develop, is as the backdrop for a work, although in this case it interacts, primordial way, with what we do on it, so should be all linked in developing our plans and not ignore it if we don't want to stumble over stones that we even saw that they were there.
To learn about the terrain it is necessary to analyze customers, their tastes, their motivations, especially those that decide to buy a product or a service. If we find that key we will have the primary advantage, because we know what offer to get us to buy us. Also will have to analyze the market, if it is on the rise or decline, what wins and which not. If the economic, social and legal situation is suitable or makes us have any handicap etc.
The end result should be an external analysis, through which all these characteristics, investigate which don't know but can be essential and have it written as a reference when developing our strategy.
Another useful tip is to not widen too our front line. We must — focus on a segment, which is the most suitable for our business, as if we are too dispersed we will never achieve a noticeable effect. The old saying "that covers much, little tightens", it becomes here a premise to keep in mind.

Step 4: Know your competition:

The market is like a chess game, don't play you only and therefore what you do will be answered by those who, like you, are trying to open a gap in the market. In this way we can not only be attentive to our movements but to possible reactions that may be by our competitors.
To "play" with warranty must know as much as possible to our adversaries, their strong and weak points, who are, as billed, who are their clients, etc. This is called making an analysis of the competition and have one must be the end result. Normally we will focus on those who are our most direct competitors and observe their reactions, trying to exploit its weaknesses.
When thinking strategically this can become one of the most important points, since it is a factor to overcome that it is dynamic, i.e. is not a similar hurdle to climb a mountain, which remains the same, with fixed difficulties, but reacts and is intelligent.

Step 5: Exploit the strong points:

Strategic thinking, when designing actions and tactics takes into account the strengths (of the enterprise, one same etc) and exploits them, since we'll probably better solve a problem, or before will find the solution through a path that use our strong points.
These strengths "contextualise", i.e. are analyzed taking into account the external context, competition etc. and seeks the best way to use it taking into account as they affect them these elements of the context.
Also, the strengths of the competition are analyzed and when it comes to mapping out a path and implement a strategy trying to find a way that avoids confrontation with these strengths.

Step 6: Remedy weaknesses:

Same as strengths must be exploited, the weak should be covered or amended. The weak points of our business or activity (including us) must know them us and nobody else must be autocratic, recognize them and provide the means to amend them.
We think that our competence, to implement its strategy, used the same scheme than we thought and will seek a way through which exploit our weak points. For this reason it is important that we work to amend them.

Step 7: Prepare the strategy:

Thorough analysis of all the above elements will give us multiple clues about the strategy that we should use (in fact many times the simple analysis already tells us, almost to shouting, what we must not do in our strategies). Our actions should be designed taking into account all the above elements, we can not think that masking elements as important as competition or the market, or actions that require our weak points to be carried out successfully (for example, if we are a small company whose weak spot is the financial structure, is crazy embark on a strategy based on the price war)
Actions, in turn, should have a goal of course, and this should be inspired by the idea of maximizing customer satisfaction when we cover your needs. That is the most immutable truth of the business world, if it is our guide, we will be on the right track.
Strategic thinking serves to solve problems, to try to "win battles" and is a tool within the reach of everyone. Its application in the business world can make a tangible difference. If you follow these steps in your scheme of thought, the formulation or the choice of a strategy, which we will discuss in future articles, will be much clearer and much more effective.

ITEM 04

Systems thinking | Definition

Systems thinking has been developed since the mid-20th century, its founders, are the founders of the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto (California - USA), and from there expanded to worldwide, as a discipline appropriate to the resolution of personal, family problems, organizations large and small, and up to international relations.

Definition of systems thinking

Systems thinking is the attitude of the human being, which is based on the perception of the real world in terms of Entireties for analysis, understanding and action, in contrast to the approach of the scientific method, which only perceives parts of this and disjointed way
Systems thinking is characterized in saying that the whole can be more, less or equal than the sum of its parts, is a philosophy based on modern systems looking for tactical and non-point goals to reach.
Technology that inspires thinking is used with the guided missiles, where although the objective or specific goal is movable have the ability to reach this goal in several ways.
In terms of human resources, it is to think as a whole, in order to not create organizations fixed but changeable and adaptable to the difficulties.
The current "knowledge society" becomes of the concept of "labor", of "intellectual capital", the success of organizations already does not depend on the action, but the interaction and communication. When the interaction fails, all the additional efforts of businesses are damaged.
"Systems thinking is a sensitivity to the subtle entanglements that living systems give its unique character" Peter Senge.

Characteristics of systems thinking

Systems thinking has unique qualities that make it an invaluable tool for modeling complex systems:
• Emphasizes observation at all and not of its parts
• It is a language circular rather than linear
• It has a set of precise rules that reduce ambiguities and communication problems that generate problems when discussing complex situations
• Contains Visual Tools to observe the performance of the model
• Open a window in our thinking, that converts individual perceptions into images express giving sense to the points of view of each person involved

Systems thinking methodology

In general the thinking is characterized by the following steps:
Global vision: building a global model where are observed in a general way the behavior of the system.
The short- and long-term balance: the systemic thinking builds a model capable of displaying the behavior that leads to success in the short term and if negative or positive implications in the long term that helps balance both for best results.
Recognition of the complex and interdependent dynamic systems: by means of specialized tools thinking builds specific situations under observation models to understand its elements without losing the overall view.
Recognition of the measurable and non-measurable elements: systems thinking models encourage the correct use of qualitative and quantitative indicators through the analysis of situation and its integration in the overall behavior.

Benefits of systems thinking

Thinking allows understanding, simulation and management of complex systems, such as those that exist at any company, business or work area, using this tool simplifies the understanding of internal processes and their impact on the outside environment, as well as the interaction between parts that integrate the global system.
Systems thinking methodology will help the optimization of processes, obtaining goals and to obtain a planning structured in anticipation of the environment where it is.

Strategies for systematic thinking

Growing time is the time to plan for hard times. More productive measures may be those that consume more resources. The more we fight for what we want, more we conspire against the possibilities of getting it. These systemic principles are important because they represent a more fruitful thinking and acting mode. Incorporated into our behavior requires a "peripheral vision" which is defined as: the ability to approach the world with a wide angle lens, to see how our actions are related to other areas of the same activity.

A Universal language

Systems thinking is a tool to solve problems, but we believe that it is more potent as language, because it expands our way of tackling complex problems. Tools of systems thinking - the casual cycle, archetypes and computer modeling diagram - are based on the theoretical concept of feedback processes. The structure by which the elements of a system are "powered" reciprocal influence and information can generate growth, produce decline or move naturally toward a State of equilibrium.

Stands for systematic thinking

In recent years, has emerged a new understanding of the process of business change. It is participatory at all levels. This is possible because the archetypes and other systemic tools, have put the language of systems dynamics in the hands of the teams and on the walls of the meeting rooms, which can encourage learning at all levels of the organization.

Systematic thinking

Systems thinking comprises a wide and diverse range of methods, tools, and principles, all aimed to examine the interplay of forces that are part of a common process. This field includes Cybernetics and the chaos theory, a dozen of practical techniques for graphics processes. These approaches share a guiding idea: "the behavior of all systems follow certain common principles, whose nature we are discovering and analyzing."
A way of thinking that has become extremely valuable as a language called "dynamical systems", where the methods and tools - links and cycles, archetypes, modeling and stock-and-flow - have their roots in the dynamics of systems.

Systematic structure

For thinking the "structure" is the configuration of interrelationships between the key components of the system. This can include the hierarchy and flow of the processes, skills and perceptions, and hundreds of factors more.
Systemic structures tend to be invisible until someone points out them.
The four levels of a systematic view
A good systemic thinker, especially in a business area, is someone who can see the simultaneous operation of four levels: events, patterns of behaviour, systems and mental models.

The five whys

It is an alternative method to tell a story, going back to the root problems recurring and pernicious.
The first because: choose the symptom where you want to start, the thread that supposedly will serve to undo the knot. Ask the first question to the group "why happens such thing?" Maybe end of receiving 3 or 4 answers. Show them all on the wall, with abundant space winch.
Hereinafter whys: repeat the process for each statement appearing on the wall, asking "Why?" regarding each one. Keep track of all the answers that seem viable. You will discover that some converge. As you arrive at the root of every why, you will be facing the entire organization, this can be derived from a purchase, or a sub maintenance investment strategy. The problem lies not in the original measure was flawed, but that is far-reaching and its continuing effects are not.
Avoiding the 'fixation on facts': the answers to the five why should avoid individual allegations. The individual faults leave no choice but that applied punishments, but it leads to lasting change. One of the benefits is that it accustomed people to recognize the difference between an explanation that is limited to the facts and a systemic explanation. To avoid anecdotal and accusatory responses, use this technique: to register each answer, say: "is the only reason?".

The language of "Links" and "Cycles" systematic thinking

In systems thinking, every picture tells a story. Of any element of a situation (or variable), can draw arrows "links" that represent another element influencing. At the same time they reveal cycles that recur again and again, better, or worse situations.
But the links do not exist alone. They always include a coincidence circuit a "cycle" of feedback where each element is "cause" and "effect", receiving and exerting influences, so that each effect, late or early, returns to its origin. Note that linear languages only allow us to talk about the cycle a step for the time, when in reality occur simultaneously. To see your concurrency we recognize systemic behaviour and be more sensitive to their temporal aspects.

Cycle and changes

There are two basic elements in the configuration of all representations of systems: booster cycles and compensating circles. Enhancers cycles generate exponential growth and collapse, and the growth or collapse continues at an ever accelerating pace. All enhancers processes little change is gaining increased power, for example the high birth rate cause higher birth rates. Don't underestimate the explosive power of these processes, in whose presence the linear thinking always puts us in trouble.

The Enhancer cycle

There are many elements in a booster cycle, all in circles, all driving the growth of others. Enhancers cycles usually promote growth or decline, to designate a booster system use the letter "R" or the multiplier effect or "snowball".
A booster cycle, by definition is incomplete. We never have a virtuous or vicious circle by itself. At some point you encounter a compensating mechanism that limits it. Perhaps the limit does not appear in our life, but we can take for granted that it will be shown. In general there are multiple boundaries.

Compensating cycles: stability, resistance and limits.

The compensating processes generate forces of resistance, which end up limiting growth. But there are also mechanisms, both in nature, as in other systems that correct the problems, they retain stability and get the balance, which ensures that any system remains far from its "natural" radius of operation.
Compensating cycles arise in situations that appear to be corrective and self-regulatory, apart from the will of the participants. If people feel trapped in a buffer structure or another type of structure, will have the feeling of hitting a wall they are. Despite the frustrations that generate these cycles are not bad in itself.
As conclusion it can be said to discover or create new targets is sometimes the key to overcome the resistance. Sometimes the target moves or changes, but also is subject to the influence of the system.

Delays

Delays are both amplifiers as in joints cycles. There are points where the link takes enough to manifest itself. Delay can have a huge influence on a system, emphasizing the impact of other forces. This happens because the delays so subtle: often occur for granted, often occur completely, but they are always underestimated. In booster cycles, delays erode our confidence because growth becomes not expected quickly. In compensating cycles, delays can drastically change the behavior of the system. One of the purposes of drawing diagrams of systems is not to overlook any delay.

Archetypes

This word comes from the Greek word arkhetypos which means, "the first in its kind". Systemic archetypes, away from systems thinking, were developed in the years 80's. At that time, the study of systems Dynamics depended on a charting the complex causal circuits and the modeling computer, using mathematical equations to define the relationship between variables. Some archetypes, including "limits of growth" and "load shifting", were translations of "generic structures" which are mechanisms of thinking that has had described two decades earlier.

Applying an archetype

To show feedback (boost and Clearinghouse), templates tend to describe the interconnected nature of the world.
Archetypes are accessible tools allowing to build credible and coherent hypotheses regarding forces which operate in the systems. The Archetypes are a natural vehicle to verify and clarify mental models regarding these systems.
To assimilate the archetypes, they become part of our repertoire of diagnostic.

Behaviors and archetypes.

For these patterns of behaviour, these archetypes can be applied:
Enhancer cycle: An important variable is accelerated up (or down), with an exponential growth or a collapse.
CYCLE COMPENSATOR: There are movements toward an object (without delay), either swing, by turning in lathe of a single goal (with delay)
COUNTERPRODUCTIVE solutions: Improve the symptom of a problem (the variable decreases) and deteriorates (the problem worsens) alternately.
GROWTH limits: There are (sometimes severe) growth, leveling or decline.
LOAD displacement: Coexist three patterns. The dependence of the immediate solution is strengthened, while the efforts to correct the root problem is weakened, and the symptom of the problem improves and deteriorates alternately.
TRAGEDY of the common ground: the total activity grows, but the gains from individual activities descend.
ADVERSARIES: The performance of each party declines or remains steady and low, while the rivalry grows with the passage of time.
It is advisable to not decide immediately on "an answer", but look at the situation through the lens of different archetypes. Two or three can be combined so that each highlight a different aspect.

Choice of an archetype

Begin posing conjectures. Some people are afraid to apply an archetype "wrong" make mistakes in the diagnosis and make things worse. In practice this does not occur, that by definition the people choose archetypes that are interesting. The fact that we are interested in determining systemic history is a good sign to start there.
First try to match the elements of the story to the archetype, starting with predominantly cycle that seems to drive the system. Then choose a key variable and start building cycle wondering which affects it. Now's the variable names, which represent levels of activity which may increase or decrease in the future. It is advisable to include all the elements on which you at least one partial influence and finally, do not force the story to fit into a template which does not fit, better choose another archetype and start again by adding a link (element) for the time.

What to expect from systems thinking?

There are no correct answers, as the dynamics of systems illustrates the interdependencies of the current system, there is never a single right answer to a question. On the other hand, discipline relieves a variety of possible acts, some of which lead to profound changes other acts produced, almost inevitably, some consequences not desired in another area of the system. The art of systems thinking consists, among other things, to assess the consequences of the Act that we choose.
It can not modify the system by dividing it into parts, but that all should look all together. Accordingly, it is not possible to practice systemic thinking individually, not because the discipline will be difficult, but that the good results need as many perspectives as possible in a complex system.
By nature, thinking points interdependencies and the need for collaboration. To measure the continuous team work, may be required the inclusion of new members, mostly people who were seen as rival but who now plays on the same side.
The causes and effects are not closely related in time and space. I was not near the symptom of the problem. Trace current and back in time to eliminate the root. The most effective action is often the more subtle. Sometimes it is better to do nothing, let the system do its own correction or guide the action. Sometimes the more propitious point in an unexpected place.
It is possible to have it all but not at the same time. To propose systemic solutions take into account the inevitable temporary delays. For example, if you are proposing an expansion of the staff would how long it took to train new employees? Affect how this process existing staff time? Temporary delays and other subtle aspects of the system only shows with you time and experimentation. Commit to continuously examine the functioning of the system.
Easy pick-ups are no outputs. Beware of quick and easy solutions. Most of the people prefer to intervene in a system at the level of norms, the physical structure and work processes, the flow of material and information, remuneration systems and control mechanisms where the elements are more visible and required less skill to manipulate them.
The behavior gets worse before improving. Often, when a systemic project highlights the underlying structures, the members of the group have moments of despair. But in reality things are improving. People note that the problems that were previously undisputed emerge to the surface.

ITEM 05

Strategic planning | Definition

For the Decade of the 50´ the earliest forms of business and other types of organizations of production of products and services, began to worry about their breakdowns in the environment. The cause, which became known as a strategic problem, perceived then as originating in a technical and economic mismatch between the products of the firm on the one hand and the demands of the market on the other. It was that the solution lay in the strategic planning, which consisted of a rational analysis of the opportunities offered by the environment, strengths and weaknesses of the signature and the selection of a (strategic) compromise between the two that best met the objectives of the firm. Once chosen the strategy, the critical part of the solution had been achieved and the signing could proceed to implement it.
In the intervening years, the perception of the strategic problem, has been undergoing rapid and dramatic changes. Due to an improved understanding of the real nature of the mismatch with the environment and processes incorporated to put remedy. Resulting, the problem seems much more complex than it seemed 20 years ago.
The concept that currently manages defines strategic planning as the process by which an organization defines its long-term vision and strategies to achieve it through the analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This in order to assess the present situation of the company and its competitive level, also implies active participation of organizational actors, obtaining permanent information on key factors of success, its constant review and periodic adjustments so that it becomes a management style that makes the Organization a proactive entity and anticipatory.
As a result since its widespread introduction in the 60's, the strategic style has gone through several phases.
THE STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS

Decade of the 60'

Decade of the 70'

Decade of the 80'

Decade of the 90'

Planning for a period of stability and growth

Planning for companies in location of attack.

Planning for cuts and rationalization

Planning for:
Profitable 1.Crecimiento
2 Desnormatizacion and privatization
Global 3.Mercados


Main differences of the styles of strategic planning for each decade

Projections LP
5-year budgets
Detailed P.Operativos
Strategies for growth and diversification


Explicit strategies
Divisions in strategic business units
Explorative screening
Planning for sociopolitical change
Simulation of
alternative strategies




Senior management is in charge of the strategy.
Total business approach; elaboration and implementation of the strategy
Visible leadership by senior management.
Commitment of staff at all levels
Massive investments in new technologies



High importance to environment factors
Use of computer technologies
Increase of the calculation of risks
High speeds in the renovation of knowledge
High speeds in acquiring and losing competitive advantages



Main techniques for Decade

Technological projection
Workforce planning
Program budgeting
Gap analysis
Product market matrix



Scenario planning
Appreciation of the political risk
Social projection
Environmental impact assessment
Business portfolio analysis
Experience curves
Sensitivity analysis
and risk
Zero-based budgeting







Creation of competitive seats
Explicit business goals and philosophies
Portfolio of technologies and resources
Owners employees of acc.
Internal training marketing and services
Quality improvement programs
Internal and external databases





Leadership training
Benchmarking
Holistic management
Emotional intelligence
Continuous improvements
Scoreboard



In general terms, the PE is implanted in at least eight steps; of these, the first six describes the same planning, implementation, and the last two point evaluation of the process.
However, it would be lax trying to indicate here that these eight steps are the only and definitive, because each company and each administrator, Executive, leader, President or leader, to design mechanisms, instruments and methodology that considers more appropriate for the particular case which touched him to handle. There are no administration unique recipes or absolute tip, but mere guidelines, always obtained prior and accumulated experiences over time. So it will always be possible to suggest, comment, question, and even seeming despise processes suggested by the various authors who have written on the subject.

STEP 1: Identification of the current mission of the Organization, its objectives and strategies

Any company or organization, so is this business or not-for-profit, either public, need a mission. A mission is defined as the raison d ' être of an organization in its context, in their environment. The mission concept is not a fashion, nor replaces the traditional concept of "purposes" or "objectives", since in reality it constitutes a strategic concept to define the philosophy of the company and therefore its corporate strategy. The right question which defines the Mission of a company is the following: what is the purpose of the business? Relevant response requires executives and managers of the company to define the scope of your products or services such as benefits expected by their customers and prospects with pressure. The components of the definition of a mission are the consumer market, product, technology, concern for survive, the philosophy of the company, the self-concept of the Organization and its concern for the public image.
A correct mission statement provides the key to specify the reason for the company and therefore orients the entire process of strategic planning.

STEP 2: Analysis of the external environment.

The role played by the environment variables is vital in planning and defining the strategy of the company. The elements of the environment define the options available for the management of the Corporation. A successful company is one that has a strategy that will allow a fast and timely adjustment to changes in the environment. An environmental analysis allows administrators define the opportunities and threats, and, on the other hand, point out the strengths and weaknesses of the company. Respect to the behavior of the environment variables (politics, society, economy, legislation, technology, culture, competitors, market, etc.) it is necessary that administrators aware of trends and the mega-trends that afternoon or early can influence, if not that, the determination of the firm.

STEP three: Identification of opportunities and threats.

Then critically analyze the environment relevant to the Organization, it is necessary now to assess those areas of the environment that might represent "windows of opportunity", i.e. spaces within which the company can allocate resources cost-effectively. However, at the same time necessary that administrators have the open mind to identify threats, as both a as others should be timely so that the company is able to make decisions in a timely way. Opportunities and threats analysis suggests a comprehensive enterprise management approach for an organization representing an opportunity for another is a threat and vice versa.

STEP four: Analysis of the Organization's resources.

A look abroad represents at the same time a look at the inside of the Organization, since the strengths and weaknesses, as well as the opportunities and threats, can be both external and internal. By resources we understand all the potential that the company has, and these are referred to both materials (economic, financial and technological) and humans (abilities, skills, motivation, leadership, training and culture, among others). In this sense, it remains to be seen if the Organization has the resources to deal with the opportunities and threats, and in any case take advantage of them, where appropriate, avoid them or overcome them. Some questions are the following:
• What skills do the executives of the company
• What skills do employees?
• Do we have the necessary technology?
• Do we have the working capital and financial capital necessary and sufficient?
These and many other questions have to be answered before a final step and commit the resources of the company on adventures not measured and evaluated.

STEP five: Identification of strengths and weaknesses.

A fortress is any activity that the company performs well, is say, effectively and efficiently; on the other hand, is also strength any resource available in preference mode to its competitors. In contradiction, the weaknesses are activities in which the company is neither effective nor efficient, or resources you need but which does not possess. Now, if the company has outstanding, better resources and skills than their closest competitors, then the company actually has a differential competitive advantage, advantage that should take advantage before your competitors, because otherwise chances will quickly render.

STEP six: Revaluation of the mission and objectives of the organization.

The merger of steps 3 and 5 has effect on the evaluation of opportunities for the company. The cross-analysis of the strength and weaknesses in relation to the opportunities and threats has been named in the administrative literature as "SWOT analysis". It can be interpreted in one quadrant divided into four sections
In one quadrant, the company possesses strengths and can take advantage of the opportunities that arise from it; in one quadrant OD the company, since it has weaknesses, is unable to take advantage of opportunities; Moreover, in the quadrant AF enterprise has strengths and can successfully face the threats that arise from it; Finally, quadrant AD organization is in a critical position, because threats are presented and it is in a position of weakness.
An analysis of this type allows the administrators of the company a real chance to assess what they can actually do. It is therefore a fundamental instrument to analyze and reassess the objectives of the company, but first and foremost its mission, its vision and strategy arising from them. Questions such as they are realistic? They require adaptation? Is it necessary to rethink the company's mission? If changes are required, then it is highly prudent to senior management of the company to undertake innovations of course, otherwise necessary then that the company begin to design a strategy to make the plans a reality.
It may be necessary to insist here that regularly mission concept has not been understood fully within the framework of the strategic planning, because it tends to take him as a synonym for "purposes" and in fact many consider that the term "mission" is merely a fad, a neologism, or simply a new way of saying to the purposes. This is false, because the concept of mission responds precisely to a strategic need, in such a way that the mission is able to express the raison d ' être of the company or organization in their context, defining clearly the benefits offered to the market, the needs of its customers and the values that the company possesses and which constitute its business philosophy.

Step seven: Formulation of strategies.

Among the various strategic options that a company can have, some will surely be more relevant than others; relevance can come on the side of costs, profitability, efficiency or competitiveness. Some options will be more compatible with the Organization's mission than others. In any case, it is essential that the company can capitalize on their strengths and opportunities one better than its closest competitors because in this way will you gain a competitive advantage. So that the more critical to choose the best strategy is precisely the competitiveness.

STEP eight: Implementation of the strategy.

Run as planned is the decisive step of the Executive work, as a strategy is only as good as its implementation. Even though the strategy has been very well thought out, if the execution is not accompanied by managerial talent and leadership, the strategy will not work. For this reason, administrators must be very careful in defining not only the primary strategy, that is, basic or main strategy of the company, they shall also specify the deployment strategy, called also secondary, as so important is the one as the other.

