Public relations, segmentation of the market, selling techniques, telemarketing | Concepts of Marketing

Concepts of Leadership and Marketing

Table of contents

  1. Public relations
  2. Customer satisfaction
  3. Market segmentation
  4. Advertising media selection
  5. I customer service
  6. Customer service
  7. Loyalty card
  8. Sales techniques
  9. Telemarketing
  10. Theories about the behavior of the consumer
  11. Terminology of the sales styles
  12. Use the time of seller
  13. Brand value
  14. Sustainable competitive advantages
  15. Advantages and drawback of media


Public relations | Definition

He is called (sometimes PR) public relations to the art and science of managing communication between an organization and the public key to build, manage and maintain your positive image. It is a planned and deliberate discipline that takes place in a strategic way. It has the characteristic of being a form of two-way communication, since not only addresses his audience (both internal and external) but also listen to it and meets your needs, thus promoting the mutual understanding between the Organization and its public.

Functions of public relations

All public relations activity aims main management of the institutional image, using the performance of the following functions:
• Management of internal communications: is of utmost importance to meet the human resources of the institution, and that these in turn knowledge of institutional policies, because cannot communicate what is unknown.
• Management of external communications: every institution must be known to itself and its shareholders. This is achieved through linking with other institutions, both industrial and financial, Government and media.
• Humanistic functions: it is essential that the information transmitted is always truthful, since the public's trust is what allows the institutional growth.
• Analysis and understanding of public opinion: Edward Bernays, considered the father of public relations, said that it is necessary to manipulate public opinion to order the chaos in which it is immersed. It is essential to understand public opinion in order to then act on it.
• Working with other disciplines and areas: the work of all public relations humanist must have a solid foundation with training in psychology, sociology, and human relations. Working with people and therefore it is necessary to understand them.
Exchange with other areas within such as advertising or marketing communication is also important. Even though the latter are purely commercial, there must be a consistency between messages issued by some and by others to thus help to achieve the institutional aims.
The tools that public relations take advantage to meet its objectives and functions are many and various:
• Organization of events
• Lobbying
• Social responsibility plans
• Media relations
(s): enables the Organization to gain access to the general public.
or magazines: allows access to more and better targeted audiences.
or Radio: allows you to transmit information instantly 24 hours a day.
or Television: gives great visibility to the institution, but it is difficult and expensive to access it.
or Internet: you can work on the institutional web site or with the version in various media line.
It should be recalled that it is essential to be able to send any information to the various media that it has news value and adapts to the characteristics of the environment in question.

Public relations as a science

Public relations is also a science, because they do not cease to be a growing body of fallible knowledge acquired in the light of the experimentation, that can be transmitted. As such, has a series of attributes:
• Amplitude: public relations can be applied to different situations of everyday life.
• Opening: they are willing to create modifications when necessary.
• Empiricism: are they based on experimentation.
• Method: have a method commonly called IPCE: research, planning, communication and evaluation.
• Utility: they help the institutional purposes and image management.
• Description and prediction of the institutional reality.

History of public relations

You can say that public relations date back to antiquity, because already in tribal societies were used in a way to promote respect for the authority of the Chief.
In the ancient Greece the public discussion in the agora is fostered and persuaded the public by making use of the theatre. The Romans introduced two words of the profession: the Respublica ('public thing') and the Vox Populi ('voice of the people'). After the fall of the Roman Empire and followed a time of darkness during the middle ages, where the development of public relations was almost nil, because you were not allowed the free debate of ideas.
However, the Renaissance brought with it the freedom of expression and the free exchange of ideas that gave great impetus to the profession, which grew steadily.
The country that most favoured the growth of public relations from this time up until the second world war was certainly, United States. The following stages are distinguished in this time:
• 1600-1800: this is a period marked by struggles for independence. Public relations served both purposes of the settlers, who sought to promote their self-reliance through various means (including the press, theatre, brochures), as to Great Britain, which attempted to control the colonies.
• 1800-1865: this period is characterized by the growing importance acquired by public opinion. Various topics were discussed: slavery, women's suffrage, secularism, etc, and incipient mass press was the vehicle of all these ideas.
• 1865-1900: this era was marked by an economic downturn which badly affected the image of the industry. It was not aware of the importance of having the favour of the public and an indiscriminate use of the 'false news' was written by press agents.
• 1900-1919: emerges the figure of Ivy Lee as practical father of public relations. Lee contributed greatly to the growth of the profession, which initiated an open door policy to inform to the public. It humanized the profession and realized the importance of agreeing with the private public information. In 1917 is created the Committee of public information aimed at achieving that U.S. citizens support the country's entry in the first world war, in what was a clear use of public relations for political ends. It was Bernays, who pointed out that what you can earn in times of war also served in times of peace.
• 1919-1929: in this period the figure of Edward Bernays as the theoretical father of the profession. He wrote several books defining the functions and scope of the same and devoted many efforts to make public relations public relations, i.e., to improve the image of the profession. Bernays work highlighted the importance granted to the need to listen to the public and work according to their needs.
• 1929-1941: public relations take on great importance, since after the great depression it is extremely necessary to claim the companies and explain its contribution to the economic system.
In Europe public relations do not grow with the same intensity as in the United States due to the presence of totalitarian governments that have prevented the development of the discipline.
Then include the following milestones:
• Right in 1946, with the fall of these European totalitarian regimes, there are national associations that bring together public relations professionals. The first one was created in the Netherlands.
• In 1948 Great Britain created the Institute of public relations.
• 1950s emerged associations in Greece, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy and Spain, among other countries.
• In 1955 was founded the International Association of public relations (IPRA).
• In the 1960's associations are grouped in an organization, the European Confederation of public relations (CERP).
• In 1960 was created the FIARP (inter-American Federation of public relations), recognized by the OAS.
• In 1984 becomes CONFIARP (inter-American Confederation of public relations) the addition of Spain.

Importance of public relations

There is currently a growing similarity of goods and services since the market is ever expanding. Faced with this advertising is no longer enough because he has lost credibility and becomes extremely necessary to find a tool that allows you to differentiate between companies. Here come into play public relations as a discipline that, through strategic management, manage to differentiate the organization from its competitors.
To achieve this, the public relations work with various intangible:
: • Identity being of the Organization, what it is characterized and differs from the rest. About her identity work public relations, basically managing two other intangible: organizational culture and philosophy.
• Philosophy: It raises the overall objective of the organisation and the way to get to it. Establishes a mission (the benefit that the organization provides to its audience), values (for which the organization is governed) and vision (where you want to go, that should be a goal difficult to achieve but not utopian).
• Culture: It is given by the conduct or behaviour of the Organization as a whole. It has to do with values that will encourage and how to orient the actions of the organization.
• Image: It is the representation that the organization wants to build in the stakeholders with whom the organization relates or build communication links.
• Reputation: Is that mental representation which the public about an organization is made through the (direct or indirect) experiences that have had with it and form as the organization communicates with its stakeholders.

Corporate image

The image is not managed directly, since it is owned by the public, but public relations professionals manage it indirectly, working on the identity.
To carry out this management is necessary firstly to audit the image, i.e., know which image has the public about the organization. This is accomplished by studying the notoriety of the Organization (how known or unknown is) and also through the use of surveys, interviews, focus groups, etc.
Then it is planned to establish, taking into account the current image, what is the image that you want to get and how to carry it out.
The main benefits that provides a well defined image are:
• Identification of the Organization
• Differentiation
• Referentiality
• Preference: this is often the main objective to manage the image, that the public choose this organization.

Current trends

Currently it is setting aside the paradigm of integrated marketing communications, which puts public relations as one tool of marketing.
It's going to have a holistic view of public relations, i.e., they are linked with institutional communication and is placed as a leadership role. It is tending to put all communications of the Organization in the hands of the Director of communications to achieve a more coherent and integrated communication policy which pursues the same purpose as the institution.


Customer satisfaction | Definition

"It is the customer who pays our salary. Only manages it the head "(Henry Ford)
Customer satisfaction is something's entrails, people have to feel it to be able to offer that customer.
The error in which falls many companies, is that sometimes by devoting himself to their processes and internal controls, forget your customers which brings a deficiency in its sales as a result.
Customer satisfaction is a standard process: listening to; in the company if the customer, it will resurface or improve, as the case may be. Acting; quickly, in accordance to what is heard; and communicate; to sell.
How to listen to customers
The customer is number 1; listen in 2 ways: by request, so give us their views or simply communicate their complaints or claims.

Four basic principles of customer satisfaction

There is customer satisfaction, there are 4 basic principles which are:

1 customer satisfaction: perceptions - expectations. Everyone expected something, when we buy what we wanted and we see it in the moment of truth, that arithmetic difference is the customer satisfaction. Loyal customer, make sure the customer is satisfied, returns results as: you buy today, tomorrow, and so on, by customers who we re-compran we are less expensive to attract a new one, also has another "poison," because the customer that it is not fair, becomes my sniper damage to all other clients, but what are loyal they are the best sellers, and do not charge me Commission.
2 complaint + quick fix: increases satisfaction. Ability to quickly resolve issues; It is a key success factor. The saddest complaints which will help to improve. Return to us customers to see how it works in reality. For example: A Lady is going to buy a TV and when he's going to turn, works, the person usually takes it because she hoped that outside, the satisfaction will be neutral (P - E = neutral). What if did not work the TV and he was not given a good service (P - E = negative). This time if you going to tell her friends that the product is bad, the last time, even he said. What if it didn't but you get an excellent deal and service (P - E = positive) this time will discuss it but not to many people.
For every complaint that we know there are other 24 that never come. Those who do not complain to your provider if they tell you the problem to other 4 or more people.
3 very satisfied customer: go behind very satisfied customers because they are those who will sell my product to others, since the simply satisfied, only 60% will buy, and the rest will go to the competition. What is sought with this point is the loyalty of customers and the search for them. Why is the customer going to competition? A study shows that customers are going to our competition by poor service this represents 68%, 15%, 12% lower product price.

