Retail, Neuromarketing, market niche, Outlet, pamphlet | Concepts of Marketing

Concepts of Leadership and Marketing

Table of contents

1 retailer
2. marketing myopia
3. models of consumer behavior
4 models of Porter's 5 forces
5 Neuromarketing
6 market niches
7 Outlet
8 pamphlet
9 sponsorship
10. Marketing plan



The dealer retail, retailer or retailer is trading company that sells products to the final consumer. They are the last link in the distribution channel, which is in contact with the market.
They are important because they can alter, braking or enhancing, the actions of marketing and merchandising by manufacturers and wholesalers. They are capable of influencing sales and final results of items that sell.
The retail purchase products in large quantities to manufacturers or importers, well directly or through a wholesaler. However, sells single units or small quantities to the public in general, usually in a physical space called shop.
Some laws define the retailer as: "one who is located in the penultimate phase of the marketing chain, who transfers goods or provides services to consumers located in the last phase of the chain, be these ordinary taxpayers or non-value added tax type. Transfers only refer to finished products and not raw materials or inputs for its preparation".



Marketing myopia is not necessarily a common concept in the business world. Many people based their decisions of company in circumstances occurring at the time. They don't think what will probably happen to your industry in the future. This vision in the short term is so common that people often say that they cannot predict the future with guarantees. And they are right, of course. But precisely the not being able to predict it clearly does not prevent us to use all the wide range of forecasting techniques available to estimate future circumstances as well as we can.
Marketing myopia is related to the fact of defining the relevant market in terms of product and does not need to meet. If you look only at competitors producing the same good and no attention is paid to other companies, other industries, producing goods to meet the same need, is incurrre in a mistake of marketing myopia. Products are not sold by the good in itself but by the role and the need to meet.
The term was coined by Thoeodore Levitt in the 1960's.
People oriented marketing strategy, various forecasting techniques and the value of the customer lifecycle escape of marketing myopia. This can facilitate the use of long-term objectives (sometimes at the cost of sacrificing short term objectives).



Models of consumer behavior

The study of consumer behavior is also sometimes extremely complex because of the multitude of variables in question and its tendency to interact with each other and a mutual influence. Models of consumer behavior are designed to deal with the complexity. Models are used to organize our ideas concerning consumers in a consistent, all to identify the relevant variables, to discover its fundamental features and specify them as variables relate to each other.
A model consists of three major sections:
-External environmental variables influencing behavior.
-Individual determinants of behaviour
-The buyer decision process