STEP nine: Evaluation of results.

All planning process is incomplete if it lacks elements evaluatorios. Control was created with planning, as they are twin processes insofar as that will at the same time, even, during the way of management. The one without the other is not conceived. Measure, compare and evaluate the results necessarily implies the existence of benchmarks against which price, appreciating and judging the obtained. In this way, questions such as how effective have our strategies been? What settings are required? Here will be able to know how effective was the strategy that was chosen and in these circumstances administrators will be able to make the best decisions.
The steps described here express the decisive moments that company managers should take into account when faced with the need to think strategically and grant plans long term for their companies or organizations. It will be necessary to point out that the planning, the Organization and control, are certainly systematic, i.e., "iterative", and this means that a part is contained in the other infinite mode. The organization is planned but is also organized the planning. On the other hand, all planning is necessarily dynamic, changing, as far as the environment is also.

Other aspects of strategic planning.

The following can be included:
• Identification of all available resources - personal, material, technological, offices, assistance;
• identification of tasks that can be carried out by contractors or external assistance;
• identification of other agencies and organizations that have formal powers in the process and the establishment of effective systems of coordination;
• establishment of a proper process of review after each major activity;
• creation of training programs for staff;
• preparation of the most suitable systems for budgeting and cost control.
It is essential to make a general review of the needs in order to ensure a level playing field even and as workable as possible for all the contenders.

Needs and benefits of strategic planning:

• At the same time keeps the approach in the future and the present.
• Reinforces the principles acquired in the mission, vision and strategy.
• Fosters interdisciplinary planning and communication.
• Assigns priorities on the destination of the resources.
• Is the bridge with the short term tactical planning process
• Requires executives to see the planning from the macro perspective, the central objectives calling mode that can help achieve them.

ITEM 06

Power of leadership | Definition

LEADERSHIP AS A PERSONAL QUALITY

At the beginning of the history of civilization, there was a distinct concept of authority, in which the leader was conceived as a person superior to the rest of the members of his entourage, with special gifts, and was surrounded by a magical aura - religious. It was considered that these gifts or special powers are passed on from generation to generation and that they were bestowed by the gods (born leader). As a consequence also looked for how to create new leaders, mainly through the transmission of knowledge and skills. Currently, the psychology has tried to substantiate this perspective through the psychological link that is established with our father. Recent psychological studies, are concerned that what is being sought in the leader is the security that provides it only the paternal emblem. And all this; why? because we always see our father as a being of perfect and infallible, and that is how our mind we reproduce this attachment to our leaders, considering them, therefore people more able and even more intelligent than ourselves. Individuals who are considered superiorly equipped with will be classified as potential leaders, where finally become, even despite themselves, leaders. Much has been the time in which we have tried to establish the characteristics, traits and abilities of the leaders, however, still not been set a real standard in this regard. The huge number of listings that exist that truly reflect, are the values that should prevail in respect to which should be the image of the ideal leader society.
Currently the leadership studies tell us that these skills that make a leader are common to all, stating that the leaders are brightest greater, offer best criteria, interact more with the environment, they work well under stress, they take the best decisions, they tend to take the command and control, but mostly insurance feel for themselves.

LEADERSHIP AS A FUNCTION WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION

Aside from the point of view of leadership is a quality personal (characteristics and behavior of the leader), currently with the consolidation of the theories of management and organizations, is gaining more strength study of leadership as a function within organizations. This perspective sets in circumstances people groups to integrate and organize, framing its activities toward common goals, because this is the way in which the leadership function is analyzed in terms of a dynamic relationship. According to this approach the leader arises as a result of a group's own needs in particular. Some operational theories, refer to a group always acts through one of its members, because it is clear that when all try to do it at the same time, the result will be, in general, somewhat diffuse, confusing or ambiguous.
The need for emergence of the leader in the group becomes more apparent and real when the Group's objectives are broader and more complex. The choice of the leader must be analyzed in terms of function within the group, since this person must be distinguished from the other members because:
• Should exert greater influence within your organization and activities
Support • makes responsible more than anyone else, the achievement of the goals of the group or the Community (acquires greater status),
• You have to distribute power and responsibility among the members of your group.
This distribution plays an important role in the decision-making process and, therefore, also in the support given by the group. As seen the leadership is focused on the basis of the welfare of the group, it is therefore important to deepen not only in features but also in the context in which the Group unfolds, since it is in this area where it determines who will become the leader of the group. On the other hand found cases in the an individual can stand out as a leader in an organization, but this does not mean that necessarily this same individual will highlight in a more or less structured different organization.
This is because it depends on if the situation requires rapid or immediate actions, or actions that allow deliberation and planning, this makes that leaders come in different people.
Many believe that born leaders, but today is based the position that you can create leaders, with only strengthen those leadership skills needed for an organization or situation specific. In short, this approach speaks to us that the leader is not a product their personal characteristics, but rather is a product of the functional relationships of a group, aimed at the achievement of common goals for the organization.

THE POWER OF LEADERSHIP

The power of a leader lies mainly in gaining control of the environment in which the other members of the group take place, allowing to know what they really want or need which will involve the achievement and satisfaction of their needs. It is that control of the medium which is called power. These media may be different, for ranging from some particular knowledge, position or hierarchy, to control any economic resource. The leader could well use this power to reduce the media members of the Group (punish), to increase these same media (reward), or ultimately get to mislead other members of the group so that they satisfied their needs, through the provision of these same means.
While the members of the Group believe that the leader is the best means available to achieve their goals, they will hold it in any position you take, clear is that this trend will be maintained whenever they feel that their leader les is giving more of what they bring to the group.
At any moment by not to risk his position, the leader put aside their own personal objectives to be truly useful to his followers, that in so far as it treats the welfare of his followers will not lose them. But if that would happen if this search for the welfare of his followers, to ignore completely the welfare of society?. It would cause the confrontation of both groups, becoming more expensive for fans support their leader.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A LEADER

Often we find to the leaders and specialists in the management of organizations. To be considered a true leader is:
1 have character of Member of the group who heads. The leader should share with other members both the various individual aspects, as the meet and draw the common objectives.
2. own predominant features. Be the brightest, being the best organizer, be that which has more touch, be the most risky, the more aggressive, more Holy or more kindly, although it is necessary to anneal that every group needs its ideal leader, therefore there can be a unique feature to each group leader.
3. organise, but also have to direct, monitor and motivate members of the group to achieve specific actions according to the needs that you have.
4 have charisma.
5 demonstrate that it is has real ability to be a leader.

THE POWER OF THE CHARISMATIC LEADER

When we say that a charismatic leader is that this individual has authority to express his thoughts and individual behaviors in society.
This provision is known as social power. Charismatic domination psychologically gives a recognition that arises as a result of delivery personal, full of faith and enthusiasm, the members of the group have with their leader.
The charismatic leader provides effective techniques to motivate your group, that has been shown that while more motivated members are will give better performance, and therefore the results will always be the best, increasing the productivity of the unit that is handled. The best motivation is that occurs in one's self, which comes from within the group, is not the one that comes from outside, the environment. Of course that this environment can influence. However, the charismatic leader has a special condition for the simple fact of being a leader is to be used to make things happen, since it has the ability to influence whether itself as in the members of his group, to raise the motivational level of all above and beyond what could make another.
When a leader and his Group decide that they will react positively to those things that perhaps cannot be changed, it begins to autoliderar own motivation.

ITEM 07

Neuro-linguistic programming | Definition

Its origins go back to the Decade of the 70's, at the University of California (USA), by investigations conducted by Richard Bandler and John Grinder, who conducted studies of the different patterns of human behavior.
Both scientists departed from curiosity to understand how through communication and language are produced changes in the behavior of human beings. The set of patterns that shaped and their intellectual influences gave rise to the neuro-linguistic programming.
Quickly the NLP would occupy a strategic location between the disciplines that allow individuals to optimize resources, promoting the flexibility of behavior and strategic thinking, thus achieving a better understanding of mental processes.

THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

FROM WHERE COMES THE TERM NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING?

A combination of the terms:
• Programming: what I think, what I feel and how I Act, are a consequence of my mental programs, which I can modify and/or replace.
• Neuro: Because all receive and process information through our neurological system: the five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch.
• Linguistics: Because all give meaning to what we experience, through the "verbal and non-verbal language", which is the expression of who I am and how I think.

WHAT IS NLP?

It is the study of subjective human experience, how to organize what we perceive, how review and filter the outside world through our senses.
The neuro-linguistic programming is a pragmatic school of thought that provides tools and skills for the development of statements of excellence in communication and change.
The current theory of neuro-linguistic programming (PLN) tell us how to encode the learning and the experiences inside our brain, which significantly affects our behavior.
In addition to providing us the skills and tools for individual and collective excellence by establishing a set of assumptions about the realities of human beings, communication and change processes.

NLP AS A MODEL.

NLP as a model teaches us a:
• Discover and use your own brain,
• Possess the ability to always be better and more frequently,
• Achieving personal change,
• Achieve professional changes,
• Establish effective communication channels,
• Establish channels such as the influence and persuasion
• Change our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
It was originally conceived for the therapeutic processes, outcomes that occurred in an extraordinary way managed to use transcend that boundary.
Currently doctors, psychologists, educators, professionals of different areas and businesses, are applying NLP, to obtain and optimize individual and each human group both achievements.
Through NLP you can:
• Overcome the blockages that prevent the realization of your goals.
• Improve relationships with yourself and with the other (communication).
• Develop the most creativity and expression.
• Removing phobias and trauma,
• Control circumstances such as fright and some habits,
• Learn how to react to criticism,
• Be excellent parents,
• Discard behaviors unwanted,
• Plan your goals and objectives in advance,
• Significantly improve their skills and abilities,
• Manage internal conflicts and conflicts between people,
• Improve (in combination with your doctor) the natural ability of the body to cure diseases and surgical interventions, etc.
The powerful tools and attitudes that NLP provides us are very effective for people in companies, since excellence can promote both in services to the customer, sales and that trying to establish organizational changes
Through NLP you can achieve success never before imagined. Improve their performance and achieve levels of excellence in any activity that is proposed.
Changing the personal resources constraints, and excellent results are obtained in a very short time, also allows us to learn much more quickly, achieving a high self-esteem, to control emotions, and will acquire excellence States to deal with situations.

TO WHOM IS IT DIRECTED?

NLP is aimed at professionals, psychotherapists, psychologists, workers social., physicians, nurses, trainers/consultants... and all those who want to maximize their potential, discover the possibilities, the levels of the human being and explore excellence.

APPLICATION PRACTICE

TOOLS OFFERED BY NLP TO IMPROVE
THE PROCESS OF BUYING AND SELLING.
Many have been authors who are interested in establishing a real connection between the neuro-linguistic programming and sales issues.
Today there is a tendency to say that using effective communication, perception and influence of NLP models we can achieve positive results.
Sales worker must use effective strategies, since selling does not mean only the fact of offering a product in return for remuneration (money), since it is that old perception that we must eradicate.
Some texts present sales terms how to play with the emotions of a person and how handle them, with the ultimate purpose of achieving an "immediate" emotional purchase.
Today it has changed our culture. Buyers have discovered that many of the facets of the sale are not pleasant: pressure, tricks, Wiles, intimidation and have become sophisticated.
This is how evolved a new model, which softened things through a new approach. The sellers were introduced to techniques on how to listen and ask questions, requesting the customer that it is what you want, because the customer needs you have.
Older models of sales pressure will still continue to function for many people. However the human consciousness has evolved and it has become more sophisticated, using techniques with commercialism, the telemarketing, etc.
This is how comes another new model of sales, sales based mainly on the needs of the client.
The typical vendor:
• Identifies the needs of the customer
• Provides information about the uniqueness of the product
• Offers the customer time to learn
• Provides assistance to the client to overcome their fears
• Provides values and future results
• Influences.
If you are a vendor who does not know his client, could initiate a process of asking and listening that it would facilitate the buyer the best way to meet your needs.

Very familiar principles of NLP.

1. "you don't have nothing to sell if there is someone who buys". You have to check with the territory. In other words, active your sensory acuity, open your eyes, ears, skin and look to her around. You need to check and not to impose on the other person. Even prepare for the frustration and disappointment of failing to sell, but do not leave the buyer feeling of having been manipulated or pressured.
2. "the relationship comes first, then the task". Interact, communicate and interact with the buyer, immerse yourself in the world of that person and the tools of NLP, can do this physically, emotionally and conceptually.
3. "buyer has the answers, the seller has the questions. Never approaches a buyer with the position that you are an expert superior, you should know what the need recognize and respect the internal principles of each who, abilities, skills, uniqueness, etc. And this, therefore, leads us to do lots of questions.
4. "serve is the goal; Discover is the result; A sale may be the solution". Enter the idea of service, to sell, we adopt an attitude of service what we sell, either a product or a service, then most adopt the position of an Explorer. The customer satisfaction is invaluable; The customer loyalty is priceless. This is the form of win - win.
5. "people buy (typically) when they can not meet their own needs". Many of us often buy things which do not satisfy needs, we just wanted to spend our money, this turns us into compulsive shoppers.
6. "people buy using their own buying patterns, not patterns of sale from the vendor." Under the old approach put him pressure on sale, sellers assumed people would buy, or should buy according to how they were sold. Doing this ensures frustration.
The PNL approach recognizes that each whom uses their own strategies to buy. People have their strategies to feel motivated, to implement its decisions, to interact with vendors, etc.

NLP AGAINST OTHER TOOLS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY.

The impact and dissemination of the NLP is result of the research of human behavior, enabling you to have at hand tools for change, however much of those interested in studying this current are oriented to the use of the "realization of their dreams".
It is for this reason that mentioned some related psychological conceptions, among them are:

• HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:

This psychological power is based on the personal integration. The human being is conceived as someone made, someone who knowingly assumes all its physical, psychic and mental limitations.

• TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:

This theory rejects the concept of the healthy and diseased model.
Its creator is Eric Berne (1910-1970), psychiatrist and neurologist says that people only seek help and are well, rejecting the old conception that establishes the relationship between the patient and his doctor.
It offers instruments and provides effective means to solve conflicts. It is dedicated to human formation, using a series of tools for true diagnosis and evaluation of psychological and social reality.
The theory of personality and human relationships are the central points in transactional analysis, it can be applied:
• The business scope: organizational development, teamwork, address, etc.
• Psychotherapy: Shaped individual, group or partner.
• The social aspect: promoting relations of assistance, education, training of teachers, etc.

• GESTALT:

Part of a special and profound link with Eastern philosophies of the zen and the tao. Friedrich Perls (Institute of Esalen in USA) asserts that the human being is a person, arising from the integration and confluence of multiple personalities.
This therapy seeks to pay attention to the present (here and now). This integration process is what is called 'configure a gestalt'. It proposes to:
"Change happens when one becomes what it really is."
"Consciousness by itself can solve the problems."

• BIOENERGETICS:

"Each person is conceived as an energy system". The human body is a living organism, in which there are exchanges of energy and thanks to this interaction we have different feelings and experiences.
Alexander Lowen and Jhon Pierrakos designed this therapy starting from the teachings of Wilheim Reich, to develop a system of body defense that reveals the character and have a diagnostic value.
Its main purpose was to get to maximize vital bodily functions: breathing, movement and expression, to thus help the person regain their original nature.
The work is performed in principle individually, then in group order to alternating phases of body work.

• REGRESSIVE TECHNIQUES:

Through deep relaxation is achieved that the person can revive and understand childhood trauma. To reach the brain frequency Theta rhythm, used the sofrosis (study of consciousness in harmony).
Once the patient reaches this frequency it is possible to connect with the traumas, phobias, compulsions, lived in the past and which affect the present.
Through the recovery of the conscious of that experience, it will be possible to recover the energy that has been locked and deep personal integration, Julio with a more harmonious, full, vital and healthy present.
The Theta brain rhythms live in human beings since it is born until the age of 12. This therapy is mainly based on this consideration because it is at this frequency are recorded where the experiences or feelings, both positive and negative.

• RENAISSANCE:

This technique is based on that our thoughts create the world in which we live. The American psychologist Leonard Orr, said that when we have positive thoughts, the universe seem positive, but if we are dominated by negative thoughts, the world will also appear.
So not flow negative thoughts, must eliminate the three sources which are: the trauma of birth, parental disapproval and the unconscious death wish.
To achieve this, we must work hyperventilation through respiration, so blocked emotions go afloat and may dissipate with the breath.

• PSYCHOSYNTHESIS:

It is a holistic approach to human development that unites the different parts of the personality to create a unique being, which must be based on a full understanding of human nature.
This psychological theory was devised by Italian psychiatrist Roberto Assagioli, who gives special importance to the Act of will as a form of choose and transform the attitudes and the way of acting.
So he created a map of the States of being and paid special attention to the crisis and the stages of spiritual awakening.
It also raises the need to explore regions that are beyond consciousness, such as the unconscious superior, home to be, our spiritual essence.

• TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY:

Transpersonal Psychology, also relies on the current Eastern he claims that: "the human being is able to assume and transform its limitations".
Also emerges as a way of rejecting the behavioral concepts, pessimism intellectual of psychoanalysis, and the concept of personal integration of humanistic psychology, since it brings a new element: the conscience.

• THEORY OF THE HEMISPHERES:

This theory is presented as part of an enrichment of our ideas as to the representations of the communication.
Classifies the hemispheres in: left hemisphere and hemisphere right, and both determine the neurolinguisticos of human communication processes.
Each hemisphere is if only a mental organ total and unit, and each of them can be given simultaneously mental processes and reflections of different genre. (Wigan, 1844).
Left hemisphere: It is based on the belief that man is a being built, logical; represents the memories.
When is a person right-handed, i.e., use right hand perfectly, dominates it the left cerebral hemisphere, which specializes in translations of perceptions, and the communication of reality on the basis of logical and analytical information from the world that surrounds us.
Its functions are those that relate to semantics, language, grammar and structured thinking: reading, writing, the calculation and everything related to the logical communication.
Right hemisphere: It is based on the knowledge of man, in the causal, it represents the future. This hemisphere corresponds to translate into images the perceived reality.
This hemisphere exceeds to the left in terms of cognitive abilities, in addition it provides an image of the world more or less closed.
Images drawn from the memories and their corresponding feelings predominate.
The linguistic forms of this hemisphere are expressed through the figurative language, as for instance through dreams.
To gain access to the right cerebral hemisphere, the therapist should try the patient to block or ignore, spontaneously, to the left hemisphere.
The objective to be achieved by using this therapy is that the patient manages to raise his world change, achieving emotional balance that allows you to highlight a new conception of their problems.

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE USE OF NLP.

There are many people who want to succeed in the short term. Some of them are based on the use of NLP techniques to gain power and influence over others.
NLP highlights aspects such as self-centeredness and lack of maturity, aspects of Western society, which shows different interests under the conception that through NLP you can get what you want.
The immediate consequence is that when people don't get what they want the frustrations are higher and the desire to succeed decreases significantly.
The lack of emotional and spiritual development that afflicts mankind is responsible for this situation., and while the NLP, turns out to be very useful and easy to use, yet has been promoted the emotional and spiritual development of the people, presenting the disadvantages of other techniques of human growth, distorting its objectives and causing inconvenience for those who decide to apply it and practice it.
NLP is presented as a school where you will explore very important fields in the world of existential psychology, even to break psychological some paradigms and models long and complex that gave no results.
The need to get those same results short-term achievement that this technique is involved with the business and educational worlds.
Today the theory of rapid changes has been changed considering that it is only the person who want to change who defined in first instance the rapidity with which the change will perform, although it also depends on the preparation and motivation to change.
NLP is a real strategy to bring about change in the short term, but this does not mean that through it all the difficulties can be overcome, but that it should be seen as a tool that you must know how to use, so she provided the motivation in people and processes of changes occur in the feelings beliefs and behaviors.
The development of intelligence is not something that is achieved in a few seconds, on the contrary it is a very complex process that needs to be perpetuated in time. Ongoing training is required.
NLP must be used properly. We should start only "program to be the best" approach, but it is you should look for the right time. If it doesn't you can become a neurotic and obsessed with the successful person.
Nor should used for self-centering purposes and unethical, since it may be feelings of guilt, resentment, or remorse.
Finally, there are those who object to that, sometimes, for giving a surface use left tackle fundamental problems. Despite the fact that using NLP techniques can be alleviated the suffering in the short term, they tend to appear in some situations similar, different people or larger, in the medium or long term.
NLP, occasionally, then works as a temporary relief, but if changes don't occur they will reappear the same situations perhaps with greater force and intensity.
If you does not properly handle changing with NLP techniques, and does not have a suitable therapist support, mechanisms of evasion will be increasing. The primary symptoms are replaced by others or potentially increase.
"If you have problems should have recourse to a specialist who is in the first instance who will offer you the suitable alternative to solve their problems"

ITEM 08

Programming and performance of time | Definition

Do I want to?

Perhaps not aware that has some real options for the management of your time. You can choose to stop doing, once for all, some activities that absorb long and are of low productivity, without adversely affecting your work or personal life. In fact, to failure to consciously do some little productive and unnecessary activities, stay in time to invest in more productive and satisfying work.

What is your job?

Manage the working time requires, first than anything, check "Which is what makes", in this way you can find out because it carried out, which is what you want to achieve, and if it is doing in the appropriate manner.
If you want to organize themselves seriously, you can start scoring the different tasks that takes place during a week. It may be very fastidious but only when you know how it is using their time, may make judgments about whether jobs so what should or not. Then you can think in as it should organize the day and decide which tasks are a priority.
Make a graph for the analysis of time and tasks; Note all activity undertaken as it is assigned and the time that has occupied him. Probably feel terrified to see how time passes in response, outages unscheduled, as they can be phone calls wanting to attend immediately, instead of waiting to finish the task that is currently carrying out, or talk to a mate who passed by the office to chat awhile.
Surely not been count how many task has started and not completed, or the short time that has been used in very important matters.
Roles and responsibilities not defined can cause tremendous losses of time and efficiency. The more clear are the conventions, expectations, roles and responsibilities, but they shall be the possibilities that has one to manage your time.
An analysis of the graphical analysis of time and tasks act as reference points so that both the subordinate and the Manager start to clarify how long must invest in each area.
The case that the person is occupying a new administrative position, the first step is working closely, at the beginning, your immediate supervisor to determine what functions and expectations. Anyone who is the function or certain responsibility you want to clarify, is a thing of you, therefore it is only your responsibility to have it more clear possible what is expected of you in your post.

THE TIME AND THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS.

When humans want to change something, change it, gain efficiency, for example, use of our time, often are talking about two things: how are? and how we behave in relation to what we want to achieve. This is what makes the difference between determine our path or be toys of the circumstances.
Most of the activities that the man has in modern life are complex, suffering from the interaction of many different factors. Pretend that spontaneously they converge towards our goals and well-being, is as much as pretend everything we goes perfect by magic.
All, in one way or another, we must manage, in the sense that touch all manage heterogeneous resources and situations that open pathways to the achievement of desired goals.
Time management is the art of making that serve for the benefit of people and societies. As time does not exist in itself, time management is the administration of si; the proper management of resources of all kinds, because there is one reality that takes at the time.
Management is a process that goes through, at least four phases:
• PLANNING
• ORGANIZATION
• OPERATION
• CONTROL
Most of the problems and losses of time come to act without thinking. The good use of the time required also plan our future mediate (long-term goals) and our immediate future (medium and short term objectives) and learn to manage it as a process that requires revision.

ESTABLISHMENT OF PRIORITIES.