Customer satisfaction comes first.

It is the first principle of quality (Total Quality Management = Te Quiero Mucho)
It is the first chapter of all the national awards of quality and ISO 9000.
We live in a business environment, which is is perfect, so unpredictable, competitive and variable competence that has made customer satisfaction the ultimate goal of any company wishing to gain a foothold in the increasingly aggressive market.
We could list several supports that a company can use to enter the market and compete, but fundamentally, there are three pillars that are strategic and that always ends up falling: price, quality and deadline.
Anticipation in time to the needs of customers was the commitment of companies of sophisticated technology in the past but is no longer a differential made because all companies, whatever their sector, are in that criterion.
Companies focus their current strategy on two factors hardly reconcilable: price and quality. Today, in most sectors and markets, we can say that you have competitive prices is a necessary but not sufficient condition to have presence in the same.
Therefore the quality rises more and more, as a strategic objective to achieve customer loyalty and increase market share on the basis of the satisfaction of this. And this is achieved through improvements in the Organization and therefore the end result of our product or service to the implantation of a quality system entails.
We understand that a quality assurance system is the application of rules in the various processes and functions to develop the business organisation, in order to achieve the necessary improvements that lead to excellence. As it can be deduced from this definition, and on the basis that there is no perfect organization, the quality system is based on continuous improvement criteria. In this way, never get perfection in an organization because the fault is something intrinsic in the human being and when goals are reached, the achievement of other more demanding and to new levels, involving at the beginning are less arises.

As you can see systems of quality assurance, it is said this is because it is:

1 detect problems at the source, avoiding the multiplicity of future errors.
2 reduces long-term costs of inefficiencies or errors made, since the supply of a defective product causes costs of returning the product transport, commercial effort double again supply the product with the consequential costs of shipping, delays in the date of delivery, delays in the date of invoice and, for this reason, the collection not to mention the damage to the image of brand and company.
The first touchdown in the implementation with the system and the norm that sustains it is the development of a quality manual and procedures. This means defining each of the functions carried out the company on the basis of criteria explicit in general in the ISO standards and regulations. The manuals should be written by someone who knows the company and its performance. It is very important for the manual make it the company with the proper advice. But even if we can find some initial problems, the development of the manuals is the easiest part of the process as the more theoretical. The implementation of the system is something much more complex may make a division in the following points:
3 setting quantitative and qualitative targets in different departments: to improve customer satisfaction: limit the number of errors, compliance with deadlines and that allow to know all what start and where we want to get.
4. changes in the organizational structure: defining functions of different departments and employees of each of them. Implying create tasks, delete others, reassign, and make changes that are held.

5. definition of the Mission of the address: departmental managers have a key role in the success of the implementation of the system. They should be the first convinced of the advantages of it, since its mission is to transmit the motivation to comply with procedures and accountability to their subordinates.
6 HR approach: linking the system to the achievement of objectives. It should be reward and no punishment. Adequate training and retrain staff. Provide the necessary human capital.
7 changes in organisational culture: promote teamwork. It must be all brains to work. Facilitate obtaining the opinions of the employees is the best way to get your motivation and make improvements in the development of tasks.
8 measurement results and analysis of desviaciones\: will depart the exhaustive control of claims of clients, collected by any member of the Organization, as well as any other complementary instrument fault detection.
9 application of the corrective measures required and new: objectives. A quarterly basis, or at the least semi-annual, a meeting is made with the Manager of the company and all the heads of Department, with the purpose of analyzing what has been achieved and the potential problems that the Organization, in order to propose joint solutions. There is something that is underlying the entire frame that develops with the implementation of systems of quality assurance, which is communication.
Communication in the company has a value that is still very unknown. We must make an effort in our organizations and operate canals and information systems that improve and that support for the expansion of the same. It is not only vital in terms of quality, but that lack of information systems appropriate to the needs of the company and efficient can undermine their ability to grow, profit and the increase of productivity by the disorganization associated with low internal communication. Systems of quality articulated information systems in the company, which normally will improve that, although simple and scarce, already existed.
The ISO standards indicate as they have to carry out different functions to perform, but not which process must follow the company to carry them to the practice on a permanent basis and successfully. This depends on the creativity, initiative and experience that every day is taking by leaders and workers alike.


Finally what is to change corporate culture and to do so you need the sum of individuals and what we are looking at each one of these is the change of a number of attitudes. With a culture and individual attitude of positive (future), team work (confidence, strength, one goal in common), continuous improvement (Excel, change) and property (professional and responsible for: I am the company)... will make the client the number 1.

Culture requires:

• Executive focus (on the side of the company)
• Education (from the employee side)
• Empowerment (balanced)
• Motivation (on the side of the employee)
"If we don't take care of our customers, someone will do it for us"
"You have to understand that the customer is a person who brings their needs, satisfy them efficiently is our work for him and for us."


Market segmentation | Definition

Market segmentation

It is defined as the strategy used to divide the market into distinct groups of buyers who are estimated to require different products or marketing mix different. In this way the company increases their profitability, markets can be segmented according to various dimensions: geographical segmentation, psychographic, demographic, based on criteria of product performance and by category of customer.
Geo-targeting: The markets are divided into different geographical units such as countries, regions, departments, municipalities, cities, communes and districts. It must be taken into account that some products are sensitive to the culture of a nation, town or region.
Psychographic segmentation: The market is divided into different groups based on characteristics of buyers such as social class, lifestyle, personality types, attitudes of the same person to himself, to his work, the family, beliefs and values. The segmentation by attitudes is known as behavioral segmentation and is considered by some mercadeologos as the best choice to start a market segmentation.
Demographic segmentation: The market is divided into groups according to variables such as sex, age, income, education, ethnicity, religion and nationality. The most common is to segment a market by combining two or more demographic variables.
Segmentation based on product performance criteria: refers to the way in which buyers use product and the way in which it fits in their processes of perception of their needs and desires.
Segmentation by customer category: markets can be divided according to the size of the accounts and these depending on governmental, private sector or non-profit. In each classification the purchase decision process has different characteristics and is determined by different rules, standards and assessment systems, and also different levels of expertise in the purchase.
The previous segmentation variables are oriented towards consumer markets. However, industrial markets can be segmented using these variables but also other very important as the segmentation approach of nest.

Segmentation by approach of nest

Called nest because it is a structure of criteria that is building from the outside inward. These criteria are demographic factors, operational variables such as size of the account, need for services and technology; approaches of purchase of the customer such as the structures of power in the company, criteria and procurement policies; situational factors such as urgency, the size of the order and the specific application of the product. At the core of the nest will be buyer's personal characteristics such as their attitude toward risk, loyalty to the supplier and similarities between seller and buyer.





Nuevo León, Northern region, southern region, region East

Size of the city or metropolitan statistical area

Less than 25000 25000-100000, 100001-500000, etc..


Urban, suburban, rural


Hot, cold, dry, rainy.



Less than 10,000, 10,000-25,000


6-10 years, 10-15, 15-20. 20-25, etc.


Masculine - feminine

Family life cycle

Young, married, with children, unmarried, divorced, widowed

Social class

High, medium, low.


Primary, secondary, etc.


Professional, office, home...

Ethnic origin

African, Asian, Hispanic...



Ambitious, self-confident...


Activities, opinions and interests


Values and lifestyles (VALS2)


Desired benefits

It depends on the product

Rate of use

No user, small user, etc...
The main objective of the market segmentation is to analyze the operations of a client to define whether they are or are not suspected. The detection system of operations through market segmentation is based on the following principles:
• Each segment or group of operations should correspond to a group of customers that have common characteristics.
• Customers who normally perform operations on a particular segment, have no financial justification to conduct operations in certain segments (upper segments).
• If a customer switches to a different segment, this necessarily is due to a change in their economic activity.
• Certain changes in segment, for example when the volume decreases (lower segments) operations, are not unusual.

Requirements for effective segmentation

Obviously, there are other ways to segment a market. However, not all the segmentations are effective. For example, buyers of table salt could be divided into consumer blond and Brown. But the color of the hair is of no importance for the purchase of salt. In addition, if all buyers salt acquire the same amount every month, if they believe that all the salt is the same and if you want to pay the same price, this market would be minimally segmentable from the point of view of marketing.
To be useful, the market segments must display the following characteristics:
• Measurability, the degree in which the size and purchasing power of the segments can be measured. Close your segmentation variables are difficult to measure. An illustration would be the size of the segments of adolescent smokers, who smoke mainly to rebel against their parents.
• Accessibility, the degree in which can reach and effectively serve the segments. Suppose that a perfume company finds out that heavy users of your brand are single women that come out at night and frequenting bars. Unless this group live or shop at certain places and exposed to certain means of communication, it will be difficult to find it.
• Sustanciabilidad, the degree in which the segments are the fairly large or lucrative. A segment should be the homogeneous group more large as possible that it is worth searching with a program specific marketing. For example, a manufacturer of automobiles not should you develop cars for people whose height is less than 1.22 metres.
• Drive, the degree in which it is possible to formulate programmes to attract and serve the segments. For example, a small airline identified seven market segments, but his staff was too small to develop different programs for each segment marketing.

Profiles of market segments

Once you divided the market into segments and has determined that segmentation variables used, you need to assess the extent to which possible products or services your company can meet the needs of potential customers. With this purpose you develops profiles of selected market segments, where you will describe the similarities between potential clients of each segment and the differences between people of different segments.
Remember that in segments, people should be very similar with respect to several characteristics or needs of a product or service and differ considerably from the people that are in other segments of the market.
Through the development of profiles of market segments you can have a better view of how your company can use its capabilities to serve groups of potential customers.

Evaluation of the relevant segments of the market

Once it has analyzed the profiles of market segments, will possibly be one or several market segments relevant which will require further analysis, as well as also segments to be decided to delete when making estimates of sales, competition and costs to access each segment. Here you will make simulations on the computer with different marketing mixes, to evaluate profitability and see if your company is able to develop and maintain a mix of marketing that meets the wishes and needs of the specific segment.

Target market selection

Today, enterprises are increasingly less profitable to do mass marketing or do it based on the variety of the product. The mass market are divided in hundreds of micromercados where groups will find different styles of life looking for different products in different distribution channels and are exposed to multiple communication channels. This is why companies adopt more and more the concept of select target markets. Here you will analyse the profiles of market segments, will choose the most relevant and will be set as a goal one or more of these segments and develop products and marketing programs tailored to each selected segment. Making marketing goals means that we are moving towards the micromercadeo where the marketing programs are designed and implemented to meet the needs and desires of specific groups of clients at a base of local marketing (by geographical area, by chain of stores, store).

Advantages of market segmentation

The most direct benefits of an efficient segmentation, is that the company or organization is in a better position to locate and compare the opportunities that the medium presents. This allows a better position to make changes and adjustments to their products or satisfiers, when required by the market and, finally, the business or organization can prepare a marketing program or mix commercial, having clearly defined the characteristics of each specific segment.
Market segmentation is the basis for the choice of the objective markets. Depending on the target market, the organization or company must choose between an undifferentiated marketing strategy, differentiated or concentrated to best address the market target or segment

Market segmentation process.

Study: The market is examined to determine the specific needs met by current offerings, which aren't and which could be recognized. Conducted interviews of scan and organize group sessions to better understand the motivations, attitudes and behaviour of consumers. It collects data on the attributes and the importance given to them, awareness of brand and scores of brands, usage patterns and attitudes toward the category of products; as well as, demographics, psychographic, etc.
Analysis: the data are interpreted to eliminate variables and grouping or build the segment with consumers who share a requirement in particular and what distinguishes them from the other segments of the market with different needs.

Preparation of profiles: prepares a profile of each group in terms of distinctive attitudes, behaviour, demographics, etc. It refers to each segment based on its dominant feature. The segmentation must be repeated periodically because the segments change. Also investigates the hierarchy of attributes that consumers consider when choosing a brand, this process is called partition of markets. This may reveal new market segments.


• Undifferentiated marketing: the company not directs its efforts toward a single market segment does not recognize the different segments of the market but considered them a common whole with similar needs and designed a product and program marketing for a large number of buyers, help advertising media.
• Differential marketing this method is characterized by treating each customer as if the only one in the market. The company passes through two or more segments of the market and design products and programs of marketing separately for each of these segments.
• Concentrated marketing this method tries to get a good market position in few areas is looking for a greater share in a market instead of seeking lower portion in a large market.


• Make a classification of clients by statistics which register the purchase of a specific product by ages and periods.
• Make a market study using most of the variables (bases) within the entire system.
• Production of market does not offer a single product on the market is considered various products that consumers will buy.
Market segmentation is a way to look for new opportunities in the total market through the real knowledge of consumers. Takes place through a process that consists of 3 stages: study, analysis and preparation of profiles.
The market segment must be homogeneous to its interior, heterogeneous abroad, with one sufficient number of consumers to make it profitable; and operational, i.e., to include demographic dimensions to work properly in the plaza and product promotion. Segments are changing that is why it is important to carry out segmentation on a regular basis.


Advertising media selection | Definition

If all owner had an unlimited amount of money to invest in advertising, media selection would not be difficult. It would not be as entertaining. The interesting thing about the selection of media is based on the assumption that no advertiser has unlimited funds.
Seen in this way, the advertiser or advertising agency media department you have to make an intelligent selection of media work. This work is as important as the creative work of copywriting, visualization and preparation of sketches. The true art of media buying is to select these in so expertly that the public contains the largest possible number of potential customers who can be effectively influenced by an advertising message. Art of selecting media so cleverly that every dollar spent in space or time to do the work of a dollar and half or more spent by competitors less experienced or less imaginative.
Every difficulty in the selection of media is a difficulty in the selection of public. All media buyer faces constantly "the drama of the decision". Since each environment has a different audience, we have to learn to choose within each main group of media. We have to try to make creative combinations of different media to remove as much as possible of our investment in space, time and expert staff. While most intelligent and skillfully we can do it, more makes our money.
This is an easy task. There is no express formula determined simply by how this selection of public can be. It has few parameters to measure the amount of customers in perspective within the total audience of any medium and the kind of people are these potential customers. Also here we are working with the trial, a trial based in part on market research. In part on experiences in envelope similar problems of selection of markets goal in the past. Part of pure creativity in the combination of media to reach a new audience and greater, more interested by the advertising message.
We rely on market research that tell us how many people there are in the audience of any medium advertising die. We draw on research that tell us, if this is possible, how many of those people likely to be potential consumers of the product or service you have to sell. And we also expect the research to tell us what kind of people are these. These factors will give us a basis to make decisions as to the likelihood that the money we invest in the Middle bring us a reasonable turnover, or the change in attitude or opinions of people who we hope to reach with advertising.
The middle selection will depend on the reasons why you need the publicity. In the majority of cases, the logic will be your best guide. However, consider the following information which will expand their knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the various media.
The selection and pattern in the media is the work of many people in companies and advertising agencies. If you plan an advertising campaign (LINK) of great magnitude and scope, we urge you to consult an expert in pattern of media.

First step: basic strategy

The selection of the suitable means depends on four factors:

Its objective is what you want to get and at what time... Knowing your goals is critical. It is not limited to the ideas that "pass through your head". The objectives of advertising must be clear and in writing.
Write forces him to be specific. These objectives should be part of your promotion plan. More important, objectives of advertising must be consistent with what advertising can achieve. This may look strange, but the advertising is limited to achieve specific goals are met. You can make a difference in perception or awareness, but with the exception of certain advertising alternatives, advertising is not to create a sale. . Many inexperienced advertisers think that advertising

Sales, but that is only a publicity myth.

Your audience - who are they and where are the people to whom you want to carry your message... Take your time and carefully define your audience. Certain media will be more attractive to some groups more than others. Limit your focus group will help you to take a wise decision and cost effective media to selected. For example, a supplier of pet products advertising their ads in magazines or newsletters aimed at pet owners. In addition, you can also advertise an ad in a special supplement on the subject of pet published the local newspaper. Some entrepreneurs may think is clever advertisements in a powerful medium. They laugh and manifest that: "well, sell you to the one with the money... That is my hearing... To reach out to the world, the person would have to advertise in all available media, no one can afford that kind of money. Companies such as Coca-Cola and McDonald's carefully selected their means in order not to waste money.
The message and the frequency. What you want to say and how often. The media you select must project its message effectively. Again, the logic applied again. If you have much information to offer, do not choose a wedge of radio of 30 - seconds. If you need to see your product in action, do not choose a written medium. If you need that your message to project frequently, as for example-"sale ends in two days" - do not choose a weekly magazine which will only an exhibition. You could select instead, the radio where your ad can run frequently day and night.
Its budget, is perhaps the factor most influential in its advertising plan. If you can afford it, it makes no sense to publish an ad in full color or a spot on television. As he wrote their goals, prepare your budget. The advertising budget is part of your marketing plan.
Buy only a spot on television is not a purchase effective since studies have shown that consumers should be exposed to an ad repeatedly so as to achieve the action corresponding to the message.
The money should not be the sole determining factor in his decision. The fact that you can pay by 16 wedges in a radio station, in another 10 or half-page in a newspaper, does not mean that you should decide automatically on the 16. It is not as simple as it looks. To make your decision, you would also know who listen to, the time of each half, and the way in which the environment conforms to the message that you want to project.
Now if you are developing a strategy! If you have read the above, you have taken a course in what they call the great creative strategy. Congratulations! Now you already know the information and basic terminology. Now let's look at the basic information about the available media.


Customer service | Definition

One of the most common concerns among small and medium-sized businesses is the theme of the service to the customer. All recognize that this is important to the success of every company, whatever their activity. It is a subject about which you write too, many seminars are presented, is spoken everywhere, but unfortunately few understand and is practiced much less. Tirelessly repeats patterns from Anglo-Saxon cultures, which come from translations of books specially published in the United States.
The issue is complicated by writers and tends to communicate in a complex way. Sometimes forget the purpose of the message and you only want to show that much is known. It is forgotten that the most powerful messages are simple and direct. The message do not even have to be original. It is important that you understand.
The first question that a businessman, must be in terms of service is concerned, is whether he is really prepared to accept all the risks and challenges that means guiding your company towards customer, to give the "service" that the customer wants. This includes investing in an indoctrinamiento of the staff, and a personal change in his attitude.
Second would be to define exactly what the owner of the company and the staff working directly and indirectly with is that so-called character: "the client". Define what a client is not difficult. Accept all the consequences of this definition is a completely different matter.

Client - server model

The "client" concept could be better understood if we use the computer concept of it. This model says that there are computers (servers) that "serve" the needs of others, at all times and without restriction of any kind. There are no doubts, hesitations or doubts to serve the customer fully and completely. The "Server" is connected to the "client" and while this relationship exists, blindly obeys his designs.
The "client" computer on the other hand is a dictator while it plays its role. Full and total dictator. Limited to give orders and which must be obeyed. Otherwise the system will not work, will collapse and will enter into complete chaos. (All we know it because it is what happens when computer systems "fall")
Most notable of the "client-server" concept is that the roles can change at any time. This is the "Server" happens to be "customer" and vice versa, depending on the circumstances. There is a permanent interdependence for the 'system' stay healthy and efficient.

Culture and services

The culture from which we proceed and formed in our Spanish-speaking countries, is influenced by the principle: "serve, is vile". We bring in our genes powerful recordings of Hispanic origin, which in turn has the influence of more than 600 years of Arab domination. (This does not mean that everything is bad in it, much less. Mathematics and classical philosophy comes by translations of Averroes and Avicenna Arab thinkers). Our culture, like all, is a curious mixture of thousands of items. But, the "serve" us is not very natural, nor we accept it very easily. Our genes are persistently refusing to "serve".
Furthermore, human males have the idea that "human females" are those that were made to "serve". This comes clearly absolute and Meridian of our indigenous ancestors (Mayans, toltecs, Aztecs, quechuas, etc.) if it is that we have something of them.
According to our cultural patterns have "servants" is considered a "top level" of development. Becoming "leader" or "Manager" is considered by many to achieve that desired level. As such the that character is transformed and becomes a "dictator" arrogant and terribly unpleasant.