The key to give priorities to productive tasks is to clearly understand our goals and values. If we have not had time to determine what is important to us, we will be difficult to realize even what people deserve our time.
When we know that there are several things to do during the day or during the next week, it is useful to give each task one priority in relation to each other.
A valid suggestion that will help you to make it clear and established priorities; It is to make a list of everything that has to do not only everyday immediate problems, but of the objectives and tasks in the long term. You don't have to follow a particular order, analyze it thoroughly and write what happens you. The list of what has to be done contains tasks small or large, urgent and not so urgent, boring and exciting, in the short and long term. The first thing you need to do is to determine which of these are active and which are reactive.
Active: They are the tasks that must carry out to achieve the objectives of its work. They are those that respond to the question; Why am I here?
Reactive: They are the tasks that make up the daily routine and that must complete is to make things work. Never elogiaran you or will appreciate you that you carry them out, therefore care should be taken to rid them of before as possible.
It is necessary to know two things about a task before granting him certain priority:
1. how long has to be used in the task? Determined by the important task.
2 with that speed must complete the task? Determined by the urgency of that task.
The importance and urgency are not the same. An urgent task need not be important. It may be urgent but trivial.
Reactive tasks do not tend to be important, active ones are almost always important. If something is important and urgent, should give the highest priority.

PLANNING AND OBJECTIVES.

Planning means to act in a proactive manner or anticipate events. Once is defined exactly what what to run, according to the criteria of importance and urgency, immediately applies the strategy objectives.
Sequentially be part of the goal, is set time, was assigned other resources, establish activities, will foresee obstacles and levels of excellence are set. This process is cognitive, affective and involves action; So that it generates a manifestation of achievement motivation or tendency to overcome.

STRATEGIES FOR OBJECTIVES.

• Be specified
• Be stimulating
• Set time
• Used time and motion studies
• Have confidence if same
• Have the ability
• Determine the form or method that will work to achieve the goal
• Set goals together
• Assign goals individually and group
• Analyse parameters based on the average of the last performance, to set levels of superior execution
• I atenderé external conditions and use new strategies if it is necessary to achieve the goal

ITEM 09

Reengineering | Definition

By nature, man looking for answers made to the different questions that is finding as it develops its knowledge, and once you get these answers new questions, questions these responses.
We dare to say that the process of reengineering is a response to a question
"we are not doing things well or we could make them better?" that emerged after having obtained a response.
We are in a new century, with companies that operated in the 20th century with administrative designs of the 19th century.
In a new context, new modalities of management arise, these include re-engineering, based on the premise that are not products, but the processes that create them that lead to business success in the long run. Good products do not winning; Winners make good products. What they have to do the companies is to organize around the process.
Fragmented operations located in specialized departments, make sure nobody is in a position to realize a significant change, or if you realize, you cannot do anything about it, that leaves its radius of action, or of their responsibility. Being result of a concept of organizational management.
Reengineering means starting again booting again; Reengineering is not doing more with less, is less to give more to the customer. The goal is to do what we are already doing, but do it better, work smarter.
It is to redesign the processes so that they are not fragmented. Then the company can figure out without bureaucracy and inefficiencies.
Properly speaking: "re-engineering is the fundamental revision and the radical redesign of processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical and current measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed".

Toward process reengineering

Behind the word reengineering, there is a new business model and a corresponding set of techniques who executives and managers will have to employ to reinvent their companies.
In traditional management many of the tasks performed by employees had nothing to do with the needs of customers. Many were to meet internal requirements of the organization.
In today's environment nothing is constant or predictable, or growth of the market or demand from customers, or life cycle of the products.
Three forces, separately and in combination, are prompting companies to penetrate ever more deeply in a territory that is unknown to the majority of executives and managers. These forces are: customers, competition and change.

Customers

Customers assume command, already client does not apply the concept of it, now is this client, since the mass market is today divided into segments, some as small as a single client. Customers already do not conform with what are, since they currently have multiple options to meet your needs.
This is also applicable in the relationship customer-supplier among the companies themselves, and often claims are expressed in: "O you do as I want or I do it myself".
Customers have placed in vantage point, partly because of access to information.
For companies that grew up with the mentality of the mass market, the reality is harder to accept about clients, in that each one has. If a customer is lost today, another does not appear to replace it.

Competition

Before, it was simple: the company that could go to the market with a product or service acceptable and best price made a sale. Now there is much more competition and from very different classes.
Globalization brings with it the falling of trade barriers and no company has its territory protected from foreign competition. American, Japanese and European companies have experience in strongly competitive markets and are very eager to win a share of our market. Be large and is not to be invulnerable, and all existing companies must have the acuity to discover new companies on the market.
New companies do not follow the known rules and make new rules to manage their business.

Change

The change becomes a constant, the nature of the change is also different. The rapidity of technological change also promotes innovation product life cycles have gone from years to months. It has decreased the time available to develop new products and introduce them. Today companies have to move more quickly, or will soon be completely paralyzed.
Executives believe their companies are equipped with efficient radar to detect the change, but most of them not as this, that detect are change that they expect. Changes that can derail a company are occurring outside their expectations.

Redesign

Remember that they are not organizations and processes reengineering subjects. It is a difficult part because normally we can identify all the elements within an organization but not the processes, we can speak of the Department purchases and their procedures, but rarely we talk about a process that involves several departments and purchases which by definition should be a single encargado.
To select a process to redesign, we can consider the following aspects:

Broken processes

They find it difficult to have a final product. Ways to identify them are:
Extensive exchange of information, data, click repeated redundancy. It is caused by the arbitrary fragmentation of a natural process. The flow of information should be reduced to finished products, and not reprocessed information in each unit from the information received.
Inventories, reserves and other assets. They exist due to uncertainties in the internal and external processes. These not only reserves tend to be materials, also are staff or financial resources. It is necessary to plan together with suppliers and customers needs to not have idle resources.
High ratio of verification and control with added value. Fragmentation. There are internal processes that do not add value to the product but if affect its cost and final quality.
Repetition of work. Inadequate feedback along the chains. Often the problem is corrected at the end of the process of returning the product to the home without indicating which was the problem and when detected.
Complexity, exceptions, and special cases. Accumulation to a simple base. An initial simple process we create you exceptions and special cases as they arise other problems, reengineering we must rescue the initial process and create another process for each special case arising.

Important processes

They are causing a direct impact to customers, and it is second in importance to choosing reengineering processes. In this case it is necessary to be in contact with customers of each process to identify needs, although this does not know the process if it gives importance to some resulting from it features such as price, timely deliveries, features of the product, etc. Themselves that they can give us an idea of which part of the process is talking about.

Feasible processes

Another concept is that of feasibility and is based on the radius of influence in terms of the number of organizational units involved in it, more, the greater the radius of influence.
Before going ahead with the reengineering, it is necessary to understand the process and do not get to the details, understanding the process it is possible to create new details.
The traditional analysis takes the inputs and outputs of a process as assumptions and look inside the process to measure and examine what happens. In contrast to understand the process does not give nothing for granted, understanding a process is not accepted as a so-called, but partly product if it is understood that the customer with that product makes.
This involves understanding the customer better than what the means.

Reconstruction of processes

Below are some common characteristics of processes renewed by reengineering.

Several trades are combined in one

The most common and basic of re-engineered processes feature is that it disappears in series work. I.e., many trades or tasks that were once distinct are integrated and compressed into one single. However, it is not always possible to compress all the steps of a process in a single trade executed by one person. In other cases, they may not be practical teaching to one person all the skills I would need to run the entire process.

The workers make decisions

Instead of separate decisions of the actual work, decision-making becomes part of the work. This implies to compress vertically the Organization, so workers no longer have to go to the upper hierarchical level and make their own decisions.

The steps of the process are executed in Natural order

The redesigned processes are free from the tyranny of rectilinear sequences: the execution of tasks can be exploited by artificial streams imposed by the linearity in the processes. Redesigned processes, work is sequenced depending on what is really necessary to do sooner or later.
The "deslinearizacion" of processes speeds them in two ways: first: many tasks are made simultaneously. Second: Reducing the elapsed time between the first steps and the final steps of a process.

The works have multiple versions

This is known as the purpose of standardization. It means ending the traditional unique processes for all situations, which are usually very complex, since they have to incorporate special procedures and exceptions to take into account a wide variety of situations.

The work is done at the fair site

Much of the work being done in companies, is to integrate parts of the work related and conducted by independent units. The client of a process can run part of the process or the process, in order to eliminate lateral passes and the indirect costs.

Will reduce the checks and controls

The redesigned processes make use of controls only where justified economically. Traditional processes are full of steps that do not add value, but which are included to ensure that no abuse of process verification and control.

Conciliation is minimized

The points of external contact that has a process are diminished, and it reduces the possibilities to receive inconsistent information requiring conciliation.

A case manager provides a single point of contact

This character appears frequently in redesigned processes, when the steps of the process are so complex or so scattered that it is impossible to integrate them in a single person or even a small group. Case manager serves as a customer "Ombudsman's office", responds to the questions and doubts of the client and solves your problems. Therefore, the case manager, has access to all the systems of information used by people who are doing the work and has the ability to contact them, ask them questions and ask for help when needed.

Prevail Centralizadas-Descentralizadas hybrid operations

Companies that have redesigned their processes have the ability to combine the advantages of centralization to decentralization in the same process. Supported by information technology, these companies can operate as if the units were fully autonomous, and, at the same time, the organization enjoys economies of scale created by the centralization.

Types of changes that occur to the redesign of processes

Change the units of work: from functional departments to process teams
In a way what is done is to bring together a group of workers who had been artificially separated by the organization. When they become collecting process equipment are called. In short, a team of processes is a unit naturally flocking to complete all work - a process.
The offices change: from simple tasks to multidimensional work. Workers in processing equipments which are collectively responsible for the results of the process, rather individually responsible for a task, they have a different trade. Share with your colleagues in, liability joint performance of the total process, not only of a small part of it.
Although not all members of the team do exactly the same work, the dividing line between them becomes blurred. All members of the team have at least some basic knowledge of all steps of the process, and probably made several of them. In addition everything that the individual makes bears the stamp of an appreciation of the process on a global basis.
After reengineering, there is that "dominate a profession"; the office grows to grow the expertise and the experience of the worker.
The role of the worker changes: from controlled to authorised. When the Administration relies on teams the responsibility of completing a total process, you must necessarily also granted the authority to take measures conducive. The teams are of a person or more, which made the process-oriented work, have to ask themselves. Within the limits of their obligations - agreed deadlines, goals of productivity, standards of quality, etc. decide how and when to do the work. If you have to wait for the direction of a supervisor of its tasks, then they are not processing equipments.
Reengineering and consequent authority impact on the kind of people that the companies should hire.
Preparation for the job change: from training to education. In an environment of change and flexibility, it is clearly impossible to hire people who already know absolutely everything you will need to know, so continuing education during the lifetime of the craft becomes the norm of a redesigned company.
The mean performance and compensation approach moves: from activity to results
The remuneration of workers in traditional enterprises is relatively simple: get paid to persons for their time. In a traditional operation - it is an assembly line with machines manufacturing or an office where are handled papers-the work of an individual employee has no quantifiable value. What's for example, the monetary value of a weld? Or data for use in an application for insurance? None of these has value in itself. Just finished automobile or insurance policy issued has value for the company. When work is divided into simple tasks, companies are not obliged to measure the workers by the efficiency with which play work closely defined.
They change climbing criteria: performance ability. A bonus is the reward for a job well done. Promotion to a new job is not. To redesign, the distinction between rise and performance is firmly drawn. Rise to a new position within a company is a function of ability, not performance. It is a change, not a reward.
Values change: of protectionists to productive. Re-engineering involves a major change in the culture of the Organization, requires employees to assume the commitment to work for their clients, not for their bosses. Change the values is as important part of reengineering as change processes.
Managers change: supervisors to coaches. When a company redesigns, processes that were complex are simple, but posts that were simple become complex. Reengineering by transforming processes, releases times managers to help these employees to perform work more valuable and more demanding.
In a redesigned company managers need strong interpersonal skills and should be proud of the achievements of others.
Organizational structures change: from hierarchy to flat. When a process becomes a team, manage the process becomes part of the nursing team. Decisions and interdepartmental issues before requiring boards of managers and managers of managers, now take them and the teams solve them in the course of their normal work. Companies no longer need so much managerial 'glue' as they needed before to hold together the work.
Executive change: of scorers of many leaders. Flatter organizations come to executives to customers and people who perform the work that adds value. In a redesigned environment, the full performance of the work depends much more on the attitudes and efforts of empowered workers than acts of task-oriented functional managers. Therefore, managers must be leaders capable of influence and reinforce the values and beliefs of the employees with their words and their deeds.

Roles of reengineering.

The following roles have been identified to carry out the process reengineering:

The leader

He is a senior executive who supports, authorizes and encourages total reengineering effort. You must have enough authority so that it persuades people to accept radical changes involving re-engineering. This leaderless process reengineering is in good intentions without being completed as expected.
You must keep the ultimate goal of the process, you need the vision to reinvent the company under new competitive schemes, maintain communications to employees and managers achieve purposes, as well as the progress achieved.
It designates who will be the owners of the processes and assigns responsibility for advances in performance.

The process owner

Area manager responsible for a specific process and the corresponding engineering effort.
In traditional companies not intended according to processes, functions, departamentalizan with what are organizational boundaries to processes.
Processes must be identified as soon as possible, a leader and this give the owners of the processes.
It is important that the owners of processes have acceptance of colleagues that will work, accept the processes of change that brings the reengineering, and its main function is to monitor and motivate the realization of reengineering.
Owners nursing does not end when the reengineering project is completed, when it is committed to be process-oriented, each process remains of an owner who is responsible for its implementation.

Reengineering team.

Formed by a group of individuals dedicated to a specific process, with the ability to diagnose the current process redesign, overseeing its reengineering and its execution.
It is responsible for carrying out the work of producing ideas, plans and translating them into reality.
It is worth mentioning that a single team can work with a process at a time, in such a way that a team must form by each process that is working.
The computer must be between 5 and 10 members, maximum, of which a part must-know the process thoroughly, but for a short time so that they do not accept it as something normal, and elsewhere must be formed with personnel in the process, being able to be people from outside the company, that it can question and propose alternatives.

Steering Committee.

Policy-making political body, composed of senior managers who develop the Organization's global strategy and monitor its progress, usually includes process owners.
It can be or not present in the process, gives priority, they say about issues that go more than processes and projects in particular.
"Czar" of reengineering.
It is responsible for developing techniques and instruments of reengineering and achieving synergy between the different projects in the company.
Directly responsible for coordinating the activities of re-engineering that are underway; It supports and empowers process owners and process reengineering teams.

Success in the reengineering

Unfortunately, despite the many success stories presented, many companies that initiate the process reengineering fail anything. They end their efforts precisely at where it started, without having made any significant change, without having achieved any significant improvement in performance and encouraging more skepticism of the employees with another ineffective business improvement program.
The following is the most common errors that lead companies to fail at re-engineering:

Try to correct a process rather than change it

Although existing processes are the cause of the problems of a company, they are family; the organization feels comfortable with them. The infrastructure that underpin already is installed. Seems much easier and more sensible to try to improve them that rule out them completely and start again. Incremental improvement is the path of least resistance in most organizations. It is also the surest way to fail in business process reengineering.

Not to focus on the processes

Innovation is also the result of well-designed processes, not a thing in itself.
The failure is in not adopting a processes in the business-oriented perspective.
Don't forget about everything non-process engineering
A reengineering effort, generates change of many kinds. We must redesign the definitions of trades, organizational structures, administrative systems, i.e. everything which is related to processes.
Even managers who crave a radical re-engineering of processes are frightened given the magnitude of the changes that this is required. Precisely which means redesign is to remake the company.

Ignoring the values and beliefs of the employees

People need some reason to give good performance within the re-engineered processes.
The Administration has to motivate employees to be put at the height of the circumstances supporting the new values and beliefs that processes require.
You have to pay attention to what is happening in the minds of staff as well as what is happening on their desks. Changes that require changes in attitudes are not accepted easily have to grow the required values by rewarding the behavior that shows them. Senior managers have to give talks regarding these new values and at the same time demonstrate their dedication to them through their personal behavior.

Comply with minor results

Achieve great results requires large aspirations. The temptation to follow the easy path and be content with the marginal improvement is large, this eventually is rather detrimental. The most harmful is marginal measures to reinforce a culture of incrementalismo and make the company a little courageous entity.

Abandon the effort ahead of time

You can not be surprised that some companies abandon the reengineering or reduce their original goals at the first sign of problems. But there are also companies that suspended its reengineering effort at the first sign of success. The initial success becomes an excuse to return to the easy life of usual business. In both cases the lack of perseverance deprives the company of the great benefits that could reap later.

Limit to hand the problem definition and scope of the re-engineering effort

A reengineering effort is doomed before hand to fail when, before, the Administration defines a closely the problem to be resolved or limits its scope. Define the problem and fix its scope are steps from the same reengineering effort. This begins with the approach of the objectives that are pursued, not with the way such objectives will achieve.
Reengineering has to break boundaries, not reinforce them. You have to feel not comfortable destructive.
Insist that re-engineering is easy is to insist that is not engineering.
Leave existing corporate attitudes and cultures to prevent start re-engineering
Key cultural characteristics in a company can inhibit or frustrate an engineering effort before the start. Companies whose short-term orientation keeps them focused exclusively on the quarterly results will find difficult to extend its vision to the broader horizons of reengineering.

Executives have an obligation to overcome those barriers.

Try to make the reengineering of bottom-up
There are two reasons for frontline staff and middle managers are not able to boot and run an effort of reengineering that succeed.
The first is that those who are near the front lines lack of perspective, which requires re-engineering extends it. The second reason is that all business process necessarily crosses organizational boundaries.
If a radical change comes from the bottom, you can bring you strength and drown him. Only a vigorous leadership and to come up will induce to accept transformations produced by reengineering.

Trust the leadership to someone who doesn't understand reengineering

The leadership of senior management is an essential prerequisite for success but not any high administrator serves for the case. The leader has to be someone who understands the reengineering and this fully committed with it must also focus on operations and appreciate the relationship between operating performance and the final results. Antiquity and authority are not enough; also critical are understanding and proper mental attitude.

Spare resources for reengineering

A company cannot reach the enormous performance benefits that promises the reengineering without investing in your program, and the most important components are the time and attention of the company's best. Reengineering them unreliable to the semicompetentes.
Insufficient resource allocation also tells employees that the Administration not given much importance to the reengineering effort, and encourages them to ignore it or to resist him, hoping that he should not spend much time unless you lose momentum and disappear.

Bury the reengineering in the midst of the corporate agenda

If the companies do not put re-engineering at the top of his agenda, it is preferable that they ignore all of it. Missing the constant interest of the Administration, resistance and inertia will make the project stops. Staff only reconciles with the inevitability of reengineering when it acknowledges that the Administration is committed to fund, which focuses on it and gives regular and constant attention.

Dissipate the energy in a large number of project

Reengineering requires a precise approach and enormous discipline, which is equivalent to saying that the companies have to focus their efforts on a small number of processes at the same time. It may need a radical re-engineering, many processes (services to customers, research and development and sales) but to achieve success not you must pay attention to all simultaneously. The time and attention of the administration are limited, and the reengineering will not receive the support that is necessary if the administrators are thinking of one thing and another.

Trying to redesign when the Chief Executive lacks few years to retire

Make radical changes in a company's processes will inevitably bring serious consequences for the structure of this and their administrative systems, and a person who is about to retire simply won't want to intervene on such complex issues or purchase commitments that limit the freedom of action of its successor.
In hierarchical organizations, especially candidates for high office that will be vacant may feel watched and judged, in such a case be interested more in individual performance than in being part of a great collective effort of reengineering.

Not distinguish reengineering from other improvement programs

A danger of reengineering is that the employees see it as just another program of the month. This danger, will certainly become in reality if reengineering is entrusted a powerless group. To avoid that possibility the Administration has to rely the reengineering managers of line, not to the executive staff specialists. Also if another improvement programme had been launched, there be very careful otherwise there will be confusion, and has wasted an enormous power to see which of the two is superior.

Concentrate exclusively on design

Not only reengineering is redesigning. It must also make new designs a reality. The difference between winners and losers is often not in the quality of their respective ideas but in what they do with them. For the losers, reengineering never goes out of the ideological phase to the execution.

Try to make reengineering without someone unfortunate

An omelet is not possible without breaking the eggs. It would be pleasant to say that re-engineering is a program that is only won, but it would be a lie. Reengineering not reports benefit everyone. Some employees will lose their jobs and others will not be happy with their new trades. Trying to please everyone is an impossible enterprise, which only delayed the implementation of re-engineering for the future.

Turning back when resistance is encountered

Employees will always have resistance, it is an inevitable reaction when taken a change of huge proportions. The first step in moving forward and waiting for her and not to let it hinder the effort.
The real reason of the reengineering is not succeeding is the lack of foresight of the Administration that no plans in advance to deal with the inevitable resistance of reengineering will find.

Prolong the effort too

Reengineering produces tensions across the company and extend it for a long time increases the discomfort for all. A time just 12 months should be enough to move from the proacciòn to the delivery of a redesigned process. If it takes longer, people impatient are, is confused and distracted. You will come to the conclusion that it is another fraudulent program and the effort will fail.
As stated above there are more reasons for failure because people have a great ability to find new ways to abandon a project, but in all seen reasons, we have found a common factor and is the role played by senior management. If reengineering fails to be any immediate cause, senior administrators did not understand well the reengineering or suffer from the lack of leadership.

Additional considerations

To which area of the company is first attacked when it is undertaken re-engineering?

There are two important areas: one is related to customers, mostly in the form of filling orders in the sector of service to the client, and the other is to attack area is running worse, which sometimes is the financial and sometimes is manufacturing. Anyway, more than half of the organizations begins with the customer.

Can you apply reengineering more than once?

Of course. There is a whole new generation of reengineering is beginning now. Even the companies that met the process in the last five or ten years are beginning again. And the force behind this generation is the Internet. Because even though they work very well, companies are not ready to make the clients to access them over the network. The companies are not yet able to provide pricing, availability and possibility of ordering over the Internet. Everything was made so far is not enough and have to start all over again.

How does technology translate to reengineering?

A company that can not change its model of thinking about computing and other technologies not be redesigned. The fundamental mistake many companies make when thinking about technology is to see it through the lens of their existing processes. They wonder: how we can use these new technological capabilities to enhance or promote or improve what already we are doing? On the contrary, it should ask: How can we harness technology to do things we are not doing? Reengineering, in contrast to the automation, is innovation. It is to explore more new technology capabilities to reach entirely new goals. One of the most difficult aspects of reengineering is to recognize unfamiliar new capabilities of the technology rather than the family.

Does reengineering to do with downsizing?

People confuse these two things, primarily because most of the reductions does not work, let people go and then takes over.
Reengineering does not imply, nor foreseen downsizing, was not set out with that goal, unfortunately human resources are easier to reduce variable and the most notorious rebuilding and redesign processes.

ITEM 10

Relaxation | Definition

HISTORICAL APPROXIMATION OF RELAXATION

The historical antecedents are remote in some Eastern philosophies.
More recent studies are based on the authoritative hypnosis, yoga and meditation techniques.
The formal birth of the progressive relaxation and autogenic training is located at the beginning of century.

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BASES

The theoretical bases, come from the psychophysiology.

The physiological response of relaxation model, different sleep and hypnosis; Cannon discusses the physiological state corresponding to the reaction flee - combat, and this model appears as opposed to the physiological response of relaxation.
Activation is not the same in all situations, depends on the evaluation concerning the person.