The internal customer concept

In the computer "client - server" model, which we have mentioned, the roles or roles generated by the service are ambivalent. A moment it is "Server" and "client" is in the next instant. Really, the only way to get inside a company improve customer service is to make the owner, managers, supervisors and staff of every level, first understand the concept of "client - server" and secondly the 'internal customer'. This cannot be achieved as per the overnight miracle and is part of the "permanent training" process.
This process of teaching to "serve" should start in households, when the boy began walking. Unfortunately our permissive culture taught us otherwise. To introduce the concept of service in a company quickly has shown to be efficient to start explaining the concept of "internal customer". I have had positive experiences in this regard. Childbirth by pointing out that the company is a network, made up of various elements, in which everyone is being connected. Those internal links, which is connect with elements outside the company who can be "external clients" or suppliers.
An example to which I appeal, is the Department responsible for materials and supplies. The people responsible for that Department, within the company, as its clients immediate coworkers of the production department. It is them who should serve at all times, so that the final product is suitable.
The hardest part is always made to managers, supervisors and executives that they understand servers of its staff ("your internal customer") in many occasions during the workday. Not only that, it is difficult to make understand to executives in general, that the "external client" is who pays the salaries, including that of the owner of the business.
In short, we are all "clients" and "servers". We have to be fully ready to take both roles, depending on the occasion that we face. This is the only way to establish an efficient system of service to the external client. While they follow thinking how Alberto and the staff of your company, mentioned above, to do it is technically impossible to give an efficient service to the customer, despite the exalted programmatic statements made on the subject.
Parodying the company L.L. Bean, with slight modifications, I would say the following about what should be understood by a client, designed to achieve positive results in the service:
(External and internal) customer is not dependent on us... we depend on it.
(External and internal) customer is always the most important person in this office... in person, by phone or by mail.
(External and internal) customer is not an interruption in our work... it is the purpose of it. We are not doing you a favor... is the client who makes us a favor by giving us the opportunity to serve you.
(External and internal) customer is a person who brings us his desires and aspirations. It is our job to turn them into reality with benefit for him and for us.

Service to the client as a strategy

The service the customer has been one of the tools most commonly used by companies to differentiate themselves from their competition and develop sustainable competitive advantage is the service to the customer. Sounds strange that the strategy of service the customer is linked to the product, but so is, and very directly.
Service strategy customer is part of a whole which is the product, there are a few products that are pure tangible, such as salt, which do not require to be accompanied by any service, but there are others that do require it, such as appliances or banking services, we will concentrate on them.
Develop a service strategy customer three must confront basic decisions, what services will be offered, what level of service should be offered and what is the best way to provide services?, look at them in more detail:

1. that services will be offered

To determine which services are what the customer requires periodic surveys that identify the possible services offer should be made, in addition you have to establish the importance of the consumer gives each.
Also be aware that even if our services are of excellent quality, if they are the same and the same level as the competition, never create competitive, therefore, advantage to implement surveys aimed at improving services, we need to compare ourselves with our closest competitors, so will detect real opportunities to get ahead of ourselves and be the best.

2. that level of service to be offered

Already known services required customers, now you have to detect the amount and quality they want to, to do so, you can resort to various elements, among them:
Shopping by comparison, periodic surveys of consumers, mailbox of suggestions, complaints and claims systems, and 800 number.
The last two elements are extremely useful, since they maximize the opportunity to know the levels of satisfaction and what's wrong.

3. What is the best way of providing services

You must decide on the price and supply of the service. For example, any manufacturer of PC's have three choices of price for repair service and maintenance of its equipment, can offer a free service for a year or period of time, could be sold apart from the team as an additional service maintenance could not offer any services of this type; with regard to the supply could have their own technical staff for maintenance and repairs and place it in each one of their authorized distribution points,
It could accord with their distributors so that they provide the service or leave outside firms to provide it.
In addition to the decisions on the referred aspects, service strategy customer integral must involve all members of the Organization and have a strong component of recruitment that allows to work with people like that provide an excellent service and they do not feel subservient.
Another key element in this strategy is the continuous training of the staff, with emphasis on those who deal directly with the client, these people, called "frontline", are those that need higher performance, of them depends on the client to return or not.
A last element, to develop service strategies the successful customer is the treatment to internal customers, i.e., treatment of the chiefs to his subordinates, if not treated in the best way how hope that they treat our customers well? Bosses should treat subordinates as they would like them to treat customers.


Customer service | Definition

Service to the client or simply service the customer is the service that provides a company to interact with their customers.
Concept: It is the set of interrelated activities offered by a supplier in order that the customer obtain the product at the time and place and to ensure a correct use of the same. The service to the customer is a powerful marketing tool. It is a tool that can be very effective in an organization if it is used properly for this certain institutional policies should be followed.
Service to the client is "A concept of work" and "a way of doing things" that are responsible for the entire organization, in the form of attending to customers (which buy us and allow us to be viable) as in how to address the customers internally, different areas of our own company.

Public agency customer service

Also called the area of accounts, service the customer is establishing contact with the owner to provide the Agency, in case get it as a customer, is responsible for maintaining the relationship with him. Advertisers are increasingly demanding and there is much competition.
Advertising an account is a customer. Do not confuse the Department of accounts with the accounting department.
The posts that can be occupied in a service department clients or accounts are Trainee, account executive, Jr., account executive, Manager of and their job is basically to understand the advertising client objectives, obtain key on the brand, the product, the market information and the target audience and start-up the team of people who within the Agency will prepare the campaign proposal; If the client approves it, it will deal with coordinating the entire process of realization of advertising campaign. He should go towards one direction, the work and effort of all those involved and, Furthermore, do it at set times.
Therefore the functions of service the customer are:
Create and maintain the relationship with each client and understand it.
Coordinate internal and external teams that participate in the development of the campaign.
Make presentations of Agency and campaign.
The interlocutor with the client department is the director or head of advertising, or brand managers or the person who is responsible for advertising in the company (marketing director, director of communication, etc.) in each case.
When the number of clients requires it, they are divided into groups of accounts, each of them with a director of accounts, of which supervisors, these depend on executives and, finally, attendees. The Department is organized in this way.
In the majority of agencies accounts managers deal with strategic planning, today, due to the importance given to the brand as a main element of differentiation and therefore competitiveness, this function rests with the planner, as we have seen, a new figure only in large agencies. We can say that he is a specialist in the conduct of the public and in the development of brands. It is not that this work was not done previously, but many advertisers and agencies are now more aware that any action that make the company's face to consumers must boost brand, i.e. the positioning (the place that occupies the mind of the consumer) and the belief that you have on it. Create a specific figure with this exclusive task is a way to ensure the results.
The planner
Deepen the knowledge about the product, the consumer, the market and competition.
Designs communication strategy and oriented to the departments of accounts and creativity for the plans to be presented to the customer. If there is the planner, service the customer focuses on the work of management and coordination, as well as in the search for new customers.

Services rendered

Usually is established as a unit within the company, under the Department of sales or marketing, in order to resolve the problems or doubts that clients have with respect to the product purchased or contracted service: questions of use of the product, claims and guarantees, defective items, changes or returns, promotions and special sales, conflict resolution, service technician and maintenance , customer loyalty, to name a few.
There are specialized facilities to meet the requirements of customers by phone (centers of calls or call centers, in English). The evolution of technology has allowed other forms of interaction such as email or chat (these centres are called centers contact or contact center, in English).
In the case of call centres, the numbers tend to be a free line, or any line of special pricing.

Project UPSS (User Pays Social Service)

Considering the possibility of users requesting information to pay for it, through 900 series phones, systems of payment for services by Internet, etc. and whereas the possibility of distributing the peaks of intensity of activity, through the system of questions forums, in which are placed the questions, but these are not answered "on line" , but at any time of the day, during periods of low activity; services, which resolves the problems are being developed and questions are disabled or elderly, who receive a percentage of the payment made by the user, leaving a percentage low, as Commission to the Organizer; consisting of this social service of the system, especially in the countries of accelerated aging of its population.
This has resulted in the availability of less useful information, such as horoscopes, or services of erotic chats, which are earning profits, whereas mentioned operators, have by their experience, most useful information.


Loyalty card | Definition

Card loyalty or fidelity are programs, identified as physical cards or not, that offer bonuses (discounts, awards etc.) its user to consume a product from a company in particular.
The electronic cards emitted by certain manufacturers, distribution chains, or utilities and which delivered free of charge to its customers. These allow users the accumulation of points based on the consumptions in establishments of the issuer. At the time of the purchase, card is delivered to the clerk or cashier that passes through the reader charging a number of points proportional to the amount of the purchase.
The systems of loyalty cards and points programs are supported on complex solutions relationship marketing software, as well as other points (e.g. solutions for loyalty LoyalStudio) management systems.
Accumulated points are entitled to obtain gifts, discounts in common products or free services. To report it, companies published brochures or catalogues distributed users reporting of gifts that can be obtained on the basis of points to redeem. Obviously, these are bigger, the bigger the amount obtained.
Loyalty cards are called because you are the entrepreneur looking for is customer, attracted by obtaining a future benefit, eat more frequently products and services of its brand at the expense of competitors.
Currently, loyalty cards are thrown by:
• Distribution chains, as Supermercados Sabeco, Boots (United Kingdom), Hudson completo Bay Company (Canada), Shoppers Drug Mart (Canada), Carrefour (Europe)
• As Vip's restaurant chains.
• Companies in passenger such as:
or air carriers: Air France, Iberia (Iberia plus programme), etc.
or railway companies: Renfe.
• Allied companies: it is called multipatrocinador loyalty card and is a formula of great commercial success throughout the world. Companies from different sectors are grouped to reward its customers with points redeemable for travel and gifts for the purchase of their products or services. Examples of it found in Canada, Aeroplane or Air Miles, in United Kingdom, with the Nectar card, or Spain with Travel Club, which has as sponsors Repsol, Eroski, or BBVA, among others, and has as partners to more than 40% of total households in the country, every year a million of redemptions.
An added to the card issuer (although not expressed) benefit is the possibility to meet consumption habits of their customers and, accordingly, to guide policy sales and marketing of the company. To obtain the card, it is necessary to fill out a form with user data. To make purchases and upload them to the card, the data of the buyer can marry with products or services purchased. In this way, through mining data or mere statistical processes it is possible to analyze the behavior of different customer segments (by age, sex, place of residence, etc.)