According to Everly (1989), there are three axes of Psychophysiological activation:

I: Neural axis: It is activated automatically and quickly, causing the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. It lasts a few seconds and slowly reduces the stimulus has disappeared, but if this continuous present is activated the II
Axis II: Neuroendocrine: it is slower in its activation and require more protracted. Involves the activation of the adrenal glands (secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline): effects - increased blood pressure, rate heart, the blood supply to the brain, stimulation in the skeletal muscles, and the decrease of blood flow in the skin and in the kidneys.
It is more related to the start-up of motor coping behaviors (depends on the evaluation and capabilities of the subject) and excessive or very frequent activation leads to cardiovascular problems. If there is a threat that the subject perceives how intractable and has to endure stress passively then activates the III
Axis III: Endocrine: owns four subejes: pituitary-Adrenal: the release of cortisol and corticosterone, increases gastric irritation, the production of urea, suppression immunological mechanisms, exacerbation of herpes, appetite suppression and development of feelings associated with hopelessness, depression, helplessness and loss of control.
Growth hormone secretion: role is not clear.
Increase in the secretion of thyroid hormones: thyroxine provokes an effect of general wear.
Vasopressin secretion: fluid retention.
The answer of this axis is slow and selective (only fires when the subject has no behavioural strategies to deal with the situation), but its effects are most persistent since they cause a chronic response to stress. One of the organs most activated by this axis is the brain, hence the predominantly psychological disorders causing.

TECHNIQUES OF RELAXATION

The human body reacts to any stimulus that can become a danger, (activation, increased in the sympathetic branch of the autonomous nervous system).
Vegetative changes arising manage to play a kind of Adaptive function, activating the necessary resources when any situation, either threat, escape or defense/attack.
This alarm response is automatic in the body, and before any change environmental, external or internal, it prepares to deal with the possible demands that raise you this new situation.
Its purpose is to put at the disposal of the body a few exceptional resources, which facilitates any response to new stimuli and their possible consequences.
When the threat of the situation disappears, it weakens the stress response and the body regains equilibrium.
Relaxation techniques are then intended to teach people to control the level of activation, required the assistance of other external resources. This is achieved through direct modification of their physiological conditions.
This is one of the therapies most commonly used when you need to achieve a change in behaviour. It can be used as a single procedure or you can also be part of other similar techniques.

BREATHING TECHNIQUES

Adequate control of our breathing has become one of the most simple strategies to deal with situations of stress.
Breathing techniques are intended to facilitate the voluntary control of respiration and automating that control so that you can be kept up to withstand greater stress. They are easy learning and can be used in any situation.
Some scientists have designed training programs in breath control techniques based on the implementation of six exercises in difficulty:
Nro exercise. 1: Inspiration abdominal
Nro exercise. 2: Inspiration abdominal and ventral
Nro exercise. 3: Inspiration abdominal, ventral and costal
Nro exercise. 4: Expiration
Nro exercise. 5: Rhythm inspiracion-expiracion
Nro exercise. 6: Overgeneralization.
For the practice of these exercises it is convenient to do amid the usual subject, trying to be an integral part of their daily lives.
It has also reached to develop procedures of respiration for the treatment of insomnia, allowing partial pressure to change so that it produces drowsiness.

HOW DO I APPLY THEM?

Relaxation and breathing techniques provide the individual of a series of skills that serve to control its own physiological activation and facing a series of situations that cause you stress or anxiety.
It must be clear that any technique that is to be applied must make sense for the patient and always must be aware that each treatment must be individualized, but above all should make the following distinction:
If the problem of the patient is carrying out their daily activities with more tension than necessary, it would indicate that this need differential relaxation techniques.
If the difficulty is in certain specific situations in which experienced much anxiety, it may be useful to learning any art of the activation control that condition to a word or signal given.

AREAS OF INTERVENTION

These techniques should be used if the patient has:
• Psychosomatic problems: in this area is where most frequently used techniques of relaxation and/or breathing (phobias specific or in general anxiety disorders).
• When we are in the presence of these cases the anxiety appears integrated in a broader intervention program, which aims to cover the answers of the patient as a whole not limited to Psychophysiological activation component.
• Hypertension: Have not found differences in the effectiveness of the different techniques.
• Migraine headaches: use progressive relaxation, in migraines or headaches related to vascular problems using autogenous training.
• Asthma,
• Insomnia,
• Surgical and hospital procedures: the most commonly used techniques are progressive relaxation and passive relaxation,
• Chronic pain: pain is considered to be a disorder multideterminado by sensory, cognitive, and affective factors. Relaxation training is included in almost all chronic pain treatment programs except that adopt a technique of operant conditioning in a strict manner. The most commonly used techniques are the progressive relaxation and autogenic training.
• Oncology: Progressive relaxation,
• Diabetes, etc.
In general, these techniques are applicable to any problem which has implied an anxiety problem.

PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES

• Benefits
• Increased heart rate and blood pressure.
• Pumped more blood to the brain, lungs and limbs, it adds more fuel to the brain.
• Increase in respiration.
• Breathing deep and fast providing oxygen to the lungs.
• Muscle tension.
• The muscles are prepared for action.
• Secretion of carbohydrates and lipids in the blood.
• Provides fuel, more rapid provision of energy.
• Increase in perspiration.
• Refrigerate the excess muscle heat.
• Release of clotting factors.
• Speed of clotting of wounds, avoiding the loss of blood.
• Elentecimiento of digestion.
• Increased supply of blood to the brain and muscles.
• Give a stress response depends on three factors:
• 1.) Objective demands of the medium (stressful situation),
• 2.) The perception that we have of the same, and
• 3.) Resources for dealing with them.
• This vegetative activation of the body caused by a threatening stimulus causes anxiety and fear responses.
• If it is a situational reaction of limited duration are talking about anxiety.
• If this activation is maintained at the time talked about stress. A prolonged reaction can produce intense and persistent neuroendocrine changes.
• This vegetative activation may be desadaptativa in two situations:
• 1.) Nothing activation elevated to stimuli or faintly menacing: occurs in anxiety disorders and phobias.
• 2.) Maintained over time high activation: occurs in stress work.
• Relaxation and breathing are very appropriate and effective strategies to reduce excessive activation.

HOW DOES THE RESPONSE OF RELAXATION?

Relaxation techniques increase parasympathetic activity and decrease the sympathetic producing muscle relaxation and breathing slowed.
Relaxation can be considered a State of hipoactivacion, is supposed to be a decrease in the hypothalamic tone which causes a decrease in sympathetic activation.
Changes in physiological responses are accompanied by State of rest (decrease motor responses) and perception of tranquility (cognitive response).
Vera and Vila (1991) indicate three conceptual frameworks to address the relaxation Psychophysiological study:

RELAXATION AND EXCITEMENT

The emotion is a Psychophysiological State physiological features similar to the emotional States but with opposite sign.
The activacion-cognicion theory explains the emotion as a result of the interaction between physiological activation and cognitive process of attribution of that State on the basis of certain environmental keys.
There is experimental evidence in favor of the theory of the specificity of activation which considers emotions as the product of the afferent feedback from specific body patterns.
Relaxation is understood as a specific State characterized by a pattern of activation psychophysiologic different or opposite to the intense emotions.

RELAXATION AND STRESS

Refers to stress as a pattern of responses issued by the subject in situations considered that excessive demands are placed on it and the resources available are evaluated as insufficient to deal them successfully.
Stands out the cognitive component along with the physiological response.
Relaxation is considered as antagonistic biological response to the stress response, which can be learned to counteract the negative effects of stress.

RELAXATION AND LEARNING

Learning mechanisms that underlie these techniques are:
Autogenic training: mechanism related to the mental representation of the motor consequences of the response of weight and heat, which would activate the corresponding somatic and visceral eferencias.

PROGRESSIVE RELAXATION

The mechanism of learning would be perceptual discrimination of the levels of tension and relaxation of various muscle groups through tension/relaxation exercises.

BREATHING

They operate through the vagal control cardiorespiratory interactions, low inspiratory, large amplitudes and abdominal breaths increase parasympathetic control of the cardiovascular functioning.

BIOFEEDBACK

The relaxation response can be explained by processes of conditioning instrumental or operant as positive reinforcement, instructions and feedback.

PROGRESSIVE RELAXATION

Developed by Jacobson (1929), it is one of the most used in behavior therapy. It is directed to achieve deep levels of muscle relaxation. It teaches the subject to identify the level of muscular tension is experienced in different parts of your body through stress and relaxation exercises.
It is based on the concept that the responses of the organism to the anxiety provoke thoughts and behaviors that cause muscular tension. This tension increases the subjective feeling of anxiety. Stress reduction is incompatible with this subjective feeling.
This particularly suitable when the subject responds to environmental demands with answers involving high levels of tension.

PRIOR CONSIDERATIONS

• Must be performed in a quiet room and penumbra, with pleasant temperatures.
• Will be used on a recliner.
• The subject will be loose, comfortable clothes without clock.
• Avoid interruptions once initiated exercises.

Positions:

• Ideal: Sitting comfortably in an armchair that allow to support the head, with the entire back resting on the back. Feet flat on the floor and your hands on the armrests.
• Lying down.
• Driver: Sitting with the body slightly forward, with his head on the chest and arms supported on legs.
At the first meeting that is very important, is explain and justify the patient procedures that will follow, the customer must understand fully both the procedure as the need that is practiced regularly. It may be given to the subject the inventory of indicators Psychophysiologic of caution (1978) or the inventory of responses of anxiety. With this we evaluate the reaction of the subject ansiogenas situations and that organs show greater reactivity.

Process to be followed:

• The patient's attention should focus on one muscle group.
• At the sign of the therapist, the subject will stretch the muscles for 5 seconds.
• When the therapist is directed by the subject will quickly relax the muscles.
• The subject is focused on the sensations experienced by the relaxed area.

Procedure:

Mendez and Rosemary (1993)
• Training consists of three phases: teaching, practice of the subject during sessions and between sessions.
• The voice of the therapist should gradually reduce its volume and speed.
• We are working all muscle groups (upper extremities, lower extremities, head and neck, trunk) starting with a muscle group and continuing with another on.
• When the subject has made the exercises of tensing and relaxing of all muscle groups let you enjoy a few minutes of this State, after which the therapist terminates the session with a countdown, making it go by slowly activating muscles.
• The number and duration of sessions vary according to subjects.
• In House held two sessions, one in the morning and one in the afternoon for 15-20 minutes each.
• To initiate a progressive relaxation training is necessary to take into account the motivation and the expectations of customers with respect to the immediate effects of the relaxation.
A.) PROBLEMS
B.) SOLUTIONS
A.) muscle cramps.
B.) generate less tension and hold the less time
A.) movements.
B.) ignore or return to the instructions.
A.) talk.
B.) ignore or return to the instructions.
A.) outside noises.
B.) to control them.
A.) laughter.
B.) extinction.
A.) spasms tics.
B.) not to worry
A.) disturbing thoughts.
B.) increase the spoken part or alternative set of thoughts that focus attention.
To) sleep.
B.) talk about high.
A.) inability to relax specific groups.
B.) strategy alternative voltage, include any muscle but not this group in the program.
A.) strange sensations.
B.) Normal treatment is being effective.
A.) internal activation or arousal.
B.) this practice only affects muscles that is under control. Internal strife due to the muscular interaction occurs.
It is important that no patient will remain with the feeling of presenting a particular problem or that it can derail the therapy. The anxiety of the subject must be low and confidence in the therapist high therapy success.
Variants of the progressive relaxation
The differences are only procedural and basically reside in the following: more or less number of exercises, various types of exercises, repetition of the same, learning a few muscles or all at the same time from the first session, order of exercises, the use of autoinstrucciones, and possible mixture of sentences of passive or weld relaxation.

DIFFERENTIAL RELAXATION

It is one of the most commonly used variants. Your goal is to learn to tighten only those muscles related to an activity and maintain relaxed those who are not needed, for the development of the same. The patient can perform most of the activities of their daily lives with a minimum of stress. Can be used as:
• Generalization strategy: once the subject has learned to relax in an optimal situation, starts this training as a complement to the progressive relaxation.
• Technique of confrontation: who does not present specific problems, they can teach them as a way to cope with difficult situations in daily life.
Differential relaxation of Bernstein and Borkovec (1983) program combines three dichotomous variables: position, activity and place.
This program begins with relatively quiet activities and will increase to become more active.
A differential relaxation programme takes 2-4 weeks and the passage of a situation to another mark the State of the client and with different distractions.
It is an advance on the progressive relaxation, since the subject has eyes wide open and is sitting on a regular basis.

CONDITIONED RELAXATION

Consists in linking a word that the subject is said to relax himself.
Once the subject is relaxed, instructed you so that you focus on the breath and so mentally repeat the word you prefer each exhalation.
The therapist then repeats it coinciding with the first 5 exhalations and then the subject is repeated 20 times to each exhalation.
A variant is the imagination of relaxing scenes.
Conditioned relaxation, as well as the differential, allows the subject to relax in situations of everyday life different from optimal conditions of the therapist-relaxation room.

PASSIVE RELAXATION

Variant of the progressive relaxation which only uses relaxation exercises of muscle groups, without stressing them before. Indicated for people with organic problems, difficult to relax at home or with difficulty to relax after tightening.
The patient practice at home through a tape and combine different techniques, passive relaxation induction of weight and heat and breathing exercises.
Deeper States of relaxation during the first sessions are achieved with this type of exercises, but it has the disadvantage that the patient depends more on the voice of the therapist than with other types of relaxation. It is of great importance the interiorization of the instructions, so the tape can be removed quickly.
It is technology allows you to be included in a broader intervention.

AUTOGENOUS TRAINING

Developed by Schultz, it consists of a series of phrases drawn up in order to induce a State of relaxation, in the subject through suggestions on sensations of heat, weight, etc. and the concentration on the breath.
Schultz (1987) recommended in order of preference are three postures of relaxation: lying, sitting or posture of Coachman.
Procedure:
• Quiet environment.
• Comfortable clothes.
• The therapist explains the method and motivates the subject.
• The patient is placed in the position of relaxation.
• The person focuses on the phrase "I am completely peaceful."
Then tells the formula that should be concentrated, that it will be different depending on the exercise that we are working.
The subject focuses on the words of the therapist, this is changing phrases without that, initially, it is necessary to linger long. The patient must go with the sensations he feels. The subject must maintain an attitude of passive concentration.
To end the session Schultz recommends a deep inspirations and a bending of the arms, before opening the eyes.
It is very important to the daily practice, and practice at home at least three times a day.
Autogenous training exercises:
They are divided into a cycle or lesser extent (actual relaxation exercises) and another more (exercise of imagination). The lower cycle is used in clinical practice.
A.) EXERCISES
B.) ELEMENTS OF SUGGESTION
C.) FORM OF RELAXATION
A.) exercise I
B.) feeling of heaviness "my arm is heavy"
C.) causes muscle relaxation
A.) exercise II
B.) feeling of warmth "my arm is hot"
C.) facilitates vascular regulation
A.) exercise III
B.) "my heart beats quiet."
C.) cardiac regulation
A.) exercise IV
B.) "breathe quietly"
C.) breath Control
A.) exercise V
B.) "my abdomen/solar plexus is warm"
C.) Regulation of abdominal organs
A.) exercise VI
B.) "The front this pleasantly fresh"
C.) Regulation of the cephalic region
According to Shalom and Pérez (1996) the average yield lower grade that is achieved by normal people after a few months of practice would be the following:
1 autotranquilizacion and emotional resonance damping.
2. general reset of the organism with the feeling of well-being increased.
3. vascular regulation.
4. amnesiac performance increase.
5. formulation of purposes during visualisation exercises.
6 the top cycle this cycle exercises exercises are meditation, since it is designed to act on mental functions. It is necessary to have a domain quick bottom cycle.
EXERCISES
ACTION SPECIFIC
1. exercises of imagination of colors.
2 directing eyeballs to the center of the forehead and give birth to a color in the imagination.
3. exercises of imagination of movements.
4 imagine figures moving and transforming itself.
5 exercises of imagination of specific objects.
6 do appear in the specific objects imagination, imagining details of them.
7. exercise of imagination of abstract objects.
8 see abstract representations.
9 exercise of imagination of feelings.
10 find the three-dimensional representation of own feelings.
11 exercises of the imagination of people.
12 focus on the representation of a person acting in their daily lives.
13. exercises of imagination of intimate experiences.
14. observation of itself and exposure to intimate experiences, through questioning of her own existence.
Autogenous training is very suitable for the elderly. Reduces the excessive anxiety, improves self-esteem and creates a general State of tranquility in this age group.

OTHER RELAXATION TECHNIQUES

1 meditation: It seeks to achieve relaxation through the monotonous repetition of a mantra.
2. the aim is to modify the State of mind of the subject to reduce tension and displayed a pleasant State of mind why it is effective to create a State of deep relaxation in a short time.
3 yoga: It allows great control on physiological functions but its practice requires long time learning before mastering the technique
4 hypnosis: Used little. It appears to act as an enhancer of other relaxation techniques.
Levels of clinical application of hypnosis (Miguel-Tobal (1993)):
• As techniques aimed at the modification or termination of behaviors: for the training of different strategies made explicit through suggestion, as for example learn to imagine more vividly and as instructions to promote self-esteem and self-efficacy.
• Techniques to encourage self-control and modify expectations and attitudes previously problematic.
• Facilitator for the effects of other cognitive-behavioral techniques.

AGAINST STRESS RELAXATION

For some people it is synonym of continuous shock, for others it is equivalent to discomfort and for most means tension. But in all cases the stress represents for us something disturbing and highly prejudicial.
However, the stress cannot be considered in principle as a disease but as the response, both physical and mental, adaptations and adjustments of the human being to the different life events. This response, which in principle can be natural and it would help us to deal with new situations, when it turns into a prolonged and intense reaction is very possible that it triggers serious physical and mental problems. Stress is currently one of the highest risk factors in cardiovascular disease, so we recommend a series of guidelines, not only to try to control it, but also to prevent it.
• Locate the source. most of the people are more pending state time or your current account balance that tension of his own body. But don't forget that know what stress, recognize it and, above all, find out what is triggering it and how it is affecting our bodies, is the first step in their management and control.
• Take care of your diet. Tobacco, coffee and alcohol enhance it, so it is necessary to limit their consumption. The diet should be balanced, rich in vegetables, fruit and fiber and low in fats and sugars. Eat slowly and regularly.
• Exercise, you should. Physical activity on a regular basis, improves your overall well-being and helps to prevent stress and diseases that causes.
• Learn to tell what happens. Do not store their feelings: are a time bomb. Those who convey their emotions with less disorders.
• Practice optimism. reject negative thoughts and replace them with positive thoughts. It is not easy to do, but it is not impossible. Be flexible and positive attitudes towards life increases the defenses.
• Learn to say NO. It is important not to create more obligations than necessary. Dare to say your opinion and do not overload with excessive responsibilities.
• Give the opportunity to relax your body and your mind. The relaxation aims to decrease anxiety and muscle strain especially in pressure situations.
Worrying situations cannot be avoided but yes it can handle responses and reactions to them learning and practicing relaxation.
It is impossible to be physically relaxed and emotionally tense at the same time. The feeling of physical wellbeing and moral stress can not coexist at the same time.
The body's response to the relaxation is an almost immediate recovery effect and is a truce for the body
The progressive muscle relaxation reduces the pulse rate and blood pressure, as well as the degree of sweating, and breathing rate. It avoids the organic problems causing the stress.
The physical relaxation achieved an important muscle relaxation that relieves the pressure accumulated in our body.
Mental relaxation eliminates the psychic tension.

ITEM 11

Social responsibility in enterprises | Definition

The great social responsibility of companies is kept active, profitable, competing and taking place in the market. When a company is profitable not only produces a return to their owners or shareholders, but that it also generates very desirable social consequences, such as:
• New employment opportunities through its expansion and investment.
• Provision of goods and services to society, appropriate economic tools that the State can tax and with the proceeds of those taxes keep employees public working, develop infrastructure, human capital, provide health, social security and other services necessary to enhance national development.
The closure of a company is not simply the problem of a businessman, generates a very important social loss in jobs, stability, credibility and trust.
Then, it could be said that the social responsibility of the company is maintained as a company. This responsibility is more and more complex as the world goes global.
Does this mean that the company does not have to take actions of social solidarity or projection towards the community? Not only means that it is not obliged to do so. If it does so, and is very plausible to do so, is by means of voluntary social initiatives, it is a very broad field where is the entire concept of philanthropy.
Faced with the reality of poverty in Latin America, no one can be against that required actions aimed to produce social welfare. But the question is: rests you with companies that responsibility and obligations that has rigged? And what would be the degree of participation of the company in that responsibility?
It seems obvious that can not ask a certain level of small and micro-enterprises which perform a function that is not typically business, also it seems generally accepted that should not expect the company to replace the State, in activities such as education, security and other policies, but with the reduction of the size of the State comes the expectation that companies assume some or many of these activities.

Evolution business reactions and process factors

The efforts of social groups or consumers to achieve influence on production, trade or the power cores are known from the year 1327, when it was reported that the citizens of Canterbury imposed a boycott of consumers to the monastery of the Church of Christ.
Later, in the 19th century, the cooperative movement introduced in England the basis for a "consumer friendly brand", promised excellent treatment for their employees and sharing profits with customers.
Many of the first activities of the consumer organizations referred to the improvement of the working conditions and rights for workers who are affiliated to the nascent labour movement.
In 1918 he disappeared "white label" fueled by the National League of consumers of the United States, whose inspectors ensured that clothing was made in factories that respected the law, did not use homeworkers, did not require extraordinary hours of work, and not employing children under 16 years. To disappear "white label" published the list of companies that are unionized, to encourage them, by exclusion of the others.
Since those early years, consumers have been encouraged to use their purchasing power to influence the behavior of companies in a wide range of topics, such as public safety, environment, production of weapons, supporting the community, labour relations, etc.

Benefits of corporate social responsibility

Companies committed to social responsibility experience significant benefits, both quantitative and qualitative.
• Financial Perfomance
• Reduction of operating costs
• Brand image and corporate

Financial perfomance

The business and investment communities have debated for a long time if there is a real connection between socially responsible business practices and positive financial performance.
Several academics have shown this correlation. Quoted in Business and Society Review (1999), a study showed that 300 corporations who honored their codes of ethics with the characteristic of being exposed to the community resulted from a performance of two to three times higher with respect to those who had not considered it, meaning no doubt a differential value-added. A recent Harvard University study also showed that those companies with shared with their employees acquire showed a ratio of growth four times greater, and eight times the growth of employment in relation to the package only for shareholders.
David Lewin, a professor at UCLA, commissioned by the company IBM has studied the relationship between corporate donations and corporate performance of the companies. Through it he could corroborate that companies with philanthropic social practices were getting rates of return to investments far exceeding expectations.

Reduction of operating costs

Various CSR initiatives, particularly in the environmental focus, manage to reduce costs significantly, reducing costs and unproductive. For example, which aimed to reduce gas emissions contributed to optimizing the energy capacity, thus reducing unnecessary costs. Also recycling alternatives to generate extra income. Several practical examples of significant savings there are environmental. For example the Dow Chemical Co. and the National Resource Defense Council established an Alliance in order to reduce the production of 26 toxic chemicals to only one. For this reason, they have managed to save 5.4 million a year, and as an additional benefit the quality of their products.
A survey of 150 executives conducted by the Whirlpool Foudation, Working Mother Magazine and Family Newsbrief found a direct relationship between the programmes and initiatives of the working area, such as health, welfare, care of babies and seniors, resulting in important benefits such as reducing absenteeism and rotation, greater employee satisfaction and consumers , reducing costs of health, etc.

Evolution and business reactions

With the passage of time the focus has gone from the purely local and national to international activities of multinational enterprises. With the increase in size, wealth and influence, of multinational enterprises and the growing importance of foreign direct investment in developing countries consumer organizations and other social groups have sought ways to exercise control and establish the minimum acceptable behavior of companies or multinational businesses.
The progressive dismantling of barriers to trade, the increase in the freedom of movement of capital, property safety, the fall of communism, the improvement in communications and technology, increasing competition, the increase in the ability to develop brands global consumer world and the difficulties for the expansion of companies in purely domestic markets He has allowed multinationals to expand their influence and their activities very significantly.
On the other hand, the growth in international trade and the search for foreign direct investment by the less developed countries, combined with economic insecurity and high levels of unemployment in developed countries, have given standing to accusations against multinationals, of practicing "social dumping". He is the designated as exploiters of the markets, natural resources and the people of the countries the world's poorest and accuse them of damage at the same time the workers in the developed world, "exporting" jobs to countries that have lower wage labour standards and lower levels.
The pressures of consumer and other social groups are oriented towards the adoption of international codes or attempts to establish labels. These initiatives also have more than half a century of existence.
• In 1937, the International Chamber of Commerce created the code of standards for advertising practice and trade.
• In 1948 was adopted by United Nations, the Universal Declaration of human rights
• In year 76 the Organisation for economic cooperation and development (OECD) adopted the Declaration on international investment and multinational enterprises.
The following year, in 1977, the International Labour Organization (ILO) adopted the Tripartite Declaration of principles concerning multinational enterprises and Social policy.
More recently, in the processes of regional integration have been signed social letters supplementing the regulations related to trade issues or integration. The signatory countries of the free trade agreement for North America (NAFTA for its acronym in English) signed at the same time a supplementary labor agreement.
In June 1998, the International Labour Conference, at its eighty-sixth session, adopted the ILO Declaration on the fundamental principles and rights at work and its follow-up. Through this Declaration, all States members of the Organization have a commitment to respect, promote and realize the principles concerning the fundamental rights which are:
• Freedom of Association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining;
• The Elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour;
• The effective abolition of child labour; and
• The Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.
While efforts to influence and control the conduct of the companies are not new, the 1990s are, however, four innovative features in the struggle of social groups or consumers:
1. the level of attention and importance given to International Social Affairs, particularly child labour.
2. an increase in the interest and activity of Governments, workers unions, advocacy groups and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the codes and labelling.
3. the interest of the media and advertising generated on these issues.
4. the speed and scope of the response of the companies.
It has shown that the creation of new international distribution circuits can increase the power of the consumer and social awareness in the world. It is necessary to remember that although the power of consumer generated voluntary initiatives can be sufficiently real, to the extent that consumers have the right to exercise their right to choose, this becomes somewhat irrelevant in cases of economies stagnant or ruined, situations in which consumers are impoverished and with little possibility of choice.

ITEM 12

Information systems | Definition

EVOLUTION TOWARDS THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

From the very beginning has been in constant evolution and transformation. Its first revolutions society had been transformed from a society colonial type or an agricultural power, suffers a second revolution from an agricultural society to an industrial power of the first order as a result of the industrial revolution that I did change the way of life of every citizen.
Nowadays refers to a third industrial revolution, is a revolution in the information and knowledge that is reaching the roots of civilization, the incentive for this is 'information' as an abundant resource. Now society is based on an economy of production, management, and uses of information, this is evident today, since most of the people not already working in the field, but they are in areas of sales, education, health, banking, financial, etc. and these activities involve work, distribute or create new information or knowledge.
So a society based on information, knowledge, technology, processing and information systems acquired great importance.

DEFINITION OF INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS

INFORMATION: It is the result of having organized or analysed the data in some way and with a purpose and to be information it needs to provide expertise, should serve for something, you must be innovative to the person receiving it to understand it and use it.
INFORMATION systems: it is a set of people, data and procedures that work together and who are looking for a common goal. It allows them to capture, store, and distribute information from the environment of the institution and its internal operations; to support decision making, functions or areas, communication, coordination control and analysis of the organization. Information systems are present in all organizations and institutions including fields such as: banks, restaurants, hotel networks reservations in areas, among other lines.
Information systems comply with the function to transform the pure data into useful information through basic activities that are:
• Food or input: get data from internal or external sources of the organization. I.e. they constitute the elements of input or data entry.
• Processing: It acts on the pure data to produce useful information; It is the generator information system that will determine how such information is made.
• Outputs or products: is already processed information which will be transferred to the future user, i.e. to persons or activities that should be employed.
Information systems also requires a feedback where are carried out assessments and the necessary corrections to make the input more correct.

TYPES OF INFORMATION

Financial information: It is that specifically focused information for the identification of reporting revenue and financial statements; to meet the goal of preparing State results and the Balance sheet. As well, they support control and decision-making in the administration.
This information is a significance in all the companies since being quantitative support to managers, supervisors and administrators to know the financial situation of the company to a date determined; using this information you can learn it sold, spent, won as well as what is owed and what is as an investment.
Administrivia: The administrative level is present in this information and these levels can be: high, intermediate and operational. So it is needed a summary information is displayed where the General results and the trends of interest. High-level managers don't have time to deliberate on the details, i.e. they need to accurately identify the issues that demand your attention, influencing the nature of the information.
At the high level, there are seven types of information management:
• Support information: keeps administrators informed of the situation to see if they are complying with the objectives or expectations according to the area. As an example the percentage of sales that was obtained in the week.
• Information on situation: also known under the name of advance information allows administrators to be aware of problems, crises or advances reported in order to immediately seize any opportunity. Example the progress in the research of a new product.
• Warning information: shows what is happening in the atmosphere well be problems that may affect the company or opportunities. Example the fluctuations in raw material prices.
• Planning information: Describes the main developments, programs that must start in the future; i.e. advance plans to be carried out. Example of company market share in three years.
• Internal operations information: indicates the performance of the Organization and the people who belong to it, are evaluated the actual performances with expectations for reporting. Example actual sales of the month regarding the variation of sales plans.
• Confidential information: represents a company's external information as rumors in the industry opinions, reports in the business environment, which includes the financial market or political and economic fluctuations. Example predictions of the experts in the performance of the economy during the next few months.
• Information disseminated abroad: this information must be reviewed by the executives before being sent to shareholders or to the media. Example report on the profits of an organization over a period.

THE NEW ROLE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN ENTERPRISES

Today there is an interdependence between the relationship of information systems and business, since between business strategy, rules and procedures, in information systems there are changes in the strategy requires modifications to the hardware, software, database and telecommunications that are part of modern information systems.
Businesses therefore need allies in information systems to progress and expand into the activity in which it operates.
Another change in the relationship between information systems and companies is the growing complexity and the vision of systems projects and their applications.
Through the information systems in enterprises can:
Minimize operating costs: since the work that performed it before several employees now can make it single, leading to a significant reduction in costs and encourages the institution to invest in latest technology and make it more competitive win involving administrative and institutional changes.
Maximize profits: to minimize costs the opportunity to maximize earnings increases which leads to further growth of the company.
This is possible thanks to the interaction between the Organization and the information systems, already by an area ranging market and roles to play and by other area strategies van equipment and systems to be developed that integrated form an Alliance in the company.

OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS IN THE INSTITUTIONS

The institutions have several sets of information:
Level strategic systems: this system is the system of management support (S.S.G.) Managers use this system for the theory of decision-making, they serve at the strategic level of the institution, direct informal decisions and created a widespread atmosphere of computing and communication rather than provide some fixed application specific capacity d these managerial support systems are designed to incorporate information about external events such as new competitors, but also get summary information systems and information management system to support internal decision-making.
System at the administrative level or management: this in turn consisting of information systems for Administration (S.I.A.) and systems for the support of decision-making (S.S.D.) information management systems provide reports and in some cases administrators online access to ordinary and historical records of the institution. This system serves mainly to functions and planning, control and decision-making at the level of the managerial administration and they have been frequently limited analysis capabilities.
System knowledge level: within this system the work of knowledge (S.T.C.) systems and systems are in the office (S.A.O.). Working knowledge systems have workers who have college degrees, are members of a recognized profession, your job is to create new information and knowledge. These systems work the knowledge, such as workstations and engineering or scientists to design, promote the creation of new knowledge and ensure that new knowledge and technical experience to be properly integrated into companies.
Level operating systems: within this level is the information processing system (S. P.O.), is a computerized system that performs and records the routine daily operations necessarily for the operations of the company. How for example is feeding data on orders, hotel booking systems, information to clients, customers and shipping records. Tasks, resources, and the goals of the operational level of the institution are previously defined highly structured.

THE CHALLENGE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS

The challenge of business strategy: A business strategy can be created through a competitive and efficient design. Since in the majority of large companies sector service is made investments of up to fifty percent in information technology the total of investment and capital. The power of the software or hardware of computers to grown rapidly compared with the capacity of institutions to use this technology. So many institutions should be redesigned to be able to remain competitive. They shall make use of information technology to simplify communication and eliminate any inefficiency in the organization. I.e., institutions must redesign the way in which produce, design, deliver and sell their goods and services.
The challenge of globalization: Understand the requirements of the system within a global business environment. To developed integrated information systems multinational, the company must address the restrictive laws on the flow and information in more than 25 countries; creating cross-cultural structures of accounting and reporting. The way in which the world economy has evolved slightly puts us on the need to implement information systems capable of performing operations of purchase sale of products in many countries.
The challenge of the information architecture: create an architecture and information that support the goals of the institution.
Companies must have the clear idea and their organizational goals, even when the information technology suggests new ways of doing business. Many can not achieve their goals by having incompatible computer and information systems.
The challenge from the invention of information systems: The main problem as a result of the development of powerful and inexpensive computers does not involve technology but the Administration and institutions.
The challenge of responsibility and Control: designing systems that people can control, understand and use in an ethical and responsible manner.
Computer-based information systems play an interesting role in business and in everyday life, therefore special measures should be taken to ensure that these are reliable and safe, since otherwise being operated with defects they cause extreme damage.

ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEMS

All organizations are information processing systems, since any activity carried out in the enterprise needs information processes for their operation. Companies can use 4 basic competitive strategies to deal with these forces of competition:
• Product differentiation.
• Oriented differentiation.
• Develop close links with competitors and suppliers.
• Transform into low-cost products.

OPERATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Operational information makes a communication function such as activating processes (materials specification, definition of tasks, budget authorizations, etc.) and contact ambiental(informes sobre mercados, status de suministros, etc.) device; It indicates the performance of the Organization and the people who belong to it, evaluate the actual performances with expectations that company has to submit reports.
These systems are responsible for supplying all the information relating to operations which the company, either be purchase and processing of materials, specifying tasks to perform or to be able to request quotes.
They are very useful because it allows you to expedite requests for material or revision of the lots acquired, as well as also check if the set tasks have been fully met, with this information administrators can assess immediate performance and functioning of the institution by comparing them with estimates made for the same performance in a given time and the result of this comparison will allow management decisions.

INFORMATION AS A STRATEGIC RESOURCE

Information systems have evolved according to the strategies employed by each company, which provide competitive advantages, as planning in the management field as well as the creation of new products or services, open new markets, improve service delivery and reduce costs. Information systems play a strategic role in the survival and prosperity of a company as the strategic use of them and the information are considered critical points for the success of an organization.
Information increases the capacity of managers and workers because it makes it possible to achieve new levels of effectiveness and efficiency, the information is a strategic tool that provides competitive advantages and allows institutions to extend competition to be leaders in the market. Nowadays information allows to develop new products in a more precise way; as well as also the flow of information through manage to decrease the costs of internal operations; to take advantages of the new technologies of the information.
All these changes that have been taking place in recent decades has been regarded as an information revolution in which a new administration able to employ the technology of information and communication of importance as needed in your organization, taking into account the direction and the nature of the sector is required. In order to achieve a reduction of costs, the creation of new products and strengthen negotiations with suppliers.
There are key strategic roles that can be played within an enterprise, these are information systems:
Improvement of business processes: one information technology strategic business values is its role in the realization of important improvements in business processes of a company, investments in information technology can help a company's operational processes are substantially more efficient and that its management processes are much more effective. All these changes may allow the company to reduce costs, improve quality and service to the customer and develop innovative products for new markets.
Promotion of business innovation: investments made in information systems technology can be achieved as a result the development of products and services or unique processes. This can create new business opportunities and allow a company to expand into new markets.
Retain customers and suppliers: these investments in such systems can also allow a company retain its customers and suppliers through the construction of new valuable relationships with them. Should improve significantly the quality of service by customer and suppliers in the activities of distribution, marketing, sales, etc. This creates Inter-organizacional (Internet) information services in which are electronically linked computers of the company with its customers and suppliers, giving as a result obtain new alliances and partnerships.
Create transfer costs: investments in information technology have tried to do that customers or suppliers depend on continuous information systems use inter-organizacinales innovative and mutually beneficial.
Barriers to entry: to make investment in information technology to improve their operations or promote innovation a company also could establish barriers for entry desanimarían to other companies to enter a market, or retardarían such income.
Leverage a platform of strategic information technology: investment in information technology helps a company building a strategic platform that allows you to take advantage of strategic opportunities. In many cases, this happens when a company invests in advanced computer information systems to improve the efficiency of their own business processes.
Develop a strategic information base: information systems also allow a company to develop a base of strategic information that can provide information to support their competitive strategies. The corporate databases of company information has always been a valuable asset in the promotion, efficient operations and effective management of a company. Information on best business practices and other business knowledge that is stored in the web site Internet database is a strategic knowledge base.

LIKE AN INFORMATION SYSTEM CAN BE USED TO GAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE?

To be able to provide competitive advantages you have to understand the relationship of the company with their environment or surroundings, two models are used for this:

(Porter, 1980) competitive forces model

This model is used to describe the interaction of threats and external opportunities that affect the company's strategy and its ability to compete.
This threats and external opportunities are:
• New entrants to the market.
• Project or competitive services.
• Substitute bargaining power.
• Client.
The company can use four competitive strategies:
• Product differentiation: the company can create brand loyalty, create new and unique products and services that can easily be distinguished from the competition and the competitors existententes or potential can not duplicate.
• Oriented difference: in this strategy the company can develop new niches in the market in order that it can compete better than its competitors.
• Develop close with competitors and suppliers: lower the cost of change by establishing links with customers and suppliers in order to tie customers to the company's products and suppliers designing a schedule of deliveries and a pricing structure designed by the acquiring undertaking.
• Transform into low-cost products: the company must try to produce goods and services at a better cost than their competitors to avoid the entry of new competitors into the market, but without sacrificing the quality and level of service.

MODEL OF THE CHAIN OF VALUE (PORTER 1985)

It is essentially a form of analysis of business activity through which we dividing a company in its constituent part seeking to identify sources of competitive advantage in those value-generating activities.
This model sees the company as a string of basic activities that add value margin to products or services of the company.
These activities are.
• Primary activities: is related mainly with the production and distribution of products and services of the company that creates M value for the customer, among these things:
or the internal logistics (which includes the reception and storage of materials for distribution)
or operations responsible for transforming inputs into finished goods.
or external logistics, storage and distribution of products.
or include sales and marketing, promotion and sale of products.
or service is the maintenance and repair of the products and services of the company.
• Support activities: these make possible the attendance of the primary activities and consist of:
or infrastructure of the institution, is the Administration and management.
or human resources, recruitment, hiring and training of staff.
or technology, improvement of products and production processes.
or supply, procurement of inputs.

ITEM 13

ERP systems (Enterprise Resource Planning) | Definition

Origin of the ERP systems (Enterprise Resource Planning)

With the evolution of the Administration, have also been improving production systems. The ERP back its origin to the MRP (material requirement planning) systems, which were associated with the home with large companies due to its complexity and high cost.
In the beginning, the MRP included among its terms of reference, determine the raw material to produce a product, provide the times of when had ordered each of the materials, etc. As we see, the original MRP planned only to materials. Eventually he managed to extend to files that handled the materials list and archive log of inventory, to create a schedule on time, in order to control the entire system, from the entrance of the order to the management of finance, accounting, etc.
Subsequently were able to include another portion of the system such as the purchasing function and a more detailed inclusion of the same production system, i.e. the plant, clearance and detailed control of programming.
The world was changing creating a competition stronger, expanding world demand, outsourcing, etc., which made that the MRP already failing in a standardized way the previous functions. Is here where developed new systems based on the logic of the MRP and called the new generation planning business resources (ERP).
In addition to these problems, multinational companies had to deal with the problem of inconsistency of information between its affiliates and the difficulty of consolidation, both its operations and its accounts for the set of companies and countries. The only solution was the use of different software in each country and develop other consolidation software made to order which not was never effective results, having to integrate data from different programs.
It was then when the German company SAP offered a set of modular enterprise software that could be grouped in different ways by tables of connection, could merge and form a valid system to adapt to the needs of a particular country. The solution was given, software that even being different from the the other affiliates, was integrated into a single system in terms of the information and the traffic of goods and services within the multinational logistics, but was unable to solve the problem of the introduction and implementation of these systems that require expert staff in the use of the procedures for adapting to the needs of the company and the conditions of each country performance.
It was then that SAP took consulting organizations the world (Andersen Consulting, Arthur Andersen, Price Waterhouse, KPMG, Coopers, etc), as their sales agents and implementation. It was the only solution because its software is made up of unfinished parts that must be adapted and interconnected in each case by expert staff, resulting in the need for a highly specialized work to be provided by these consulting firms, with added values in the original software that usually represent a cost of between three and seven times the value of the original software. Encrypting an example, we can say that an installation of SAP, whose software cost $ 5 million, is often accompanied by a consulting firm with a cost of 15, 20, or even 30 million dollars. But despite the high cost involved, the advantages of having a single system of information for the whole of the different affiliates was gradually preferring business decisions toward the acceptance of this solution giving rise to what has been called the market of ERP solutions for companies. And when some of the major companies announced their decision to implement SAP ERP software, business software (Oracle, PeopleSoft, JDEdwards, Baan) companies engaged to promote and refine their own development to be present in this new market.

Definitions of systems ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)

There are several definitions for the ERP, which have much in common, are citing some of them to have a larger picture of what you define as business management planning:
• "It is a structured information management system to meet the demand of business management solutions, based on the offer of a complete solution that enables companies to assess, implement and manage your business more easily. Characterized by its modularity, integration of information, universality, standardization and interfaces with other applications. They are open and most of the multiplatform systems."
• "ERP is a tool that supports a company's business processes in an integrated way. It allows operations such as the generation of a purchase order, register receipts, enter and pay vendor invoices, process billing, manage inventory, issue balances, etc."
• "Software solution that focuses on the needs of the company, taking a view of the processes to meet corporate objectives, seeking to integrate all functions of the company."
• Reduce response, production cycle time, optimize the quality, improve the management of assets, reduce costs, optimizing the communication "A designed planning system."
Analyzing all these definitions, one can conclude that it is a system which seeks to increase the efficiency of business processes, reducing time, standardizing and optimizing processes and resources, including each of the activities that take place within the organization.

Models of systems ERP

Today has been extended significantly the implementation and application of ERP software, not just between multinational companies in need of a system complex and homogenous for the different countries, but also between companies of national level without the need for operational and information consolidation. But as often happens in so many other areas, also here I could say that there is no (or at least still not found), a unique solution that at the same time is the best for all types of businesses (multinational and domestic, large and small, simple and complex, etc.), as for example, the aforementioned advantages of international homogenization, become disadvantages complexity of installation and its cost for companies not in need of such multinational integration. These companies, by contrast, need an ERP software that is much more agile, faster implementation and more moderate cost, without losing any of the necessary operational and informational functions for the smooth running.
To help carry out an affective analysis of the ideal solution, depending on the type of company that will use the ERP, defined three models of systems, according to the degree of functional definition of it:
1) tool. A system is not the finished product, but that allows to produce it through its use, means tool that generally involves the development of specific programming. The simplest tool is 'pen and paper', since in theory, it can be started from scratch programming that eventually will be converted into a product capable to operate fully in accordance with the needs of the user, i.e., in an application to the extent. This is naturally impracticable and therefore talk about tools, we refer to highly sophisticated systems that allow to use already ready-made routines and which provide a high level programming language to add code (programming) in highly efficient and fast way with views to meet the desired requirements.
(2) application configurable. It is named to a development that includes fully completed business capabilities and lists to work, with capacity to adjust to needs by defining parameters. In theory this is the ideal system, since it supposedly contains all possibilities of use already scheduled requiring simply the indication of the procedures and data you want to use or not using a table of parameters which runs along the entire application. Once determined the parameters, the system is ready to work in a manner tailored to the needs of the user without any additional programming. But unfortunately, the reality is not so flattering. It is impossible to contemplate and schedule in advance all possible procedures that any company may need, and even if it were possible, the amount of programming of basis which should be installed in each case would be too large and non-operating. For this reason, the customizable applications, come to a certain extent that is considered sufficient to prevent additional programming, but in general, without covering the entire spectrum of needs.
(3) fixed application. It is already finished with the preconceived and immutable procedures programming. It is the cheapest, if you consider the zero cost of adaptation, but it is also the most rigid, not to allow variations on the original design.
All ERP systems have something of the three models. Thus, some systems are essentially tools that require additional programming but also have already fully defined parts (application sets), and other customizable (application configurable). Other systems are basically applications ranges, although with some fixed parts and the possibility of adding procedures (tool), but in general, not to modify the existing. Finally there are systems which are fixed applications, although in general are allowed some parameterizations, and occasionally, by externally, some possibility of adding programming (tool).
6 analytical aspects are analyzed in particular. They are as follows:
• Adaptability. It measures the capacity of adaptation of the software to the needs of the user. It is probably the most important prerequisite for effectiveness is a good adaptation to the business needs.
• Safety. It measures the level of correct functioning of the application along all its features. It is as important as adaptability, by very good to be this, if an operational safety, has not been achieved everything is lost.
• Economy. It is defined as the inverse of the cost, (E = 1/C), calling cost to the set of necessary disbursements so that the application is completed and operational. Therefore, includes not only the cost of the Basic or standard software, but also the consulting, implementation, commissioning and training.
• Speed of implementation. It is defined as the inverse of the time of implantation, (R = 1/T), calling implementation time that mediates between the date of acquisition of the software and the implementation underway already adjusted to the user. This aspect is directly related to the economy, since an application that is implemented quickly, is more economical to reduce the cost of consulting and implementation, and also software applications with rapid deployment, often also significantly cheaper.
• Easy to update. It measures the ease and safety with which the user may have new and updated versions of the software manufacturer, and is closely linked with the degree of standardization of the application. For example, if the software house provides the programming language that the user or your consultant makes additional programming, this not may be updated by the software house, which naturally does not know the content of such programming. On the contrary, if the software House has prepared the application 'Reusable components', which are collections of ready-made functions which the user chooses and combines with each other to add programming, but without writing code using languages, future updates of the software House are automatic, as to supply the components update, update immediately everything what has made with them. This aspect of the ease of updating does not usually rating in its real importance, that it is a lot. Indeed, when already it takes awhile working properly with an application, it is not acceptable to see will not to incorporate new technological developments, because they can not be integrated in the application, having lost standardisation by having additional programming to measure. This phenomenon has been demonstrated at a high cost with the arrival of the Euro, forcing to review much of the programming of the ERP, has discovered the impossibility of containing the user's own programming, as it has happened with known international houses (type tool) software and programs that are having big problems with its Park of clients to the point of risking their own survival to upgrade to the Euro.
• Internationalization. It measures the ability to use the same system, but with the necessary adaptations, to other countries with different languages, laws and operational customs. This aspect is not important for companies that don't need the international consolidation of information and operations, but can be very important in multinational corporations which give pre-eminence to this aspect. It is therefore a characteristic of discretionary application and not general.
Given these definitions, shows the following:
• The two most important aspects, ADAPTABILITY and security are distributed differently among the three models: tool, customizable application and application sets. In the tool, (call I), ADAPTABILITY reaches its highest degree, although security may be low since many additional programming by the user or its consultants, which may contain defects or do not integrate well with the part may be standard. This is the opposite of what happens with the fixed application (which will be AF), which offers a high security as a standard development, but a negligible ADAPTABILITY. Therefore the best option is without doubt the Parameterizable application (that will call AP) because its high safety, because it is an already-functional application, add a high degree of ADAPTABILITY, less than in the case of the I, but far superior to the AF.
• The 'Internationalization' aspect becomes a single high-level in the HE, since it requires an important work of adaptation to conform to different countries which just completely solves the additional programming. The AP can meet part of the needs of internationalization, but it will always be necessary some of additional programming. The AF cannot just meet this requirement.
• 'Ease of update' appearance is very low in have precisely because them the existence of own local programming that requires its own update procedure on the sidelines, and yet in coordination with the basic part or system standard. However, both the AP and the AF, this aspect is fulfilled in a high degree.
• The remaining two aspects: 'Economy' and 'Speed of implementation' go very close, as the most important part of the cost is associated with the required consultancy work for the implementation of the system. As you can see, both the AP and the AF reach high degrees of acceptability in both parameters, but are negative aspects of the I that they cannot avoid the additional cost.