Sales techniques | Definition

Sales techniques constitute the body of methods used in the profession of sales, also often called simply "sales". Techniques in use vary highly consultative sale focused on the customer at the very pressured "hard close". All techniques require some experience and mix a little with the psychological divination know what motivates others to buy something offered by one. Expertise in the techniques of selling can offer very high incomes, and a lack of it can be depressing and frustrating. The portrait of this last aspect is reflected in 'death of a salesman by Arthur Miller. The seller must often cope with a high level of rejection. This is hard to handle emotionally, usually citing as the most common reason for leaving the profession. Because of this, the sales training techniques include a large amount of material of motivation and preparation given by professionals of psychology or trained ex-vendedores called coaches, these are usually managers or vendors with long history. General sales training tends to be very fierce and led to limits of practice and understanding are compared with the military survival training since the seller is continuously touching the frustration and rejection. The so-called "tendency not" les must be ethical and formally using various concepts of inductive modern psychology. Today a true sales professional is a highly qualified person in several items or humanistic subjects such as psychology, marketing, techniques of public speaking, neurolinguistic (NLP), motivational programming languages.
The sales process is summarized in the following phases:
• Presentation.
or personal presentation
or your company's presentation
or reason
or references
or qualification
• Prospecting.
or inquiry
or completion of open and closed questions
or the need to purchase meeting
or benefits presentation
or management of objections
• Close.
or questions prior to closing (thermometer)
or negotiation
or decommissioning
• Trust
• Empathy
It is very important now that if the person believes and trust in what you are giving will make much more easy the process of any sale, therefore must be and look like sellers with experience, so the sale is hara much more easy.
• Knowledge of people
A good sale involves questions of the seller to discover the needs and desires of the potential customer to find the appropriate product to meet those needs and is willing to pay. If a good survey is done, then the potential customer can be simply directed to act according to the wishes and needs of. It should be noted that a good salesperson is much better informed about your product or service to which the client could never be and can offer valuable information as well as help the decision making process. In addition, an ethical seller always ensure is that customer will receive more value in the product or service what you have paid.
Another school of sales techniques, called Zelev Noel Training, points out the basic steps of the sale through an acrostic with the word sales:
• Verification of preparations.
• Effective interview and saleswoman.
• Previously established needs.
• Demonstration of product task.
• Total satisfaction and post-sale.


Telemarketing | Definition

The telemarketing or Telemarketing is an activity of marketing that allows instant, live and two-way contact between the supplier and the consumer.
The telemarketing saves costly personal visits, they contact more prospects per day and remains satisfied clients, based on good care, and the opportunity to respond to the competition.

Planning of a telemarketing campaign


• Reduce costs by replacing the personal visits by phone calls.
• Increase earnings through sales to reduce costs and increase sale volumes, since we can cover a market more large.
• Generate new business in Territories not covered by the sales staff.
• Improve service to customers through a contact more frequent.
• Vendors specialise in closing techniques, since over the phone you can prospect, classify and qualify customers.
• Optimize the costs of advertising, through accounts more promising, because that is better known to consumers.
• Promoting more widespread.
• Respond more quickly when the competition.
• Better control of accounts
• Revive inactive accounts.
• Provide service more personalized.
• Extend sales with minimum costs.
• Research the market in a way more economic.
• Introduce new products.
• Improve the way sell, since it avoids facing pollution, the high price of transport and distances which are increasingly more large.


Analysis on the requirements and reports
Definition of tasks created
Definition of components, roles and responsibilities of work and descriptions of charges for all types of staff
Fixing of realistic levels of activity for key tasks
Programming of the work
Types of entry calls and average duration
Time required between one and the other to perform associated tasks
No. calls that come at different times of the day
Call patterns on different days of the week.


Representatives of telephone sales, universal, trained in Telemarketing. These people perform the following functions:
Receive calls and channel them
Give telephone advice to all those who respond to a stimulus advertising
Get information to these people
Qualify prospects
Capture information
Cleaning of data Base
Close sales
It will be necessary to have a telephone sales representative Supervisor
Telephone lines
Outbound lines
Line Inbound appear in advertising (Directas
We can say that there are basically two ways to use the phone in marketing activities:
• Receptively or telemarketing of entry; and
• Actively or telemarketing of output
The phone started being used by the Bell Telephone Company, to promote the sale of extensions, telephone exchanges and ads in the yellow pages, technically from Alejandro Graham Bell took place in 1876 the first phone. For 1935 already had written books on sale using the phone. The phone companies are which immediately discover the advantages of this means of communication to make contact with your subscribers to give them support, and promote related services.
A Manual sales ready, in 1965, by the writer of this note, the Compañía de Teléfonos de Chile, referred to the various functions the phone in the activities of marketing in the following way:
The phone provides multiple functions in the marketing of products and services:
To sell:
• Under favourable conditions, sales can be made by phone on as smoothly as in the client's office.
• To achieve greater effect on sale by phone, it is recommended to dispatch previously printed material, thereby having to be called customer, information relating to the offer.
• The telephone call is ideal for making quick sales, when there are special offers. The phone is a fast means to make contacts with customers.
• When prices are subject to fluctuations or the existence of goods is reduced, the telephone call is advantageous.
Promote sales:
• Inaccessible markets, can be reached easily.
• Allows to expand local markets.
• Recovery of lost accounts.
• Helps maintain the name of the product.
The first massive campaign of selling by phone was developed in 1970 by Ford Motor Co. and executed by ITC, possibly the best known company in the world offering telemarketing services. In this campaign were twenty million calls, by 15,000 housewives specially recruited and trained to make sales using the phones on their homes. Following a carefully scheduled script (script), they were a million calls a day, in order to determine who were the prospects for the purchase of a new car.
On average, each call took a minute. They generated 340,000 positive contacts, 187,000 of which were "valid", i.e. who were interested in purchasing within the next six months. Attributed to this program, sales were $65.00 per unit sold, sum the company saw much lower than their other promotional programs that are developed.
After this success, ITC designed and executed a campaign by phone for the sale of subscriptions to the magazine World. We used a carefully selected list of clients, and again a carefully studied sales presentation. Sales by phone occurred three times subscriptions than direct mail.

Telemarketing of input

Much emphasis has been given to how to address the calls that are received in the companies, as a result either of normal advertising campaigns or direct response campaigns. Many companies, on the other hand, considered that answer the phone does not form part of the marketing of a company. In fact it is. Companies who do not care that their phones are well answered, are losing incredible business opportunities, and damaging its image.
The receptive telemarketing has had a huge spread, from 1981, and installation of the numbers 800 and 900, which have reversed the billing of calls, those who receive them. The centers began as an economical way to provide service to customers, who did not know how to manipulate equipment every day more sophisticated.
Answers centers installed by companies such as General Electric, AT & T, calls to their 800 numbers, quickly went into a powerful marketing tool. Information that customers provided, duly registered in a data bank, these companies provided important information to design new products, increase sales, and get referrals (evidence) with great potential of purchase.

Output telemercado

The main advantages of the telemarketing of output, are basically cost, coverage, and productivity. Personal sales are every day more expensive. Considering this factor, for many organizations it is difficult to maintain a personal sales team covering the potential market through visits. On the other hand, the increase of competition, makes that companies have to reduce their costs, which prevents them from maintaining personal sales teams to cover the potential market. Volumes and some customers purchasing rotation does not justify personal visits.
Cover the market potential, through personal visits, is made more difficult for different reasons, such as the growth of cities, increase of vehicles and traffic problems generated by it. The companies in turn have increased product lines, to increase the potential market. This situation has created a gap between the potential market and the vendors ability to meet that market. Companies have difficulties to cover potential markets, only to personal sales base.
Personal sales occupy an important place within all companies marketing mixture. But, it is no longer possible by cost and coverage, resorting to personal sales to visit to all potential customers.
The telemarketing is considered an industrialization of communication services persuasive is one of the many ways that it is acquiring the so-called industrialisation of "services".

Telemarketing campaigns

Like any activity, a telemarketing campaign is prepared and discussed carefully, to ensure success. The planning phase is essential to ensure positive results. All the elements that can influence the results must be carefully analyzed and prepared.
Many general managers believe that only hire vendors and provide them with the list of prices is enough to get sales. It was true some years ago, when market conditions were soft, today is a very different situation.
Knowledge deep product, training in sales techniques, understanding of goals, level of achievement, constant motivation, monitoring and timely assistance, are factors that must be taken into account.
Efficient Visual AIDS, constant study of responses to the objections filed by customers, care of difficult cases, margin for negotiation on prices, should be considered in advance.

Strong telemarketing points

Interactive: The telemarketing is the only means in the field of marketing that establishes a dialogue between the sender and the receiver of the same, anyone can talk on the phone, but communicate by phone requires a great deal of creativity.
A phone conversation should be a dialogue and not a monologue spoking, we went to people with name and surname that want to be heard and recognized, hence the importance of a good phone argument.
Flexible: In contrast to other media in the field of direct Marketing, in a telemarketing campaign we can customize communication based on the response we get.
Measurable: In each phase of the campaign, and by comparing the results obtained with the previously stated objectives, you can control the development, analyzing the benefits, point out mistakes and modify the planning for the following phases.
Agile: An action of telemarketing can be implemented in a matter of time, and the pace of the campaign will be marking according to the response obtained and the needs of the customer.
The telemarketing advantages:
You FADES in his seminar (1992) summarizes the potential benefits of the telemarketing in the following:
Decrease in selling expenses: replace personal visits to the seller without result with telephone calls (this does not mean replacing the seller). Substantially decreasing selling expenses.
Increase profits: as a result of to expand sales territories coverage at a low cost by phone, regarding the sending of a seller at the market.
Improve customer service: through frequent and well planned use of the phone is improved service to customer.
Ensure that visits that sellers have potential: telemarketing Department provides to the seller a list of potential customers already classified and with the profile of the customer, so he visit them.
Optimize the outcome of advertising: optimizes the advertising of the company when to publish an advertisement, called companies and will poll them if you've seen the ad and is used to invite them to buy the product.
He is done to measure whether this advertising reaching the target product group to take the data of the calls received by the advertising. Telemarketing can also optimize advertising by taking data from customers and classify them.
-Reactivate lost or inactive accounts.
-Solve problems of other departments of the company with customers:
You can order to respond and clarify issues or poorly understood, and make a report of the same to settle such situations and return something positive and productive for both parties. Many companies referred to as Center of attention to customer.
• Allows immediate contact with the customer.
The main advantages of the telemarketing Kotler are:
• Selectivity: It allows to reach the potential customer.
• Flexibility: It allows to know the customer.
• Custom: Direct contact with the prospect.
• Interactive: It's a conversation where it is allowed to know the client's opinion.

Disadvantages of the telemarketing:

Carrillo and Liu about the disadvantages of the telemarketing exposed:
The telemarketing is not a cure for all the problems of marketing. If a product or service fails because it does not satisfy the needs of the consumer, the telemarketing will be so unsuccessful for marketing it like any other tool used.
To make the telemarketing successful you must fully integrate the company marketing mix. For new products can telemercadear it is necessary that the client knows it widely, so it is recommended to use advertising, direct mail, etc. before the telemarketing.
The telemarketing is not effective for any prospect or company, depends on the objectives that this arises and the products marketed. The telemarketing to consumers is more difficult because people consider the telemarketing as an invasion to privacy and become reluctant to answer the representative of the telemarketing calls.
The telemarketing as a means of marketing and sales is affected by the quality of his administration and by the degree of commitment granted by the company.
Telemarketing programs often fail due to lack of administrative support, poor planning and the lack of experienced professionals.
Some other disadvantages of the telemarketing are as follows:
• Do not allow long dialogues.
• Can be inconvenient at times.
• You lose the visual phase of communication.


Theories about the behavior of the consumer | Definition

The field of Psychology includes multitude of theoretical approaches to study human behavior. Making it easy to marketing, to understand the behavior of people as seen in the following theories:

Learning theories about behavior

Theoretical psychology and applied differ in many points; but the main difference between that holds that the behavioral theories are the key to understanding human behavior, and those who defend the psychoanalytic theories proposed by Sigmund Freud.
The theoretical behavioural tend to be more practical and eclectic in their methods. None of the approaches have generated psychological tools with practical marketing applications.

Theories about the stimulus and response.

This type of theory, holds that learning occurs when a person responds to a stimulus and is rewarded for responding correctly or punished for giving a wrong answer. The first theories of this type of stimulus - response (e-r) were proposed by Pavlov, a Russian scientist who demonstrated that it was possible to make a dog to generate saliva when a stimulus that is conditioned, as, for example, meat powder, and not conditioned stimulus, were presented in the proper sequence i.e., anyone who does not normally cause response, contemporary psychologists have perfected and later modified the theories.
In the practical applications of marketing for this observation appreciated in repetitive advertising, designed to strengthen the purchasing habits.

Cognitive learning theories

Cognitive theorists believe that some aspects such as attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of persons, mentally combine to generate certain knowledge of a situation. According to the cognitivists, brain or central nervous system is the dominant element. In the majority of cases, cognitive learning theories reject the theories advocated by the conductualistas of stimuli of stimuli and responses of stimuli and responses, strict, tarring them as too mechanical. On the other hand the conductualistas reject the "mentality" of cognitive things. They insist that the behavior is visible and measurable, and believe that his theory is the practical approach to study Psychology.
Example: Consumer attitudes influence the purchasing behavior, point where the cognitive theory into action. Although a conductualista would seek relations of stimulus and response in the location of shopping, the cognitivist attributed the buying habits to the use of past experience and to a set of specific attitudes. The firmly-held attitudes tend to avoid that people pay attention to conflicting stimuli. In a marketing situation, such stimuli are competitors sales and advertising efforts.
Ordinarily a very persuasive sales advertising is required to change the attitude of a person with respect to a product or service provided by prior satisfaction. For example, it is very difficult to change the preference for food brands. There will be no changes in the preferences of brands, but even after customers potential have tried other products, so food retailers working hard to mislead potential customers to try other products. The techniques of reducing prices and give discount coupons have been effective, but once the potential customer purchases a competitive product, it should be better than he had been using or not, shall not be registered a lasting change in the purchasing behavior.

Gestal learning theory.

This theory is based on the perception, experience and an orientation towards specific goals. Psychologists who defend this theory believe that individual perceives a complete situation rather than assimilate particular elements of it. Therefore the whole, is something else that the simple sum of the elements that compose it, because people tend to organize the elements of a situation and then add others from past experience, making them experience it greater than the sum of individual perceptions, i.e., if a certain significant keys may be involved something more than what occurs in a situation.
EJ. If a tooth brushes announcer want to imply that the dentists approved the product, the use of a person dressed as a dentist, is enough to convey this message. The implication is clear, even without stating that the person is a dentist or provide a dental office setting.

Psychoanalytic theories of learning

Based on the original work done by Sigmund Freud, psychoanalytic theories holds that people are born with instinctive biological needs that rarely are socially acceptable. As the person matures and learns that those wishes cannot be satisfied in a direct way, looking for other means of satisfaction, therefore, Freud spoke of sublimation, substitution and other aspects to explain why people behave as it does.
One of the main benefits derived from psychoanalytic theory is the work done in the investigation of the motivations, the researchers are able to increase the chances of success of a product or service, before making a substantial investment, resorting to the analytic theory, as well as some practical methods to discover the appropriate motivations.


The concept of motivation is an aspect that is hotly debated since many theoretical perspectives. However if it is considered as a necessity stimulated, becomes a concept accessible and useful for marketing personnel. Wake up a need creates a situation of motivation with inherent tensions that need to be resolved. Needs do not become motivators but until the individual is aware of the situation. For example, if a person does not feel hunger will not it feel motivated to eat. and on the other hand if you are hungry you will eat practically anything, if you have enough hunger; but in the absence of a biogenic need, the appeal of psychologically-derived motives determines that brands will be chosen, that products will be used, etc. This is known as learned or culturally induced reasons.


The perception is the interpretation of the feeling that are the raw data received by a subject, through their senses (spur), based on their physical attributes, its relationship with the surrounding environment and the conditions prevailing in the individual at a given time.
The elements that mostly contribute to the process of perception are past experiences, attitudes, characteristics of the stimulus and the characteristics of the personality of the individual.
For example; to select the appropriate stimulus, the merchant must know as much as possible about the target market. It should be remembered that the perception is selective and that each individual ride characteristics that determine the level and the amount of this selectivity. On a general scale, a new sports car, means fun, joy and/or position to its new owner; but it also means a Commission for the seller who made the sale. So it is important that marketing employees are aware of the way in which each market will respond.


Terminology of the sales styles | Definition

Synonym of transaction-oriented sale
"Hard sale"
"My way or the highway of sales"
"Manipulative sales"
"Traditional sales"
"Sale by accession"

Synonym of sale the client relationship-oriented
"Selling in collaboration"
"Not manipulative sales"
"Consulted sale"
"Sale solve - problems"
"Soft selling"


Use the time of seller | Definition

The customer's contact
Planning of sales contacts
Hopes in the trips
Some meetings
What other examples are there?

How marketers use their time



(service calls (5.3 hours))



Timeout / travel

(8.5 hours)



Administrative tasks (7.2 hours)



Sales by phone (11.6 hours)



sales face to face (14.3 hours)
Source: Christen Heide, Dartnell´s 29th Sales Force Compensation Survey 1996-97


Brand value | Definition

Brand value is the value that has acquired a trademark throughout his life. It can be calculated by comparing expected future revenue from a product branded with one similar income without mark. This calculation is as much about. You can understand attributes tangible, functional (e.g.: detergency double or half of fat in the product) and intangible, emotional (e.g.: 'the brand for people with style and good taste')
It can be a positive or negative value.
• Positive when you have a history of effective advertising that has managed to meet and even exceed the expectations of customers.
• The negative is usually the result of bad management of brand.
The positive value of a mark can constitute an effective barrier to entry to potential competitors. The greater the value of a company's brand, greater are the chances that used a branding strategy of family rather than a single brand strategy. This is because family brand leverages the assets accumulated by the brand throughout his life. This makes new product launches initiatives with a lower risk and lower cost.


Sustainable competitive advantage | Definition

The competitive advantages are increasingly transient. The competitive advantages are still the "law of Nemesis", which means that every advantage holds itself in synthesis in its own destruction. If a company is leader in profitability in your industry, you will attract competitors who seek to neutralize it, match or exceed it. Very few advantages may maintain indefinitely, since over time, we'll see how they are being replaced by others. In some areas where competitive maneuvers occur more slowly, some companies manage to keep their benefits for a period of time relatively long. But in dynamic land, accelerates the process of creation and erosion of competitive advantages. The role of managers should not be then, devote himself to chase illusory static advantages impregnable, but to build organizations that continuously seek out new sources of competitive advantage.