General characteristics

An ERP system is not only an integration of various organizational processes. Any system must have a minimum amount of features to be qualified as a true solution for the ERP issue. These basics are:
• Flexibility: An ERP system must be flexible to respond to the changing needs of the organizations. Client-server technology enables ERP to run between multiple databases through ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).
• Modular and open: ERP should be an open system architecture. This means that any module could be intercepted or separately at any time as needed, without affecting the other modules. It must support multiple hardware platforms as well as the implementation of "Third Party".
• Comprehensive: It must be capable of supporting a range of organizational functions and must be suitable for a wide range of companies.
• Beyond the company: should not be tied only to the limits of the company, but that it will have to allow conectare to other entities of the business of the organization.
• Best business processes: must contain a collection of the best processes for applicable business worldwide.
• Simulate reality: should simulate the reality of the process, the business, the computer. For any reason you must have control beyond business and you must assign responsibility to users behind the system.

Why is necessary to implement it an ERP?

Current and future trends are forcing companies to increase their competitiveness, so they need to be optimized and integrated its internal flow of information and their external commercial relations to achieve basic objectives such as productivity, quality, cost reduction and customer service.
The adoption of an ERP is a complex process consisting of well-defined stages:
• Establish the need for change: should not be initiated change hastily, taking into account that this plan includes the replacement of all the tools that support the business processes. You must verify the current situation and complement it with the business objectives. The consensus of the Executive levels of the company should get to establish the need for the change.
• Selection of the solution: it is necessary to define those responsible for decision-making, the criteria of evaluation of possible solutions, the analysis of alternatives as well as evaluate and choose which provide better benefits to the organization.
• Implementation of the solution
• Starting in March
• Impact on the Organization

The appeal of the ERP

This adaptation to different vertical sectors aims to increase the attractiveness of the ERP outside their main stronghold, making, which remains the most likely use of this software place since about 76% of the manufacturers already have an ERP system or are in the process of installing one. However, ERP planning has not penetrated to the same extent in other markets, for example, only 35% of health care companies and insurance companies have in operation or they are installing ERP applications at the moment.
In this context, most sellers have found a stagnation of its sales of ERP systems, so leading companies are devoting much of his attention to develop additional applications that users are demanding today.
The conclusion is clear: expanding and extending the system basic ERP is becoming a priority for different users.

Advantages of an ERP system

The financial aspect is one of the issues of greatest concern to companies to make the decision of what ERP solution will be the most appropriate. However, and although it is not an easy task, the effects of align financial processes with the help of ERP are very attractive:
• Transactions require less time
• The financial staff can spend more time working with higher added value
• The costs are decreased
• Executives who make the decisions are able to pay more attention to other financial aspects that arise in any place that presents any need
An ERP system helps the different parts of the Organization through the sharing of information and knowledge, as well as its communication. In addition, it helps in cost reduction perform efficiently and simplify business processes. This improvement in business processes can bring as a consequence that can improve the management of such processes. Similarly, there are other reasons why companies undertake projects of ERP:
• Integrate financial information
• Standardize and accelerate the processes of manufacturing
• Reduce inventory
• Standardize human resources information
Due to the increase in the market of ERP implementations, is a factor that helps to consolidate the benefits that brings the implementation and use of ERP systems in organizations today for the providers of this type of systems. This growth of the market helps to predict earnings of providers of ERP systems and systems like CRM (Customer Relationship Management), SCM (Supply Chain Management), will increase considerably in the next few years. In the wake of increased deployments of ERP and CRM systems, other benefits are generated in the organization. By having these systems, facilitates the integration of related information with the orders of customers, thus enhancing customer relationship and service.
One of the great advantages of packages of applications such as ERP, is that insofar as the state-of-art technologies advance, the company moves forward with them.
In manufacturing companies, the main reasons why investing in ERP systems is to improve productivity, demands of customers, speed, competitive advantage and cost reduction. ERP users can gain competitive advantage based on the manner in which systems to implement and exploit the resulting data. In addition, users say that systems can make them more agile in the market in comparison with those companies with hard-to-change personalized programs.
For all of the above, the fact of knowing what ERP can really do for the benefit of the company is of vital importance.

Drawbacks associated with ERP systems

It is not uncommon to hear cases in which that upon decision of acquisition of an ERP system, are not taken into account the key processes of the organization which are perhaps provide their biggest advantage over their competitors.
Because of this, once the decision of acquisition, realizes that it is required to modify the software to fit into business processes that generate the competitive advantage of the company. These modifications to the software, are asked to bring as a consequence several situations that will cause disadvantages for the company.
Only to mention some of the disadvantages, the following is listed:
• The duration of the implementation of the system will last longer than the initially projected time
• Empty (bugs) will be introduced dangerous within the system, which will result in deficiencies in its implementation
• Future updates of the software by the supplier of the ERP will be extremely difficult, because already the client software that made the modifications and updates is custom will require extra work and rewriting of the source code in order to adjust it to the new version.
One aspect that can bring high costs when implementing an ERP system is the fact of underestimating the allocation of resources to implementation strategies such as training and training of the users. It is best to allocate sufficient resources so that users are able to learn to use and exploit the potential of the ERP to the maximum extent possible in order to achieve the goal of every organization, regardless of the giro and its objectives, which is generating wealth.
It must also mention some of the costs associated with the purchase of an ERP system. This type of system, as well as provide comprehensive solutions for the company, in the same way their acquisition costs are quite high. Since the acquisition of complementary software and computer equipment, the integration of internal systems, consultancy services, among others, the cost of the own software package itself. In addition, consider the costs during the implementation of the ERP, these being the real costs of maintenance, updating and optimization of the system.
In relation to the conversion and data analysis, is another aspect that can be quite complicated and costly if not handled properly. This conversion involves moving the corporate information, such as records of customers and suppliers, design data products, among others, from the old systems to the new ERP system.

Impact with the ERP system in enterprises

We are now in a global and competitive economy which is indispensable to the managers of enterprises to develop strategies that will help them meet the needs of customers who are increasingly demanding; anticipating your requirements and providing a personalized service to each one of them. Currently, companies looking to implement systems so that they handle all areas of the business so that they are integrated. Many have sought new technological tools to optimize the internal operating processes to save costs and be more efficient, which has resulted in better positioning and attraction either conservation of customers. ERP systems are an essential part of the strategies of large companies today.
It is important for companies to identify what your needs to know so that system implemented; This will prevent from choosing a very sophisticated system for a small company, causing not to recover the investment; either choose a very simple system for your needs, implying redesign in the future, which requires new investment.
Areas that are located in the Interior of the company
Today's ERP systems are being implanted in almost all types of organizations due to their qualities. A typical list of industries where ERP systems are consolidated are:

Aerospace and defense

Mechanical engineering

Automotive industry

Construction

Banks and financial

Fuels

Chemical and pharmaceutical

Orientation and evaluation of projects

Goods and services

Public administration

Medicine

Education

High-tech and electronics

Retail

Telecommunications

Utilities
There are several areas of the business that ERP is implemented. Most of them are grouped in the following table.

Sales and distribution

Human resources

Suppliers

Projects

Production

Management and administration

Quality control

Finance

Maintenance control

Accounting

Line of work


Industrial solutions

ERP systems were created as business support through the various modules you have doing that company that implements it should use the reengineering of processes, changing the way of work and organization of the same.
You should be considered also the importance of human resources and the commitment from senior management to support in the event of failure, since this will allow you to operate satisfactorily.
ERP systems are an absolutely necessary tool for medium and large organizations. Without them it could not win such as e-business, e-commerce and further technological advances in the world of globalization.
Whereas the investment in hardware, software, information technology, personnel, and many other factors, the study prior to the implementation of these systems should be quite detailed, so the first cost associated with the system would be the counseling and/or consulting necessary for a good evaluation of the project.

ITEM 14

Solidarity in productive enterprises | Definition

We have been talking about solidarity as transformative virtue of society. Well, it is also essential to raise the productivity of each company: needed thing in these times.
A wrong mentality leads to think that the virtue of solidarity and the economy are contrary: or you do business or you help to others in a spirit of solidarity in some corner of the soul, that occasionally inspired gestures of charity that you can feel good.
In the other businessman, for you to win another has to lose, since the others are for you, simply an expense. The first expenditure are 200 employees that their company has. You earn more if they earn less. Seen from the other side, the workers think that they will win less if he exploits them less. Mentality that has its raison d ' être; but that is outdated and harmful to build the future. Unfortunately, continues to operate in one, and others, and makes lose sight of who the company is, first of all, production unit where hundreds of people must put their talent and ability to work to achieve a goal in common: productivity of real quality who are broadly appreciated goods and services by the public which van intended.

The company as a solidarity group

If the product is not sold. If the company sinks sink all, employers and workers. This is particularly true late 20th century in an economy in which the problem more serious is not producing, but sell it produced in a world of innovation and progress of quality continuous, when today is spoken both total quality, it's a new attitude.
All the members of a company are interested and motivated to do their best for the success of it; otherwise it will be swept the market, for the achievement of this is fundamental that make his interest of the buyer. If that is your objective collective and personal, each and all workers develop the best of his talent to produce quality. So managers and workers are on the same side, as in the war, embraces every soldier that succeed the battalion to which it belongs and which will succeed the general strategy that directs the front. All are saved or are defeated; There is no place for the individual triumph with the defeat of the belonging battalion. As the sport: the team wins. Why put so much emphasis on the training of the whole and is spent both in military readiness of troop optimum.
If the success of the company is its objective collective and personal for each of the following, all develop the best of his talent to produce quality. Naturally, this means raising the sense of solidarity with the company and with its members. It is important to discover that, at the current stage of the economy, the secret of the success of a company with a promising future is not in having labor cheap, low level of education, but in raising productivity by increasing educational level and develop the talents of workers and its efforts to improve the quality. For each worker to improve the quality of the product has to be convertible in improving the quality of your life and that of his own. Thus, the improvement is important to the company and the company is for the.
Kapru Ishikawa, authority on the philosophy of total quality, says "If you do not have long term, immediate activities and costs become a concern number one. Managers of major Japanese industries are relatively free of that concern and can dedicate itself to its responsibilities towards its employees and their families, the consumer and the nation in general. "While both capitalist managers, an old-style in the West, only show interest in if same and by their own families"

We are saved or sink us all

A recent publication of the Dean of the Sloan Business School at MIT, an economics professor Lester Thurow significantly named Head to Head (the war of the 21st century), is dedicated to studying the growing economic battle between the United States of America, Japan and Europe, led by Germany. Following an appreciation already suggested by Harvard University's George C. Lodge, Thurow differentiates between individual Anglo-Saxon capitalism and the more community-German and Japanese; It says "the essential difference between the two forms of capitalism is the importance attached to community versus the individualistic values, as the path to economic success. Explains: The Anglo-Saxon variant of capitalism, assumes that the individual has a personal strategy to be successful, and that the signature business has an economic strategy that is a reflection of the desires of individual shareholders; Hence the trend to lower wages always possible: to wage more low, profits higher.
There is also individual and business strategies in the community capitalism, but develops them on a completely different basis, the individual does not act as an individual. One joins a team and succeeds as part of that team of the company. The fundamental decision on the individual personal strategy is the incorporation to the appropriate team. From that moment, the success or personal failure will be closely related to the success or failure of the company to which the individual works; the Community Enterprise has a very different set of stakeholders who should be consulted when defining strategies.
In the Japanese companies means that employees are the main subject; customers, the interested party number two and shareholders occupy a distant third place. As the employee is the main party concerned, wages high's employees are a primary goal of the Japanese firm. The benefits are sacrificing to keep wages and employment. Dividends paid to shareholders are low.
All this emphasis on the solidarity worker treatment and in his way of joining the team to form the company, identifying with the triumphs, is not a deductive sermon from external religious principles, but it is something embedded in the very nature of the productive group fact. It is a virtue that is inserted in the same logic of the economy which is "conditio sine qua non", to make it economically operational. It is important that the virtues are not something abstract and immaterial or imposed from the outside, but are medically operating in the medical, legally operating in the jurist or political operative in the politician.

Selfishness and solidarity

It is only false that selfishness is the only source of human feeling that governs economic life and social life. Many economists and businessmen want to lay the foundations of capitalist economy in Adam Smith, but censored compression, omitting that, besides the wealth of notions, wrote the theory of moral sentiments, where expressly refutes the idea that everything boils down to selfishness, Smith says in the first chapter of this work "sympathy cannot , in any way, be considered a selfish principle then into sympathy by the misfortune of a friend, for example, my grief is entirely for their cause and in absolute by mine, and therefore is not selfish. "Then concludes ' anyway, this doctrine of human nature that derives all the feelings and affections of if love itself, and to much noise has gotten into the world, but far reached, it has never been fully and distinctly explained, it seems to me that it has left a confusing and false interpretation of the mechanism of sympathy". Selfishness and solidarity do not they belong in a humanly integrated society.
Solidarity with others, compassion, and love do not require the contempt of it himself. At the end and at the end in her universal commandment to love your neighbor as yourself, the basis of the rule of the spirit is love. Perhaps this should not call selfishness, but call self-interest and solidarity, integrated each other. Public virtues aren't something you have the Pope and the clergy to preach but want to stay without office. They are virtues of life or death for the economy, politics, or social and family life: Unfortunately, in the West illustrated two centuries of modernization mentality has shaped cells separate the science between if and has established walls of division between these applications and their human and divine roots. But the invigoration of the life published human outside requires a deepening in the sources inside of human identity and morality, and the fluidity of his spirit in every activity.

ITEM 15

Stress | Definition

The different events that occur in the world constitute the first step in the emergence of the syndrome of the stress, but in the same way it is necessary to consider that the thoughts that interpret and classify such events cause a response that can be both physical and mental that ultimately it is interpreted as a type of particular emotion in the individual.

DEFINITION OF STRESS

Stress syndrome is defined as:
"A combination of three elements:"
• The environment,
• Negative thoughts, and
• Physical responses,
These elements interact in a way that makes a person act or feel anxious, angry, or depressed "."
Stress syndrome creates a sort of cycle of negative feedback between our mind and our body. To break such circle first thoughts, should be changed then the physical or best answers still must be transformed the situation that creates an alarm response.

POSSIBLE SIGNS OF STRESS

Pain:
• The back,
• The head.
• Tension in the neck.
• Shortness of breath.
• Alterations in blood pressure.
• Changes in metabolism (Sub or overweight).
• Upset stomach.
• Fatigue.
• Constipation or diarrhea.
• Anxiety.
• Depression.
• Insomnia.
• Problems relating to others.

CAUSES OF STRESS SYNDROME

Everyone at some point in our lives we have experienced stress. For some, stress is part of everyday life, but for others, feel stressed out is simply a strange or casual situation.
As he was said earlier the stress syndrome can manifest itself with headaches, gastritis, pain in neck and back, chest tightness, tension in the jaws; fatigue, discouragement to exercise and exaggerated desires of eating.
With the daily demands of life today, a mild level of stress may be unavoidable and even necessary sometimes, however when stress syndrome constantly interferes with the quality of our life is imperative to act.
The cause of the appearance of stress syndrome is primarily the emergence of a need or an instinct of the same body protect itself. This need or only instinct is good in strict emergency, but if you continue for long extended this may cause physical and psychic, symptoms as well as a false response to the challenges of daily life and the changes.
When this happens, it is as if your body is working over time, but you are in fact still, without any there is a place available for use all that energy extra. This is what makes you feel anxious, fearful, worried and tense.
Any type of change (good or bad) can make it feel worried or fearful, because change or the event itself is not only that truly matters is the form as each person responds to this.
What can cause stress is different in each person. For example some situations that may cause you to strain may be losing work, the death of a family member, the children walking out of the House, marriage, divorce, diseases, employment promotion, money problems, parenting, move, among others.
The stress when severe can cause health problems. This alarm you feel you should immediately talk with your doctor, but it is important to make sure that your symptoms are not caused by different health problems.

HOW TO REDUCE STRESS SYNDROME

• First step: Learn to recognize the symptoms of stress: in addition to those already identified should be included also the appearance, no apparent physiological cause of tension in the shoulders and neck.
• Second step: Choosing the way to cope with stress: the easiest way is avoiding the possible causes of stress, but this is a task that often becomes impossible, this should change the way of how reacts against the stress.
• Third step: Worry about only things that can control: do only those things that can report useful, and feel prepared only for those events that you know that they can not cause you stress.
• Fourth step: Interact: Sports Group, attend social events, do hobbies.
• Fifth step: Accept changes: try to see the changes as positive challenges, not as threats.
• Sixth step: Think: the health professionals are recognizing the benefits of meditation as a way to reduce the stress, because blood pressure and circulation are improved.
• Seventh step: Exercise regularly: being in better shape will help you feel better in every way, feel healthier by releasing this tension and retained power.

FOOD AND STRESS

When a person is not well nourished, its ability to withstand the stress will be actually decreased. If you eat much or little, or if we choose any little nutritional or diet balanced, little by little progressive weakening is produced and this makes that sharply lower the body's defenses.
Therefore, that eating habits must be improved so that physically you feel much stronger at the moment to handle any symptom of stress.
Some recommendations are:
1 meal at established hours, eating a nutritious diet complete with highly nutritious meals with foods such as meats, salads, fruits, and whole grains, without neglecting those food groups that provide calories, since these can help raise the State's mood.
2 maintain adequate hydration taking be possible plenty of water a day.

STRESS AND HEADACHES

Headache causes are multiple, since it may appear as a direct consequence of changes in climate or temperature, by ingestion of caffeine or other foods, changes in patterns of sleep, among others, but it is well known that the vast majority of headaches are tension-type headaches which are usually managed with proper diet and stress reduction techniques.
A real attention should be those patients that headaches are accompanied by other pains, fever, difficulty speaking, or breathing, for these can be caused by cranioencephalic trauma.

STRESS AND SLEEP

Stress is the leading cause of the bad quality of sleep or insomnia.
Some therapists use techniques to improve the quality of sleep. Some of them are:
1. use of aromatherapy (especially the aromas of lavender and pine, which possess a relaxing effect).
2 write before going to sleep. This is another way to combat insomnia when our mind is thinking and turning and unable to sleep; This allows the mind clears and will attain rest and peace much needed.
3 exercise. Try to walk or to participate in a recreational sport carried out 5 to 6 hours before bedtime, it is known that this helps to reduce stress and improve sleep quality. Exercise is beneficial to release muscle tension and prepares you for a happy dream.

STRESS AND WORK

Most people experience stress in the days of hard work.
If you are one of them is time to combat stress in the workplace through the following recommendations:
1 drink enough water throughout the day.
2. do not ingest caffeine in excess.
3. for very busy you are never skip meals, if for any reason during the day this happens try to keep in place of work some snacks that are healthy as e.g. peanuts.
4 take instead short breaks from work, simply close the door and lasts few minutes doing stretching and relaxing.

STRESS AND MEDITATION

Those people who practice meditation techniques claim that they induce a sense of calm and inner peace.
Meditation as a form of guided thought, you can do it with any exercise that repeat the same movements over and over again, like walking or swimming.
You can start practicing the relaxation techniques, like stretching or breathing deeply.
Relaxation training is easy, because stretching can help reduce stress.
The technique of breathing deep, relaxed if it also can significantly reduce stress.
The primary purpose of practicing meditation is pacifying and calming the mind, since if we maintain a peaceful mind, you will not have worries and anxieties and enjoy true happiness; However if your mind is disturbed, it will not feel happy even though we are surrounded by the best conditions.
Us training in the techniques of meditation, we will discover little by little our inner peace and serenity increasingly higher and enjoy a form of happiness which will becoming more pure.
If you want more help for the treatment of the symptoms of stress, call tips doctor's family, who will be in the ultimately most recommended to help you

16 ITEM

Supply Chain Management (SCM) | Definition

Supply Chain Management (SCM) or supply chain management involves the planning and execution of the activities of the supply chain, ensuring a flow coordinated within the company and even looking beyond, in the not-too-distant future, between the different companies integrated in the value chain, from suppliers of raw materials to the finished product distributors.
These activities include sources of raw materials, production and mounting, storage and inventory, order management, distribution for all channels, and finally, the delivery of the product to the customer. The fundamental goals of SCM are to reduce costs, improve margins of products, increase production yield, and improve return on investment (ROI).

Definitions of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and scope of the concept

There are several definitions of SCM, depending on the dimension given.
Thus the SCM as an effort shared, covers every effort involved in produce and deliver a final product, since the supplier from the supplier, the customer of the customer.
The SCM as a strategy, is a collaborative strategy to link inter-enterprises business operations to achieve a shared vision of business opportunities. Recognizing that undertaking by the mere fact of belonging to an environment, is involved in some form or another in relations of chain (S upply Chain Relationships) with other companies, but the distinctive concept of SCM is the deliberate, intentional and planned nature with which these relationships are established.
For its part, the SCM as a management approach, the Instituto Tecnológico de Massachusetts (MIT) proposes a more expanded definition to define it as an integrated approach aimed s processes, to supply, produce and deliver products and services to customers.
The Supply Chain Management has a wide scope that includes suppliers of suppliers, wholesalers, internal operations, distributors and end-customers, covering also the physical flows, information and financial management. There are many definitions that emphasize the links between autonomous companies to meet the demand. He is proposed then, confer the character of a management philosophy that extends the traditional activities Inter-companies providing trading partners with the overall objective of optimization and efficiency.
Finally, the SCM as a network of organizations, is a network of organizations that are involved, through links to arribas and facing down, in the different processes and activities that produce value in the form of products and services to the end customer.
The main features of the SCM systems are shown below:
• Product management
• Production management
• Order management
• Transportation management
• Supply management
• Forecast demands
• Production planning
• Warehouse management
• Extension of the SCM for partners

Principles of Supply Chain Management (SCM)

Andersen Consulting has proposed a list of 7 principles for the management of the supply chain, based on the experience of the initiatives for the improvement of the supply chain in more than 100 industrial companies, distributors and retailers.
The implementation of these principles allows you to balance the needs of an excellent service customers with requirements of profitability and growth. When determining what customers are demanding and how are coordinated efforts throughout the supply chain to meet these demands faster, cheaper and better.

Principle No. 1:

Segment customers based on the needs of the different groups and tailor supply chain to serve these markets profitably.
We have traditionally segmented customers by industry, product, or sales channel and we have given the same level of service to each of the customers within a segment.
An efficient supply chain group customers by their service needs, independent of what industry belongs and then adapts services to each of those segments.