How to create and maintain competitive advantages

Managers have traditionally used two approaches. One is based on the original model of generic competitive strategies Porter, which tells us that the advantages are derived from the creation of a defensible position in costs or in differentiation. The other, based the advantages in resources of the company, that is, assets and capabilities which has accumulated throughout its existence.
Both approaches are useful for determining what are our advantages and as we did to achieve them, but do not indicate us how to maintain them. The Manager must then understand that the creation and maintenance of competitive advantage is a continuous cycle. Examined the company at a given moment of his life, we find it equipped with a mix of resources. Some of these resources, consisting of assets and capabilities, can be equal to or less than the competition, while few others can be higher and they will be the source of competitive advantage. This position of competitive superiority, will have an effect on the market share (in English Market Share) in profits, but both will be continuously subject to erosion due to the maneuvers of the competition and changes in the market.
Our mission then consist of putting obstacles to competition to protect our current advantages, but these barriers are continuously attacked and eroded, we invest in new assets and capabilities.
Here are some examples:
• Invest in strengthening the brand image.
• Radically reconfigure existing production processes.
• Buy companies that are threatening our position today or buy to strengthen that position.
• Invest in new competitive land where we will have more differentiated and more complex products to prevent its rapid imitation.

Competitive advantages

She is used to define in terms of position or resources.

1. advantages of position

The advantages of position were originally defined in terms of low cost or differentiation. The most recent studies tell us that the leading companies in the market today used the disciplines of the value to define their competitive position.
To compare in a simplistic way the strategy of cost base versus the differentiation, we could also reach conclusion that these two generic strategies lead to competitive advantage by two different and usually incompatible roads.
Thinking thus leads us generally, as it is the case when we want to simplify things, to overlook strategic opportunities to maximize. There are companies, for example, that have prospered, offering high quality products and reducing costs. High quality has led them to achieve a greater market share and indirectly reduce costs due to the effect of the curve to the economies of scale and experience. Increasing the quality, they have also managed to reduce costs since they had less returns, lower repair costs and greater customer satisfaction. We have then that a company can be the leader in low cost and at the same time be very distinct.
Another problem with the oversimplification in the analysis of these generic strategies, is that we can consider that they refer to different things. As a result, generic strategies should not be parsed individually. What is nowadays recommended that we do with these two concepts of cost and quality, it is to integrate them under the concept of value for the customer. Customer value is the sum of the perceived benefits that he receives, the less costs perceived by the customer to purchase and use a product or service. By focusing on the value for the customer, we begin to see the advantages of position as a set of disciplines of the value.
Value disciplines, are those that consistently use a layout oriented towards the external environment of the company in order to make sense of the generic strategies.
These disciplines are as follows:
Operational excellence, where the company provides a consistent quality at the best price. This accomplishes this via the standardization of systems of doing business in such a way that minimizes the cost and difficulties facing the customer to purchase the product. Examples of this discipline departments Wal-Mart stores chain and airline Southwest Airlines, both in the United States.
Response to the client, where the company puts the emphasis on a careful elaboration and adaptation of products and services to increasingly demands more of its customers. An example is Merrill-Lynch.
Performance Superior, where the company is continuously innovating and producing a steady stream of leading products from the technological point of view or when is distinguished by its ability to highlight the uses or applications that the customer gives to its products. They are examples of Gillette, Sony and 3 M.
2. resources advantages: superior assets and distinctive capabilities
Higher assets are resources of quality the company has accumulated over the years and usually have physical form and them can count and give an economic value and tangible. In the analysis of the competition are important, because they enable us to make direct comparisons with competitive assets.
Distinctive capabilities are all a mixture of skills and knowledge that the company has obtained in the exercise of their activities by moving its products and services along the value chain, using their assets and in their continuous learning and improvement process.
These capabilities differ, they are not tangible and assets are so immersed in the culture, systems and procedures of the company which cannot be negotiated or imitated. These capabilities can not be perceived, because its main component which is knowledge, is dispersed among at least four dimensions:
• Skills and knowledge accumulated by the employee.
• The existing management systems for creating and managing knowledge.
• The knowledge involved in technical systems, including software, data networks, and formal procedures.
• The values and the standards which establish that information should be obtained, that type of information is the most important and how we are going to use.
Distinctive capabilities are difficult to develop and therefore imitate. A company can know what hardware and software that your competitor uses. You can even buy one like, but you cannot copy the ability of its competitor behind the obvious. Back can be, for example, a whole system of logistics, with processes that are not visible and involving experience, skills and knowledge of different individuals and units that comprise the Organization of our opponent.
"Chains of stores by departments such as Wal-Mart and Target in the United States, are not saved any secrets on the strategies and methods that apply to succeed, because they know for certain that most of its competitors are simply not able to adopt their approach."
says Darrell Rigby, director of consulting firm Bain & Co.


Advantages and drawback of media | Definition

The following information will help you make good decisions about your advertising. Always remember that: each message should be individually and independent... what works in a medium specific does not mean that it will work always and in all media.
What you see below is a list of alternatives that may be considered when selecting the advertising media. Remember, there is a right or wrong way. This will depend on your message, your audience, objectives and your budget.
Direct shipments
Broadcast television
Cable TV

Advantages of the newspaper

• Newspapers continue to be the primary means for advertisers in terms of the number of dollars spent.
• Newspapers which are published daily reach a wide and diverse audience.
• The audience is concentrated in specific regions.
• Consumers are looking for ads in newspapers; Thus, they are more receptive to posts in that environment.
• The essence of newspapers is the publish information of events that will happen immediately since they publish events to carry out daily, weekly or monthly. This allows you to develop your message according to events that will happen in key moments, either, the weekend or the season to pay the contributions.
The immediacy of newspapers which are published daily allows you to predict the ideal time to publish your message within a predictable temporary scheme newspaper on Tuesday will be read Tuesday, so that you can know when the readers will see your message.
Space has no boundaries in the newspapers. You can write long messages, or only a few short lines. Larger ads, will cost it more.
Newspapers have managed to make progress in terms of their technological capabilities to provide a reproduction of pictures and colors of best quality. In addition, they may already offer a bigger and better range of colours. (See the reproduction of photos section below.)
Readers are actively involved in reading the newspaper. The fact that should hold it and turn its pages produces greater attention in the ads.

Disadvantages of the newspaper

It is not a good medium for specific audiences. Even if you want to direct your message only to owners of bicycles, the message will reach everyone. However, some dailies publish editions aimed at specific regions, allowing you to advertise your message in the edition covering the desired geographic area. For example, you could publish the announcement of his pizzeria home deliveries in the Northwest news section which is distributed exclusively in the Northwest section of the city.
Although modern technology has improved a lot, the reproduction of photos has been considered for a long time a disadvantage in the use of newspapers as a means of advertising. The problem lies in the fact that newspapers should use cheap paper to keep their costs low. Nobody wants to pay $2.95 for the daily newspaper. Cheap paper does not absorb ink as well as better quality paper, which adversely affects the clarity of the pictures.
Many advertisers consider that the newspaper is the best means to reach local audiences. This creates a lot of competition within the newspaper and results in the agglomeration of ads.
The newspaper is not the most popular for certain ages. Its greatest strength lies in the so called Baby Boomers. Many newspapers have begun to publish sections aimed at children and adolescents, but its effectiveness is still to be seen.
Newspapers are static and two-dimensional. The advent of electronic newspapers could change this in the future.

Advantages of magazines

Magazines are printed on good quality paper which allows an excellent quality in colors and photo playback.
The selection of a specific audience is much easier. Guess who reads Golf Pro, Old House Restoration, Teen Romance, U.S. News & World Report, and Biker s World... In addition, some journals have their own reputation. They can be considered an authority in the area of specialty, or they can be prestigious, fashionable, reliable, etc., and this reputation may reflect on advertisers in the magazine.
By its design and format, the magazines are more flexible, ads may contain many colors or perfume samples. They may you have parts that move, pop ups, or have some sort of microchip with sound. Photos may be indented or can be folded to be larger. For the advertiser, this means a greater number of creative options that attract the reader's attention.
The magazines have greater permanence. People saved them to read them carefully in his spare time. When the magazine is read during the weekend, the reader is therefore more rested, more receptive.

Disadvantages of magazines

The cost of the magazines is much higher as a result of the quality of production.
The reader to your ad exposure is not so predictable. Most of the magazines contain articles and not breaking news; Therefore, read these and your ad exposure may be delayed to lose its validity.
The closure of magazines is a month or two before the date of publication. This means that the owner must work in the art of the ad much before as seen by your audience, which represents a constraint for those advertisers who are waiting until the last moment to make the decision on their ads.

Advertising on the Internet

There are two main forms of advertising on the Internet:
Enter your page or website with major search engines so that visitors can find it quickly.
Paute the headpiece of your advertising on another page that has a lot of traffic (visitors). The headbands allow visitors to make a bridge to your page to mark them.

Advantages of the Internet

Cost efficient. Costs are independent of the size of the audience. For example, the cost will be the same no matter how many people visit your page. (You must check the capacity of your Internet service provider to meet the volume of prospective visitors.)
Advertisers can target specific audiences by placing their headpieces in pages of related topics. For example, if you want to direct your message to people who are looking for accurate information, you can purchase advertising space in pages related to that category in the major search engines (Yahoo, Infoseek, Lycos, WONET-The Women's Online Network-, etc.). As well as a person who sells organic herbs by mail can advertise on organic food or gourmet food categories. The structure that these pages are catalogued allows you direct your audience by geographic location or related areas of interest.
Messages can be updated quickly and easily.
Ads on the Internet can be interactive. You may request an immediate response of the reader, can take orders or answer questions instantly.
The headbands run with the frequency that you select. The Internet is always available.
Advertisers on the Internet can reach a global audience. In addition to language barriers, anyone anywhere in the world can get information about their products or services.

Disadvantages of the Internet

Advertising on the Internet should not be seen in a vacuum. It should be one component of your online marketing strategy.
Although the popularity of the Internet is on the rise, it is difficult to verify the results of advertising through this medium.
The range of Internet advertising costs vary considerably. The most advisable is to make a comparison of pages with a high frequency of visits to determine the best way to invest their money.

Advantages of direct marketing

It allows you to direct your message to a well-specific audience. You can select a street or all the residents of a city. You can direct your message to all first year university students or those who study in a University in particular and that possess a car. You can make shipping to all customers or only buy to an average of $25.00 each visit to your establishment. The possibilities are as vast as the accuracy of your list allows.
It is a fairly expensive way. However, if it concentrates on only customers with large possibilities of purchase, it can be quite cost effective.
Messages can be customized, which can be an additional attraction.
You can assess its effectiveness. If you compare the number of responses with the shipments, you can set the percent of response. If it includes coded coupons or response cards can trace exactly who responded and from where.
Recipients are actively involved. People read your correspondence when they want it. Thus, you will have the undivided attention of your potential customer.

Disadvantages of the direct marketing

Unsolicited bids upset many people and react in a skeptical way before its validity.
The average correspondence pitch into the trash without being read is on the rise.
This advertising method requires constant maintenance of the lists. Many advertisers don't want to worry about keeping them up to date. However, if the lists are not a day you may lose is money in correspondence that never expected vessel. Another problem: If the correspondence contains a message that has lost validity, the name is misspelled, or the person to whom it is directed has died, could offend and up to annoy the recipient.
There are environmental groups opposed to the waste of materials caused by this type of shipment.
It is quite expensive.

Advantages of the Radio

The radio and your messages move with your audience. They can be heard at work, on the beach, in the bath, in the dentist Chair or in stores.
The radio message can be reached without its container is consciously seeking it. The listener does not have to be aware of your message.
The radio allows selection by group-based approach:
Geography, listeners are concentrated in the area defined by the signal of the station
Time the audience changes according to the time of day, morning, noon or night.
Format-can reach different audiences according to the format, whether it be rock, blues, classic, soft music.
A wedge in radio can advertise without having to plan it in advance. This opens the possibility for advertisers react to momentary events, such as a heat wave or an offer from a competitor.
The message can be transmitted with the frequency that you select (or as permitted by the format of the station). For example, you can keep a daily baby cot for one year or twice per hour per day.
The radio has a local attraction. You can link your message to local events or the time, to give emphasis on the relevance of your message.
The message has a voice. It can be friendly, serious, sad, can have a tone of humor or macho, or it fits to your message. Above all, the voice can have a conversational tone, a quality that makes it easy to listen to and understand.
The purchase of radio time is cost-efficient.
The production of radio spots is simple. Only send a summary, a full libretto or a list of topics, the station can develop wedge. Most of the stations produce their cot without additional cost.

Disadvantages of Radio

The radio does not contain Visual. Do not use to get information about a product that the listener is not yet known. Some ads used the strategy of the "theater of the mind" to create very effective visual images in the minds of listeners--as when you listen to open a can and listen to how someone takes the drink. Be careful, this alternative requires professionals who achieve the effect, which can cost you quite.
Some radio audiences are fragmented, if 4 stations whose audience is defined as women 25-49 years, you would need to advertise in all of these, which may represent a high cost for you.
The agglomeration of scheduled radio ads can be quite large, which means that your ad may have first, second, sixth or tenth position in the block's ads, which distracts the attention of the listener.
There is a print publication, your ad is transmitted and then lost. The owner can not make sure that the potential client has succeeded in scoring since phone who doesn't know when will return to repeat the announcement. (However, there are ways in which you can resolve this problem.)
Cribs produced by stations using station talent. It's free, and that is very good, but you risk is that all the ads sound like. This similarity can distract attention from the listener or confuse it with the one from another advertiser.

Advantages of the open TV

Broadcast television is the type of transmission that you get for free. It is commonly related to large chains.
TV offers all the alternatives Visual, sound, motion, color, and special effects that you can afford. It is a powerful medium with a great visual impact.
The message of the TV can be reached unless its container is consciously seeking it. Viewers do not have to be involved in the process to receive the message.
With television you can select based on focus group:
Geography-A arrives where the signal. (Remember to check if the station can also be seen in others through Cable TV.)
Time - the time in which the various focus groups watching TV varies.
Programming - certain programs or types of programs appeal to certain groups. Note ads that are passed in a program in particular. In so doing, could get an idea of who is watching the program. However, for a decision informed, based on studies of audience, we advise you to consult a media buyer or a TV sales representative.
Chains - some chains, such as Nickelodeon and ESPN have a few audiences easily identified.
The prestige and glamour of the TV can enhance your message. Some consider it the great League of advertising. Think of someone who saw the owner of the grocery store in the neighborhood in a cradle of TV - it will tell you to others and to the owner: "I saw it on TV..."
Television is expensive, but you can select your audience, is cost-efficient.
The ads may appeal to emotions and empathy of viewers. You can see happiness or punishment in a person's eyes, you can hear a voice choppy by the headache or the proud parent voices, you can see with surprise or skepticism is the demonstration of a product.
Television is seen in homes, where people feel safe and are not exposed to what others may think. If the viewer has been worried about some kind of pain, and you have a message about how to cure it, you will need an attentive listener, and, possibly, a client.
The TV advertising can be very effective in helping to create an image (LINK) for your product or company.

Disadvantages of the open TV

To advertise on the TV you have to produce the cradle, or hire a producer. The costs of production together with the costs of the guideline make this alternative extremely expensive for many advertisers.
The TV can seem complicated for small advertisers. However, if you think that it is the right medium for your message, check with the station or with an agency of advertising or production.
Messages can be cut by the Viewer, either because you change channel or lowers the volume of the TV.
Viewers who have grown up with television and cinema special effects are rather skeptical and even cynical about what they see. They are not easily impressed
Although the TV can be focused or selected by geography, time, program and chain, it is still a massive communication medium with an extremely wide scope. Unlike broadcast television, Cable TV is a more specialized means and is most effective to reach specific groups.
Audiences are increasingly more fragmented by the large number of channels in existence, and by the options on the TV, such as interconnection with computers, video games, and by renting movies. The era in which the likelihood that your ad would be a 30 or 40 percent is a thing of the past.
The spaces for the placement of advertisements in the programming are increasingly full. Your ad may be the first, third or tenth, which can affect the level of attention of the Viewer.
Announcements made with a low-budget production can detract from those produced with a big budget. Ads that look friendly, small or family may have its appeal, however, do not accept mediocre productions to reduce costs. No saving is worth the damage that can make a mediocre production image or perception of the product.
The purchase of TV time is quite complicated. Use the help of an expert, which add costs to your budget, will also result in savings.

Advantages of Cable TV

You can buy time in programs that have a specific audiences. You can buy an ad in a program about caring for infants to reach young mothers, or you can buy an ad in a program about sewing, wallpaper from walls, gardening, repairing cars, local musicians, book reviews, etc. This way you can reach some audiences more clearly defined that if bought time in a program of a chain with higher "ratings" and a higher price.
The cost is lower because it has one smaller audience.
Production costs can be more readily accessible.
You can find most innovative people. Production of cable equipment hire writers, producers and technicians young people wishing to acquire experience and are willing to work with you. In the majority of cases they are recent graduates and have knowledge of the latest techniques and trends.
Since the Cable reaches households connected, you can know exactly who is going to see your message. These homes can be concentrated in local regions. The case of the superestaciones is different since it reached a huge audience and charge accordingly.

Disadvantages of Cable TV

Almost all of its advantages are its reverse:
Limited scope.
They may have a few inexperienced production equipment.
Reach specific customers, but does not reach potential customers.
Cable TV as such attracts a lot of viewers, but the fact that it provides a lot of selections, audiences are very fragmented, and viewers are constantly changing channel.

Advantages of transit advertising

Transit advertising includes ads placed on buses, subways, entrances to subways, trains and taxis.
The exposure time is extended if the ad is placed inside the vehicle.
Frequency - the number of times that the container is exposed to your message will depend on whether you use that method of transportation frequently. For example, the person can use the same train 10 times a week in his daily route to work.
Ads placed in the buses and taxis are viewed by a large and diverse audience. It could be said that this is a captive audience if it takes into account the number of people literally stops his car behind a bus, or pedestrians waiting to pass the bus.
The message can have an immediate effect since probably the person using mass transportation goes shopping, dining or entertainment somewhere.
Ads can be targeted geographically since you know who's going to be in a specific area at a specific time.
They can be directed to a specific lifestyle. Everything will depend on the neighborhoods through which passes the route of transportation.
This method of advertising tends to be cheap both in absolute and relative terms.

Disadvantages of transit advertising

The size of your ad is limited to the size of the frames or places in which it is placed.
Users of mass transportation are not very receptive to your messages or are so accustomed to them that they no longer see them.
It is difficult to go to a specific group. Your ad will reach a lot of people, many of whom are not even potential customers.
It can be that there are no means of mass transportation in your area. Many cities or towns have no subway or bus service.
The atmosphere of the underground trains, buses or other mass transportation system may not be suitable for the image of the product.
The circumstances can damage your message: a muddy bus, a train with graffiti, or an entrance to the underground train destroyed, are not the best place to display your ad.

Advantages of outdoor advertising

The gigantic and colorful ads attract attention. By using this medium, his message should be short and to the point.
Your ad will have impact. Technology has opened up the possibilities for innovations and curiosities such as ads that speak, move, smoke, change in the display of the "Billboard Music Awards", etc. Giant balloons, "blow-ups", flags, banners, and other tools can be additional options. You can rent what is called a "rolling billboard" on the back of a truck that passes through a specific path to make it where you want.
Your ad reaches a lot of people, many of whom see it repeatedly to take the same route every day.
Disadvantages of outdoor advertising
It is difficult to reach specific audiences. The only thing that can be done is to identify a neighborhood.
Creativity is limited by space.
It is difficult to measure its effectiveness.
It can be damaged by the weather, or be vandalized.
The costs can be very reasonable, if maintained for a very long time. However, innovations can raise these considerably.
Extracted from the website: Liderazgo y Mercadeo
This is a translation published for educational purposes and may contain errors or be inaccurate.