Principle No. 2:

Fit the logistic network service requirements and the profitability of customer segments.
When designing logistics network we need to focus intensely on service requirements and profitability of the identified segments. The conventional approach of monolithic networking is contrary to the successful management of the supply chain.
Even less conventional thinking about logistics emerges in certain industries that share customers and geographic coverage that results in redundant networks. To change the logistics for competitive and complementary industries under the ownership of third companies, savings for all industries can be achieved.

Principle No. 3:

Be alert to signals from the market and align demand planning accordingly with all the supply chain, ensuring consistent forecasts and the optimal allocation of resources.
Sales and operations planning should cover the entire chain, looking for the timely diagnosis of changes in demand, detecting patterns of change in the processing of orders promotions to customers, etc. This intensive focus on demand leads to more consistent forecasts and optimal allocation of resources.

Principle No. 4:

Search for differentiating the product closer to the customer.
No longer possible to accumulate inventory to compensate for errors in the sales forecast. What we must do is postpone the differentiation between products in the manufacturing process as possible about the end customer.

Principle No. 5:

Strategically manage the sources of supply.
By working more closely with major suppliers to reduce the cost of materials and services, we can improve margins both for us and for our suppliers.
The concept of squeezing suppliers and make them compete and it is not the way to proceed, now the trend is "win - win"

Principle No. 6:

Develop a technology strategy for the entire supply chain.
One of the cornerstones of a successful supply chain management is information technology that must support multiple levels of decision-making as well as providing clear visibility into the flow of products, services, information, and funds.

Principle No. 7:

Take measurements of performance for all channels.
Measurement in supply chain systems do more than monitor the internal functions, measurements that apply to each of the links in the chain must be taken. The most important is that these measurements contain not only financial indicators, but also help us to measure the levels of service, such as the profitability of each customer, each type of operation, business unit, and ultimately, for each order.
These principles are not easy to implement, and require certain skills that in some cases are not that naturally found in the logistics professionals. Requires a group effort, multifunctional skills, integrating the divergent needs of manufacturing and sales, quality and price, cost and service and financial and qualitative measurements.
You must extend the understanding of other areas of the Organization, is to improve the knowledge of the functions of shopping, products, marketing, sales and sales promotion planning, and they should also develop a more intimate knowledge of its clients.
Remember that the supply chain begins and ends with the customer.
In addition, it is important that professionals are familiar with information technology. Computer science is not a function of additional support to the supply chain, rather it is the enabler, the means by which various links are integrated into a single string.

Dimensions of Supply Chain Management (SCM)

We can distinguish three dimensions within the concept of SCM:
• Strategic dimension
• Since could be the means to achieve competitive advantages. It is said that the SC are key in an environment of global competition and the advantages for the companies involved to come from the chain as a whole is more efficient than another string. For this to happen, every organization that makes up the chain needs a strategic orientation. Indeed the actions undertaken by each isolated organization are not, itself, SCM, unless there is coordination, pursuant to a systematic vision of the chain and a strategic focus of each of the organizations that compose it.
• Administrative dimension
• Has this dimension, to handle transactions between participants in the chain, through information systems open and with the intervention of qualified with the responsibility to interact beyond organizational borders and with the authority to make decisions beyond the internal hierarchy. Therefore, the SCM does not refer only to the physical flow of materials aspects, but also to the administrative aspects of managing transactions, orders, information, payments and documentation through the chain. But this implies to visualize these flows as processes, understood the processes as a sequence of activities that cross more than one organization horizontal.
• Operational dimension
• The SCM has this dimension, because every movement of material or products through the chain involves operational tasks such as store, produce or distribute, carried out internally in an organization, in coordination with other organizations or by other external organizations. It is every day, it is the daily where things are made.
In practice, the SCM simultaneously involves these three dimensions; so an Operations Manager must manage these three dimensions at the same time.

Flows related to SCM and simultaneous

The management of three related and simultaneous flows is considered.
• Physical flow: sourcing, manufacturing and distribution of raw materials, components and finished goods from suppliers to intermediary companies, to deliver the product over to the end customer.
• Information flow: up (up-stream) and down (down-stream) in the chain, able to through the use of modern information technology. Rather than a stream of data, SCM includes what has come to be called the flow of knowledge.
• Financial flow: which includes transactions of collections and payments, many of them carried out electronically.
However the above, the SCM is not just the juxtaposition of these three streams, but it covers the management of these related and concurrent flows along the chain that links to suppliers and customers.
Undoubtedly that main listed business processes are logistics processes, however, cannot be said that SCM is another definition of logistics. Some concepts related to SMC such as: QR (Quick Response), JIT (Just in Time), CR (continuous Replenishment), Estratègic Partnering and ECR (Efficient Consumer Response) are already being applied in some industries with great success.

Implementing a Supply Chain Management (SCM)

Developing an SCM strategy, should begin assessing how to fit the different links or connections in the supply chain. Rather than requiring the use of a technology or specific solution, SCM requires a knowledge of the business processes that must work together. Probably, it will attempt to incorporate already existing systems, such as e-commerce, business and planning, manufacturing and control and procurement and distribution in the supply chain. Thus, for example, SCM solution will include procurement of materials, forecast, warehouse control, planning of inventory, transportation, shopping, and financial applications. It is important to specify that this must be done not only within the company itself, but also within our own customers and suppliers (and often also within systems of customers and suppliers), which incurs additional costs.
The largest SCM systems grouped a variety of capabilities aimed at improving access to the supply chain and its integration in the whole of the company. Of course, the broad scope of these solutions, which integrate multiple business functions in a similar way to ERP enterprise resources planning applications, imposes restrictions on the implementation.
For example, centers in departments that handle applications back-end custom instead of packages will need long time to develop and adequately test the application interfaces. Once the system is installed, updates are difficult, because require installation again software in all the companies selling in the chain.
The implementation of SCM solution also poses an additional effort on the daily activity of the company and its partner firms. For example, some companies have found that, after integrating the elements basic transactional "in the rough" that are intrinsic to the success of the supply chain, the new system requires throughout the value chain more efficient communication and planning skills.
As a result of these tangential requirements, supply chain has evolved to include a number of processes that had never been considered initially as SCM elements, including the design of products, planning, materials procurement and contract management.
Looking at the demand for these additional capabilities, vending companies are beginning to include communication networks more dynamic and more collaborative in their offerings, giving rise to a trade in collaboration and helping to improve communication beyond the traditional supply chain.

SCM today and in the future

Some of the best SCM solutions today, as the TradeMatrix Platform and the whole Rythm of i2, provide extremely well developed to implement management SCM and CRM (Customer Relatinship Management) solutions. In addition, SCM products are gaining maturity quickly, to improve the capabilities of applications vendors to rush for market share. Descending level, there are more options of integration in collaboration, including services and Web solutions based on standards such as ebXML (e-business XML) and UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration), that are already supported in CrossWorlds Software applications and other firms.
The best 'standards' development of collaboration will help to overcome the differences in the information and will reduce errors of forecast or foresight management SCM, dispense with divination when trying to meet the expectations of customers and, ultimately, increase profitability. Although SCM management and trade in collaboration could apparently established comfortable relations between a company and its partner firms, the main responsibility of a company is still has to its shareholders. Although it's okay to exchange information with current partner firms, the company must continue watching new signatures for the future. Adopting open standards and maintaining the flexibility, the company will have the best opportunity to evolve to meet the demands of a rapidly changing market.

Joining the links in the chain of supply of the company

Using the Internet for management SCM (S upply Chain Relationships) and strengthening the integration of applications, a company can offer better coordination between partner firms and generate enterprise-wide benefits.

Pros and cons of the SCM

Pros

• Improving profitability for the company and its partner firms
• Increases competitive advantage
• You can avoid shortcomings in e-marketplaces using Exchange points private (Private Interchanges)

Cons

• Non-interoperable platforms directly
• Trade in collaboration lacks standards.

ITEM 17

Types of intelligence | Definition

Intelligence is defined as the ability to understand or comprehend, but there is not one but several types, often depends on the values or the culture of each society, other functions, skills or moods, that is used or defines it, these are the keys to know all about it.
Intelligence as a single identity inherent to each of us and to varying degrees has traditionally been. In the year of 1983, Howard Gardner American psychologist known for his theories about intelligence expanded the concept of intelligence to say that this is developable capacity and not only something innate solve problems or create products that are valuable in a culture (or several); Thus he was removing just "intellectuals" smart label and was allowing a number of talents that had not previously been recognized.
The theory of Gardner would not be complete if it had not formulated, in 1983, the term "Multiple intelligences", which groups together 9 types of them.
To define each field of intelligence, Gardner studied the development of skills in children and the way in which decompose the different capabilities in cases of brain damage. I note how each of the intelligences within the culture of the individual manifests. For example linguistic intelligence is shown writing poetry in a culture and telling story of others

Linguistic intelligence:

It is considered one of the most important. Both hemispheres are generally used and it is that characterizes the writers and all the writers who are dedicated to the printed media.
Although they argue about the origin and the development of human language, experts admit that is remote to 100,000 years ago, the archaic homo sapiens; the language was an intrinsic part of the lives of these hominids as social animals > societies have been configured maintained by language. The same in all ancient societies had a power considered to be stronger than the sword.

Musical intelligence:

Commonly known as "good ear", it is the talent that the musicians, singers and dancers have. The strength of this innate intelligence varies from one person to another. But by strong be his musical intelligence, need to be stimulated and configured to develop their full potential, either pair playing an instrument or to hear a melody with sensitivity. This type of intelligence is often very soon and in a natural way in individuals with this.

Logical mathematical intelligence:

Seen recently in the West as one of the "unique intelligences". Those who belong to this group make use of logical hemisphere of the brain and can engage in the exact sciences. Types of intelligence, this is the closest to the traditional concept of intelligence.
In some so-called primitive societies, logic, mathematics, and science do not seem to be essential sight for culture. This field of intelligence is used in different ways: race and trade, formulate calendars measure time to estimate accurately quantities and distances depend on the logical-mathematical intelligence, this example that the best logical thinkers - mathematical were Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton.

Spatial intelligence:

Have it to those who can make a mental model in three dimensions of the world (or a fragment of it, depending on the situation). Share this intelligence professions as diverse as engineering, surgery, sculpture, the marina, the architecture, design and decoration. Scientists James Watson and Francis Crick used sketches and models (sometimes mentally, sometimes in three-dimensional shape) to view and decode the spiral of the DNA molecule.

Intelligence body - kinesthetic:

The kinestesicos have the ability to use his body to solve problems or activities. In this field are athletes, surgeons and dancers. A fitness nature of this type of intelligence is often manifested since childhood; a successful engineer recalls that you became engineer to the age of four, when he began disassembling household objects when parents were not watching you.

Emotional intelligence:

It is the human ability to solve problems related to emotions. And although it seems that this kind of intelligence is unimportant, has shown that it is equally valid to make decisions in these moments, feelings and how we feel have much to do when choosing.
Emotional intelligence is an indispensable complement in relationship with himself and with others. It is not anything be students with better grades if the child has no friends and feels insecure. Learn to handle our emotions also has to do with the security that must be present in situations such as an examination or an interview in which nerves can "delete from our mind" everything we know.

Intrapersonal intelligence:

This allows us to form an accurate and truthful picture of ourselves; It allows us to understand our needs and characteristics, as well as our qualities and defects without maximizing them or minimize them. And although it is said that our feelings must be Yes help guide our decisions, there should be a limit on the expression of these. This type of intelligence is functional for any area of our life.

Interpersonal intelligence:

This allows us to understand others. It is based on the ability to manage relationships and empathy with which "we put the shoes on the other" and recognize their motivations, reasons and emotions.
This type of intelligence is a fundamental of any of the others, complement because it is not if we get top grades but we choose evil to our friends and, later, our partner. Most of the activities carried out in life depend on interpersonal intelligence, since they are formed by human groups that we should relate.
Great leaders have a strong interpersonal intelligence for better or for worse. Martin Luther King American leader of civil rights, was a stimulating speaker who use their skills to inspire radical social change.
Strong interpersonal skills in forms of therapy and education of disabled persons are also needed. Counselors must establish empathy with their patients to understand their motivations and behavior, a difficult task when it can not articulate their own feelings.

Naturalist intelligence:

We use it to observe and study the nature. The biological and herbalists are people who have more developed.
All have the 9 types of intelligence, but we develop one or other depending on factors such as education, family and the environment. No matter what activity you are going to develop, because we need some combinations as the case may be.
Today, due to the complexity of the world, children seem to be much more ready to solve problems of all kinds. Therefore although it is important that you know the talents and skills of your child, it is also true that try to encourage its ability to function properly in any area, so when you enter the school and the University, not only you will be able to get good grades but also be happy.

18 ITEM

Decision making | Definition

One of the fields of greater significance for the human being is the decision making, since we must choose (based on previous experiences or attitudes) between several alternatives that appearing sufficiently rational.
The organization is considered as a system of decision-making, where people participates consciously and rationally, choosing and deciding among more or less rational alternatives to those that are presented to you.
Decisions involve six elements:
1 decision-making agent: It is the person who selects the choice between several options or ideas for action.
2. targets: Are the targets that the decision-making agent intends to achieve with their actions.
3 TASTES or preferences: They are the criteria that the decision-making agent uses to be able to choose.
4 strategies: It is the course of action decision agent chooses to better achieve its goals and/or objectives. Any strategy depends on the resources available.
5. situation: Are the aspects of the environment surrounding the decision-making agent, many of which are beyond its control.
6 achievements and outcomes: Is the sequence or resulting from a strategy.

DECISION MAKING PROCESS:

• Perception and acquisition of the situation surrounding a problem.
• Analysis and definition of the problem.
or having a reliable information system, timely, and updated.
or the internal formal and informal factors of the organization.
or the external factors.
or choose rightly techniques or tools to use.
or define constraints and limitations.
or specify yields and expected goals.
or assess the cost - benefit.
or evaluating impact.
• Define the goals and objectives.
• Search for more suitable alternatives for the achievement of the objectives.
• Evaluation and comparison of these alternatives.
• Implementation of these alternatives.

REQUIREMENTS FOR DECISION MAKING:

1. There are who define bine are restrictions and limitations.
2 establish a relationship cost-benefit, specifying the even the most minimal yields expected.
3. you must meet formal internal factors of the Organization (culture, organizations, manuals, policies, structure, resources, etc.) and the informal (implicit policies, habits, experience, etc.)
4. it must know the external factors of the Organization (customers, suppliers, economy, competition, etc.)

TYPES OF DECISIONS:

There are nine types of decisions, which are:
1) individual: Such decisions occur when there is a problem that is easy to solve. Who makes the effort is a single person.
(2) management: They are those decisions that take the high management level. They are important and it will seek guidance, advice and assessment in each step of the process.
(3) PROGRAMMABLE: They are taken as a habit, rule or procedure. Such decisions are applied to structured, routine and repetitive problems.
(4) non-PROGRAMMABLE: They are used in situations not structured, innovative and poorly defined a non-recurring nature.
5) in conditions of certainty: They are those that are taken with certainty about what will happen, since it has a precise, measurable, reliable information and cause-effect relationships are known.
6) in conditions of uncertainty: When there is a lack of information, lack of data, missing data reliability and ignored the probability of data.
Another serious classification:
(1) IN TERMS OF RISK
(2) ROUTINE
(3) OPERATIONAL

IMPORTANCE OF DECISION-MAKING

Decision making:
1 it is one of the fundamental responsibility of the organization.
2 you can include the participation of the subordinates.
3. support to the Organization to learn.
Includes:
• The acquisition of information about the Organization and the external environment,
• Detection of limitations or discrepancies in the conduct,
• The expected performance,
• The analysis of events and alternative, and
• The implementation of new courses of action.

IMPLICATIONS IN DECISION MAKING:

1) BOUNDED RATIONALITY: It must have sufficient information of the problem in a particular environment in order to analyze it and evaluate it, the criteria which guides the decision is efficiency. This is achieved by maximizing results with the minimum of resources.
(2) RELATIVITY of decisions: choosing either alternative, it implies the resignation of the other and the creation of new situations and alternatives at the time.
(3) ranking of decisions: The behavior is planned whenever it is guided by goals and is rational when you select the most appropriate alternatives to achieve the objectives; being sought through the actions of persons and obeys a hierarchy, where one level either is a purpose related to the level of middle and lower with higher-order among themselves.
(4) administrative RATIONALITY: It involves the use of techniques that facilitate the implementation of organized labor, the selection and determination of the most appropriate courses of action in the communication of people.
(5) organizational influence: The Faculty participants have to decide independently on certain topics is replaced by the Organization, since it establishes them: Division of tasks, performance standards, systems of authority channels of communication, training and indoctrination.

DECISION MODELS

1. the rational model

This model is based on the observation of certain regularities that occur in nature.
This model is much criticized from various perspectives (by characterizing human beings with a limitless rationality). The fundamental argument of critics, is that this model only would be if everyone had a homogeneous vision of the world. And this would only be plausible if all individuals share the same codes of values.
The critic who is located in the center of the debate to the rational model is Herbert Simon who emphasizes his remarks around the classic concept of rationality requiring severe demands on the decision maker. Simon says on the matter, this organism decision-maker must be able to assign a payment to each possible outcome and also to understand them enough not to leave any room for the emergence of consequences no-anticipadas (Simon, 1989).
Despite all these criticisms, we can say that this model is the base and support of all subsequent models. It is also necessary to highlight that some rationalist authors, have recovered these criticisms making his models whilst admitting the limitations to which face off in an ambiguous and changing reality.

2. the organizational model

It means, firstly, that there are levels of heterogeneity of values, and therefore preferences. Policy-makers thus have different world views.
Another assumption is that the decision makers do not possess full information on the reality. Although this information is collected or accumulated with an orientation towards the establishment of a map (a subset of the universe) of alternative behavior. Therefore, they do not seek the optimum decision, but the most satisfactory. This level of satisfaction is closely linked to the level of aspiration that the decision taker guy has.
This scheme of the individual decision-maker was used by March and Simon to explain decision-making in organizations (March and Simon, 1958). These authors consider the company as a decision-maker (the unified rational actor), to which it is not given the information, but it has to attempt it. This consists of action alternatives are investigated, and discovered sequentially.
As the organizational model has been observed trying to get away from the rational model, establishing that the decision-maker does not possess the information complete with respect to its alternatives. As a solution to this inability of the human authors of the organizational model postulate a rationality, but of limited type which is bounded by:
1) a complex reality, and
(2) natural restrictions - time and reason - on the decision-maker. Therefore, the decision maker should pull their universe of alternatives, a subset of them, analyze them sequentially and compare them against your order of preference in order to arrive at those that are more satisfying.
The organizational model seeks to refute the rational model, but fails. This assertion is based on the first model keeps the process of evaluation of alternatives through the use of quantitative and rational methods.
Reviewing the processes of negotiation, is again observed that the need for the establishment of the purpose is not questioned, these are given implicit and enhanced by a willingness and motivation that guides the members of an organization towards participation and work.

3. the political model

This is characterized by its huge empirical content and its emphasis on the descriptive. What worries its theorists (Lindblom, 1970;) Allison, 1971) is how are decisions made in reality? They criticize the rational model, and consider it as not applicable in reality. Although they appreciate it as the ideal to be applied in making decisions.
The key term is the duty be but applied in ideal formulations. The authors of the political model believe that the rational model is the ideal instrument for intelegir the universe, but that its non-applicability is the fault of reality (as also happens with some econometric models).
The political model is a model based on the incrementalismo and is intended to be a tool for practical application. The decision-maker requires recognition of the complex reality surrounding it, so it should start with the following premise "I have a situation, make small changes and see if it improves or worsens".
The political model also assumes that the decision-maker knows its context and taking decisions biased from complex situations. Bias is the only one that ensures success through the socialization of the problem.
As a preliminary conclusion, we can say that power relations support multiple modalities, mainly by its changing nature: sometimes relationships between actors, these last ones can be displayed hostile with a destructive claim or submission and at other times of the relationship is possible the manifestation of some degree of cooperation of charismatic type towards who stop the power (who is not necessarily the Chief). Before this ambiguity evident merely express intentionality or non-actors to maintain the relationship of power, since in many cases it depends on its survival within the organization.

4. the model of the (rational) decision

Part of the traditional conception of the decision developed by a particular individual, to which nothing is impossible. And in a world where all decisions are moved within the scope of freedom. For those who postulate this model to freedom is a powerful element which neither the current methodological theories have been able to collapse, and it remains one of the bastions that placed the decision within the stronghold of traditional humanism threatened category.
This model considers the decision as an element of dominance and therefore reduces the world to a dichotomy where only exist: the dominators and the dominated.

5. the chaos in the decision-making

The chaos in decision theory focuses on the establishment and interpretation of various socio-economic phenomena with pretentious order to understand and predict possible scenarios based on certain values of the variables involved in the phenomenon through mathematical models. The most widespread use is in the economic and financial fields.

6. the model of the "baskets or trash cans"

It comes from the processes of simulation by computer of the decision-making process. The results of this program the authors (Cohen et al., 1972) derived a statistical digest that I provide the necessary gear for your instrumentation and they condensed them in six explanatory hypotheses listed below.
Hypothesis 1. Participants decisions are made, primarily in two ways:
(1) without considering the problem or set of problems that are affecting, resulting in a "decision by omission"; either,
(2) problems are associated with certain decisions as long as there is no better alternative, which is a contingent decision.
Hypothesis 2. The participants as problems and solutions vary from position in context; vary with the nature of the System State, in other words the decision-making variables lack of memory.
Hypothesis 3. The result having a decision is based on the time available, the contextual situation in which the decision-making process, develops the problems they are facing at this time and the availability that participants have to meet your solution.
Hypothesis 4. Designated problems have the same priority in decision situations.
Hypothesis 5. Considered decisions as "not important" are, usually, solve more problems.
Hypothesis 6. Decision making (whether by omission, contingency or by express resolution) tends to be more effective when it is not considered as important.
As you can see this model has enabled to generate some inferences about how they operate organizations under conditions of ambiguity?. Actions enter a universe of interactions and finally is the environment which takes over, in a sense that the antipode of the initial intention may become. The prevailing premise in this interpretation of the decision-making process is the correlation between the different variables, because under conditions of ambiguity, there is a pure, undeniable and universal criterion that describes the existing multicausalidades between participants, the solutions, the problems and decision situations.
This model also studies decision making through the establishment of a comparison with a "basket or trash can" in which the actions and events of the external context mingle with participants, problems, solutions and decision situations without emphasizing what the organization does or fails to do.
The key then this model is to understand the decision-making processes through decision situations. Is are those moments in that is expected of the Organization certain behavior called decision, as if they were "baskets or trash cans" where individuals and their coalitions mix problems and solutions; Depending on the number of baskets that exist. Mixtures of problems containing each basket will be attended depending on the time available by the actors, which will take a basket or leave by another. For the model of the "garbage basket" participants come and go within the different situations of decision. His performance in the decision-making process is uncertain because it responds rather to its negotiating capabilities and how they interrelate with the different coalitions within the power games. Problems may be spreading that originally caused them. You can acquire its own autonomy, fade or become a problem of very different nature; they can even exist and prevail regardless of that some actions have been taken to "solve" them.

7 model of organizational learning

This model was suggested by Peter Senge, who specializes in building the system of learning organizations. Their ideas are condensed in his book The Fifth Discipline (the fifth discipline).
The basic idea is behind the organizational learning is that you considered it a product resulting from the combination of the values of individual and collective learning. The challenge Senge notes for business is dealing with the era of information, through constant changes.
He also believes that the human species is out of balance. In this connection it says; If our work generates some impact, it will return to us of a natural forama. Why is improving day by day so that future generations are proud of the world that inherits them.

19 ITEM

Group decision-making - techniques for decision making in Group | Definition

A STORM OF IDEAS

Several decades ago Alex Osborn, in his book "Applied imagination", introduced the principle of "Deferred criterion", on which is based the Brainstorming brainstorming
The essence of the principle that governs the "deferred criterion", is to develop an entire list with what comes to mind a person when trying to solve a problem, accepting everything that comes to mind without prejudices of any kind. The quality of ideas for the solution of the problem in question should not be parsed, the important thing here is the amount
Can then be modified or change those ideas in order to generate new and more powerful
The key elements are: the quantity and the freedom to express all that comes to mind, without any kind of evaluation.
This method allows you to generate ideas in group which produces superior results in quality and quantity that if it works on an individual basis.
These ideas may refer to identification of problems or its causes, or solutions of them
The end result is a list of ideas to be evaluated and that not they become necessarily solutions but rather a platform to achieve new ideas.

BASIC RULES:

To make wide participation and to take advantage of the perception and experience of the participants must follow the following rules:
1 clearly establish the purpose of the meeting: is key, prior to the start of the meetings, clarify the expectations of the participants regarding the objective of the same and set it with precision, as well as the expected scope of the meeting
2. strict prohibition of criticism: criticize the views and described them as good or bad are prohibited. The person who feels criticized may feel self-conscious to speak later. Any idea must be considered as absurd.
3. freedom and free opinion: should not be restrictions on free expression of ideas based on aspects such as hierarchies and responsibility on the subject of the session; It is based on the fact that any member of the group can propose new ideas truly creative, or if it is the case see problems that others have not warned before as such.
4. many more ideas occur best: because there is more chance that through them you reach the top idea. This forbidden to say: "It's enough with those ideas," which should stimulate the generation until ideas are exhausted.
5 take advantage of perceptions: production of new ideas, from the Association or development of others already suggested should be promoted
6 facilitate the session: the presence of a facilitator who drive and East meeting and monitor compliance with the basic rules described above and other expectations set by the members, as it is important: the meeting time, sequence.

STAGES OF BRAINSTORMING

A brainstorming session goes through three phases:
1. idea generation phase
It is the initial phase during which clarifies expectations, objectives and rules for the session and proceed to the generation of ideas by the participants until they run out, these ideas tend to be progressively higher in quality and quantity.
Is desirable that initially was a reasonable time (3-5 minutes) so that each participant think and write their ideas.
It is recommended that each Member of the group will provide an idea per turn. Another Member of the group must make writing in a visible place the ideas that are generated in the course of the session.
2. phase of clarification
At this stage the list of ideas generated is reviewed to ensure all participants to extend them with clarity. The ideas that do not correspond to the objective of the session be excluded at this stage.
It is usual to find problems (symptoms – effects) mixed with causes, which not avoided sesgara the solution, for example, to define problems are usually added to the causes of the following phrases: lack of... lack of... failure of..., etc.
The facilitator should, in this phrase return to the objective of the session, clarify and give examples of how is expressed the same
3. evaluation phase
At this stage the Group revises the list of ideas with the goal of eliminating duplications and ideas that have been enriched or enhanced with other ideas that contains it. This last always and when, who proposed this in agreement that actually is repeated or is contained in another.

B NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE

The technique of Nominal Group (TGN), is a useful for situations in which individual opinions must be combined to reach decisions which cannot or should not be taken by a single person. It allows identification and they nested's problems, causes and solutions through consensus in groups or teams.
The nominal group technique seeks to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to express their ideas and that the phase of data collection, idea generation and assessment phase are separated in the process of solving problems. Thus minimizing the monopolization of the group discussion by some individuals due to their level or personality

PHASES OF THE NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE

The Nominal Group technique is carried out in four phases, being the first three similar to the storm of Ideas and following the same rules. The fourth stage is the voting and ranking.
In this last phase the participants are provided with as many blank cards as number of lines have been included in the situation. Each line can represent a cause, a problem or a solution depending on what you are treating.
Each of the members of the group, working individually, must write a line on each card. To the preference line it places the maximum (according to the selected scale) score; the least favorite item placed you the number 1 and so on until you have assigned score to all items. For example, if you have ten (10) items, you can choose a scale of one (1) to ten (10), ten to the line of preference and one (1) is assigned to the lowest preference. The rest of the lines have a score between nine and two, using the same criteria, and so on until you have assigned score to all items.
The facilitator records the scores assigned to each row for each of the members and adding them to get a total score for each row.
Finally, the spaces are nested according to the total number of points scored
The Nominal Group technique can be used in situations where there is data available or difficult to obtain, and should not be abused it.
Shares of a Nominal Group technique should have knowledge and experience on the issues that have to be nested, since the vote (nested) is made on this basis. The differences of perception on the matter (including the ignorance) are reflected in the dispersion of the results
Obviously a Nominal Group technique requires a good level of managerial and supervisory maturity, which must be willing to accept, the view of the group as the most valid to address a given situation.

C ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM

Kaouro Ishikawa of Tokyo University used this technique in the 1950s and since then its application has spread around the world. He is also known as thorn fish and cause - effect diagram.
It is a useful tool to analyze in a comprehensive manner, the different causes that relate to a particular problem, easing the process of search for causes in suggesting branches and groups of them.
When we are faced with a complex problem, where is high the interdependence of factors or variables, it is possible to use this diagram.
The technique allows to systematically analyze a complex situation and helps to detect the causes of the problems. It is characterized by being highly participatory and allows involving a group in the analysis and the solution of problems.
This diagram helps to classify the causes of a problem or situation and organize relationships between them.

DIAGRAM ELEMENTS

The elements that structure the diagram are:
• Problem
• Causes older: Variables critical
• Minor causes: the variables that affect critical
• Sub - Causes: which affect the minor causes

PHASES OF THE ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM

1 layout of the problem: consists of clarification to all members of the Group of the situation that you want to analyze or effect that you want to solve.
2 determining the major causes: consists of register variables critical to affect the situation or problem discussed. It is recommended to group the factors in general groups, each of which is one major cause.
3 determination of minor causes and Sub-Causas: consists of breaking down each force majeure in possible minor causes. Every major cause is usually caused by other minor causes that should be specified.
4. evaluation: Consists in verifying that all the factors that are analyzed effect are included in the diagram, and if their relationships are adequately illustrated in diagram

D PARETO DIAGRAM

Wilfredo Pareto, Italian Economist of the 17TH century, established the idea of the few "vital" and many "trivial".
Not all things of life are important. In a situation, it is possible to define those variables that affect them considerably, and those that affect it very relatively. This principle is also known as the 80-20 and 20-80.
Its application is diverse and consists of determining the hierarchy of influences of causes a problem.
All phenomenon that is a result of the intervention of various causes or factors, it was found that a small number of causes, contribute to the bulk of the defect; While the large group of remaining causes contributes only to a small part of the effect.
The Pareto chart is used to graphically show the various causes that affect the result of the variable we are analyzing, nesting them for their impact, to identify the causes most important, and take the corrective measures giving priority to those few causes contributing to most of the defect.

PHASES OF THE TECHNIQUE OF PARETO.

1. definition of the problem: is to delimit a problem or situation and list possible causes or factors involved.
2. information gathering: consists of the collection of data, to determine the frequency of the causes or factors incidents.
3 tabulation of information: consists of logically sort the collected information of the previous phase by setting the percentages of each cause or factor frequencies.
4. preparation of the graphics: consists of the elaboration of a histogram with the corresponding nested in the incidence of each cause, in the following manner:
or Trace the horizontal axis and vertical axis (2) two (one on each end)
or in the left vertical axis, place the weight of the factors.
or on the right vertical axis, place the weight of factors accumulated in the form of percentage.
or in order from highest to lowest, place on the horizontal axis factors that affect the variable to be looking at this
or draw the bar chart. These bars must be the same width and each one must be in contact with the adjacent bar.
or Trace the total accumulated to each heading.
The Pareto diagram is useful because at first glance it's easy to determine what the main problem. The great advantage is that it shows which are the factors which should focus the attention and effort of improvement processes.
The experience says that there will be a reason behind each reason. In other words, if you have a complex problem, it is easy to break down it into smaller components to facilitate its analysis. Also the Pareto chart can break down into components more small.
The technique is to focus on two or three bars most high which are those that correspond to the major part of the problem. Then build another diagram describing the causes. Proceed the same way with the bars more high and prepares another diagram.
It is ideal to follow this technique to break down the problem into its minimal components.

E MATRIX OF EVALUATION AND SELECTION

Selection and evaluation of problems dies are arrays of rows and columns where the first are the (problems, causes and solutions) alternatives that require to be nested and the columns the multiple criteria that should be used in the selection.
The usefulness of the analysis through matrices is to help the working groups make decisions more objective, when it is required to take them on the basis of multiple criteria.
Three types of arrays can be distinguished:
1 selection matrix or nested's problems.
2. matrix of nested causes
3 selection matrix or nested solutions

PHASES OF THE TECHNIQUE OF EVALUATION MATRIXES AND SELECTION

The steps that follow to use an array of assessment and selection are the following:
1 define the alternatives that will be encountered. These alternatives may be referred to problems, causes or solutions.
2. define the evaluation criteria: in this case it is important to ensure that all persons involved in the selection to understand in the same way, the meaning of each criterion. Use examples help to standardise the meaning of the defined criteria.
3. set the weight for each of the criteria: all criteria do not have the same importance. In this case, it is necessary to define the weight that each of the criteria with which the different alternatives are evaluated. For this, the more it is recommended to distribute among the defined criteria, a number of points according to a scale giving score more high who is deemed more important. There may be criteria not fulfilled for any alternative, this can be unselected, albeit that most meets all the other criteria. When this happens, it will be necessary to assess all the lines in relation to the criterion or criteria that necessarily must be met, discarding once the alternatives that do not meet these criteria.
4. construct the evaluation matrix: this step is intended to, build an array of rows and columns, where the alternatives are displayed to evaluate, the criteria and the weight of each of the criteria.
5. define the scale of gradation of each criterion: the ideal is to try to define a numeric scale where assessment of alternatives in relation to the criteria. When it is not possible to quantify the scale of gradation of the criteria, qualitative gradation, may be applied (just normal, long, etc.) Or deficient, regular, good, excellent), assigning for purposes of calculating a value to each level
6 rating each alternative in relation to each criterion: in this step, the object is to assess in that grade alternatives meet the defined criteria, using the scale established in the previous step. The result, it should be noted in the appropriate boxes.
7. final score and ranked: is required to complete this step:
• Multiply the value obtained in the previous step by the weight of each criterion. In this way, each alternative receives a different score for each criterion.
• Add the points obtained by each alternative to get the total of each score.
• Order the alternatives in descending order of the total score.
Two of the ingredients more important in the formula for lead to excellence in any organization are the communication and motivation. When we speak of preparation and ability to lead an organization, we talk of knowledge about communication and the development of communication skills. In other words, it is important to know that communication helps the Organization to carry out its goals, however, this is not sufficient. The people who work in an organization must learn to communicate well, and especially those occupying managerial, Executive and managerial, posts should be aware that it is communication and how it works, becoming important people in the process of change then.
The motivation for his part helps to understand that organizations meet their goals through every one of the members that comprise it, and directly affecting behaviour patterns that show the I exist and progress of you company for which they work. Set goals, set the time to achieve them, learn from the success and evaluate achievement behaviors, the institution ensure an irreplaceable contribution to achievements or changes that you wish to achieve.
A workshop of communication and motivation develops, then a tool more to achieve this great goal of excellence and quality; a manager more human, more sensitive and more responsible.
The strategy to be followed in this workshop, this conformed by areas of work including theoretical information and practical exercises. In order to inform and implement the assumptions and principles of communication, its process, distortions and skills that facilitate it. Theories of motivation and strategies to increase motivation to achievement and effective performance.

20 ITEM

Storm of Ideas (Brainstorming) | Definition

Brainstorming is a meeting or group dynamics using a moderator and a procedure to facilitate the generation of ideas. The production of ideas in a group can be more effective that individually.
The basis of the method is that many ideas die from destructive criticism that is being tested until they mature or are perfected. This system is first to generate ideas and then evaluate them.
The meeting aims to create a relaxed environment that promotes communication and the participation of the attendees. It is essential to create an environment that stimulates communication and free exposure of ideas. The motivation of group members is essential for what the meeting should be relaxed, pleasant and even fun.
The environment that develops the session and create a climate that facilitates the exposure of unrestrained ideas is therefore fundamental. Encourages the participation of all members of the team and initially the ideas of others are not criticized by very wacky they may seem.
It's put into play the imagination and memory in such a way that an idea leads to another. The method seeks to promote associations of ideas by similarities or opposition.

Prior preparation for the storm of Ideas

• Must be a place where he can talk without interruptions and relaxed way. A room in which members can discuss without distractions. It is ideal to have a whiteboard at the sight of all elements to write as well as Post-it. A panel where are placed in view of all the Post-it with the ideas that are generated and the subsequent relations between them can also use.
• It invites the members by setting the duration of the same, the problem that it is solve, mechanics that is used and the question in which creativity will focus.

The meeting consists of two distinct phases:

In the first stage all contribute ideas but not allow any criticism or judgement on the ideas. From the initial ideas put forward by various members of the group, new rounds of ideas or ideas derived are generating. In the first phase is to produce a large number of ideas even if they seem useless or reckless.
In the second phase and led by the moderator ideas are selected and a critical test is performed. The selection of ideas can be left to a second meeting or even be preferable to another group that select and prosecute critical ideas.
The members of the group must be motivated and relaxed to present ideas without constraints and prejudices. A culture of innovation that do not limit yourself to the preconceived ideas should be generated. We will follow four basic rules:
• No criticism. We must avoid preconceived ideas and expressions that can block the generation and expression free of ideas. Avoid blockages than habits, established procedures, culture, norms put to the generation of ideas.
• Do not be conventional. All is not invented. The current procedures can be changed by others that require less time, lower costs, fewer resources or that pollute less. Never give anything for granted.
• Few most ideas better
• Rely on other ideas. Learn from ideas to reach others. Working with Visual ideas

Members of the Group

A moderator. It is carried out in a relaxed group dynamics and fostering communication of all but is essential to the existence of a moderator that motive and that channeling session. The director or moderator has to maintain the fluidity of the meeting, avoiding criticism of ideas in the early stages of the process and encourage the participation of all.
The members of the group that is recommended to be an interdisciplinary group. The Group should not be wide between 5 and 7componentes.

Elements of brainstorming

Brainstorming has the potential to be a very powerful tool to achieve the general goal: strengthening of (sustainable development) low-income communities. It helps to strengthen the community, develop their ability to make vital decisions about their own destiny and play the role that democratic processes of their country and the world. Like all tools, users need to understand it, and have to use it properly, if they don't want to do more harm than good.

1 creative and participatory group decision-making:

A brainstorming session aims to establish the environment to a group, not an individual, take one or more decisions jointly. It reduces the domain of a person or faction. It increases the involvement of all members, with active encouragement especially to the collaboration of the members of the group who usually do not participate (for reasons that are). The immediate goal of the brainstorming session is not as such "creativity". They thank and stimulate little traditional and innovative solutions to the problem, but the session will not be a failure even though no new idea is not generated. (In the whole of the mobilization process, promotes both the abandonment of ideas and beliefs that hinder the process of strengthening as the introduction of new ideas to the group contributing to the empowerment). Some ideas and convictions can be a novelty for the group, for example, that have the right and duty to make decisions that affect them, has no duty to remain liabilities, which is not divine will that do nothing, that cultural integration does not cling to traditional practices useless, that is why they passively accept the disease , tyranny, poverty. Some ideas will be new for non need to be creative in the sense of universally new participant group.
Participation is more important than creativity. The creativity of the group take preference to individual creativity during brainstorming session. . The intention is to organise a training session that promotes participation in decision-making by all members of the group. Decisions taken during the session can be important decisions affecting the community or to the entire group.
The basic rules of mandatory session favour an environment that encouraged to participate (in the decision-making) that normally do not.

2. the role of the Moderator:

The role of the moderator in a brainstorming session is essential. A disorganized group of individuals, without control, not going to spontaneously self-organize to important group decisions, nor to verify that contributions to these decisions come of all its members, especially those who tend not to take part. ... A structure, i.e. a set of basic rules and an orderly procedure is required so that the process runs as planned. The role of the moderator is, first, make sure that there is this structure and that is respected. Then, the moderator must demonstrate that the decisions come from all participants as a group, not he or she, or individuals or factions within the group. This structure facilitates it, and is a product of the actions undertaken by the moderator to remove the suggestions of participants in a group session.
The moderator requires many skills and leadership experience. If you have these skills, and puts them into practice by mobilizing and organizing community groups, it is important to not use evil to achieve personal goals and individual political advantages. The moderator has the role of lead to a non-organised group of individual participants through a process that will shape them and turn them into a group making decisions. These actions of organising a session of brainstorming going "from top to bottom" in the sense that it is the moderator who introduced them, not participants, but are calculated to lead that group to decision-making (from bottom to top) of group.

3. the rules against the criticisms and comments:

A democratic political system, allow the criticism, and even encourage, especially criticism from ordinary people about the leaders trust, as soon as these leaders deviate from the wishes of the people. In the structure and organization of the storm of ideas, however, are suppressed open criticism. . Encourage the timid.
The moderator should encourage any suggestion, even the absurd. Some participants may put in evidence and deliberately ridiculous suggestions. No problem. There is no reaction, or values judgments; simply write them on the Board.
There do not hurt, but meanwhile, shy participants have been encouraged to participate. When they have learned that it is not going to discuss publicly, and is not expected to immediately defend your suggestion, it is easier to participate (the moderator has created a secure environment). Open criticisms can make a person feel threatened. In the storm of ideas, direct criticisms are delayed and left for when the little useful suggestions are already at the bottom of the list. With this method, is not questioned the credibility of the participants. ... Comments are conversations and discussions among the participants. When a participant makes a suggestion, the moderator should write it calmly on the Board, without reaction, response or reply, and must not allow them by none of the other participants. This promotes the important concept that the moderator is not partisan, and is not trying to impose any idea to the group, but removing the whole of the group options.
In regular sessions (not of brainstorming), comments and discussions are welcome, but in a brainstorming session can be counter-productive. They waste the time, away from the process of important topics in course, diverted the attention of the decision-making process and tend to reward the more active and less shy of the group, members leaving the quiet in the background. . Apart from the brainstorming session, the mobilization aims to stimulate greater participation by groups and categories of people which has systematically been excluded from decision-making in the past practices. Activist has done extensive research on the community, and at this point need to know much about its characteristics.
The groups and categories that are excluded often include: women, some groups (young, old) age, disability (physical, mental), the poor and weak, reluctant people (shy and lacking in confidence), ethnic or linguistic minorities, illiterate and vulnerable and marginalized others. In the request for suggestions, the moderator must individually call people who has not offered any spontaneously. . The moderator should be reminded the participants that the basic rule against criticism and comments is temporary, and only for a brainstorming session, and that they are only prohibited during its duration, both criticisms and comments are allowed out of the brainstorming session.

4. the use of a whiteboard or paper on the wall:

The process of decision-making (during a storm of ideas) is intended to be a group process. Slate the moderator helps develop the perception that the decision is a decision of group and not individual. ... «Blackboard» which is spoken in the brochure and in other parts of this document can be many things. The most technologically advanced form of the range may be a projector, which the moderator will use a special pen on sheets of transparent plastic during the process. The most popular, if available, are the whiteboards with appropriate markers, that be deleted. In local schools in isolated rural villages there are more or less conventional slates (sometimes plywood painted black, difficult to write) and moderators used chalk to write the suggestions of participants. If there is no available otherwise, use mud or sand on the floor, and a stick to write.
When the groups are illiterate, drawings and symbols are useful. The most organized moderators who can invest in material used photos and drawings that can be glued on the Board (e.g., figures felt felt boards; the «felt» is a type of soft fabric, which do not fray). Activist should be very familiar with the culture of the community. Research has shown that a drawing that seems obvious to the people of a culture, can be interpreted in radically different ways by people of another culture. .. Using a whiteboard and a marker is a necessary part of the process; helps to make decisions more objective or "distant", less associated with particular individuals. The process is not as effective if everything is verbal. When absurd suggestions are written but later deleted or removed, nobody passes fool. The rearrangement of the suggestions, according to priority, is very transparent and public, and diverts the attention of individuals.
For these reasons, the Whiteboard and marker are essential elements of the structure and the process of brainstorming session.

5. the content and order of their topics:

You can choose any set of decisions. The three that are presented in this series of modules are related to community-based projects:
First version:
What do we?
What do we have?
How to use what we have to get what we want?
What happen will when we do?
Second version:
Where do we want to go?
Where are we?
How to get from where we are to where we want to go?
What happen will when we do?
Third version:
What is the problem?
Define the goal as a solution to the problem;
Break down the goal into a finite set of objectives (SMART);
Identify resources and impediments;
Generate a set of strategies to use resources, avoid the obstacles and achieve objectives;
Choose the most effective strategy;
Decide on the Organization (structure, who does what, budget, agenda); and
Decide on the monitoring, reporting and evaluation.
In each of the three versions of the above, each separate line is a decision-making session. The moderator poses a question and requests suggestions of participants (emphasises again the basic rules if necessary). According to the participants are making suggestions, no matter how ridiculous or irrelevant that are, the facilitator writes them on the Board. The fact that they are written distances of the participant who has made the suggestion, and makes them easier to manipulate. . All three versions listed here lead to action, or at least the possibility that the moderator is in position to organize a group for action. This is the way in which this management training goes beyond the transmission of knowledge and includes organization and mobilization.

6. the process of prioritizing:

At each stage of the session, once all the suggestions have been made and the moderator has written them on the Board, must decide the priorities. . The moderator asks whole group that you reorder the suggestions. When there are several that seem to be different ways of saying the same thing, are grouped, or erased the repetitions. They are also grouped them that are similar. Then they are classified, with the most important up. The moderator asks the group to help decide which have priority ("take priority" reduces the notion that an idea «best» is that other than the ideas of a participant are better than the others, helping to muddle through to all those who contributed with ideas that have been left behind).
It is important to note that, at this point, it is useful to have a short memory. The author of each decision is not mentioned. This helps to reduce that people will see any of the suggestions as personal property of one of the participants. When the wild go down positions in the list of priorities, nobody feels harmed or intimidated; focus on prioritizing and the choice of the most important suggestion. . This requires certain skills by the moderator, who acquires them with experience. For the facilitator it is helpful to reminded the group that the suggestions come from them. When the group, at the meeting, according an order priority, the moderator should remind them other time suggestions have gone out of them (not the moderator). The moderator has a strong leadership role in the Organization of the structure, the process (the basic rules and how the session goes), but must also make it clear that the contents (of the group decision-making process) comes, and so must be participants.

7. the call for organization and action:

The storm of ideas, although it is a type of training session is not intended for training on group decision-making. It is a process of group decision-making. . The third question of the two versions of the four key questions above, asks 'how'. In the third version, the penultimate (decide on the Organization) is another way of asking 'how?'. How one should act (the objectives) is choice or decision of the group.
If this was made in a school or Institute, perhaps participants would write simply his opinion on how to organize its priority goal achieving. In this session of management to strengthen a community or group, on the other hand, the real purpose is prepare and organize the group so that they can carry out their goals. Remember that "this is training for action". . The outcome of the session will be that the group not only has chosen its priorities, but also has been organized so that they are able to get them.
Extracted from the website: Liderazgo y Mercadeo
This is a translation published for educational purposes and may contain errors or be inaccurate.

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