External variables

The external environment is composed of six specific factors: culture, subculture, social class, social group, family, and personal factors.
-Culture: It includes knowledge, belief, art, moral standards, laws, customs and any other capacity and habits acquired by man as a member of a society. It is the basis of many values, beliefs and actions of the consumer. For example, the importance attached by the people of our society at the time and punctuality is the bace to the positive reactions from buyers to market offerings as a franchise of fast-food outlets, quick boxes in supermarkets and quartz watches.
-Subculture: it highlights the segments of particular culture possessing values, customs and other forms of conduct which are specific to them and which distinguish them from other segments that share the same cultural heritage. These aspects of singularity sometimes have important implications in the knowledge of the consumer and in the development of good marketing strategies. Pays special attention to the subcultures that are distinguished by their age and ethnic characteristics.
-Social Estraficacion: Refers to the process whereby, the members of a society are classified with each other in different social positions. The result is a hierarchy that often is called a set of social classes. Those who fall into a particular social class tend to share beliefs, values and behavior patterns. They also tend to be associated more closely among themselves than with members of other social classes. The values, desires and interactions that arise in various groupings affect significantly the consumers. They affect the basic factors of belonging to a group, the choice of a neighborhood, the appreciation of certain lifestyles and places where are preferred to make purchases.
-Social Group: Can be conceived as a set of people who have a sense of affinity resulting of a mode of interaction among themselves. These groups meet a wide range of functions, one is the influence that the members of the group can exercise on the Group and it is important from the point of view of the behavior of consumers, i.e., the Group contributes to convince and guide the values and behavior of the individual an example of this is found in the interest in which college students displayed by the latest fashion and music. Another interesting aspect of social groups is the fact that contribute to provide to the public various forms of information capable of influencing the subsequent behaviour.
-Family: It is a special form of social groups characterised by numerous and strong personal interaction of its members. Of them influence in purchase decisions represented in area of great interest in the field of the behavior of consumers, in some cases, adopts decisions an individual with little influence from other members of the family. In other cases, the interaction is so intense that allegedly produced a joint decision and not limited to a mere mutual influence. Another aspect of the family influence on consumer behavior is the way in which stage of the life cycle of the family affects the purchase of certain products and services for example when you are newly married, married couples with children, etc.
-Personal factors: Marketers have been interested in the process of personal influence, which can be defined as the effects that an individual produces the communication with others. The personal influence affects the amount and type of information that buyers obtained with respect to the products. An important factor affecting the values, attitudes, evaluations of brand and interest in a product is also considered. The personal influence considerably affects the diffusion process through which a new product and service innovations are unveiled in the market. The personal influence is an important function of the opinion leaders are those people who people come looking for advice, opinion and suggestions when purchasing decisions are taken.
Other factors:
It is a general category that includes the variables that influence the consumer. An example might be the effect of mass media that are not included in any of the other categories, with the designation of situational variables. Summarizes many of these factors including the physical environment, the interpersonal environment, national events and the amount of cash available to the purchaser.

Individual determinants

These are variables that have an impact on the way in which the consumer passes through the decision process related to the products and services. The external environment is directed toward individual determinants, shows that individual stimuli do not directly affect consumers. On the contrary, they are modified by internal factors such as learning, personality, attitudes, motives and information processing. Between these variables and the decision-making process open circle denotes the great influence on the decision-making process and these variables denote the the great influence on the decision-making process.
The individual determinants are: personality and self concept, motivation and participation, processing of information, learning and memory and attitudes.
Personality and self concept: they offer the consumer an aspect central., they provide a structure for display a consistent pattern of behavior.
Motivation: They are internal factors that drive behavior, giving guidance that directs the activated behavior. participation refers to the relevance or importance that consumers perceive in certain situation of purchase.
Information processing: means activities that consumers carry out when they acquire, integrate and evaluate information. These activities generally require the active pursuit of information or its passive reception, focusing exclusively on certain parts of the information, integrate which has been object of our attention with the coming from other sources, and evaluate it with a view to making decisions. It also involved factors individual motivation, learning and attitudes.
Learning and memory: seeks to understand what consumers, how to learn learn and factors govern the retention of the material learned in the consumer's mind. Consumers purchase products and remember its name and features and also learn criteria for judging products, places where to buy them, skills related to problem-solving, tastes and behavior patterns. All that learning material that is stored in memory, exerts a significant influence on the way in which consumers react to each situation.
Attitudes: They govern the basic orientation of objects, persons, events and our activities.
Activities: Influence deeply in as Act consumers and their reaction to the products and services, as well as its response to communication that marketers prepare to convince them of that purchase their products.
However, the overall performance of the decision-making process can be interpreted thus: the subject has absorbed foreign stimuli, there will be a series of interactions between the internal variables. These interactions are finally resolved at a conduct the Act of selecting a product and brand, or service (purchase).

Decision-making process

The consumer behavior is defined as a mental process of decision and also as a physical activity. The action of the purchase is not more than a stage in a series of psychic and physical activities that takes place during a certain period. Some of the activities preceding the actual purchase; others are on the other hand, later. But as all have the virtue of influencing the adoption of products and services, they will be examined as part of the behavior we're interested in.
For example: assuming that a photographer, who usually buys a brand of film, suddenly decides to buy another brand of competition, while there has been no change in the quality of films or its price. Would this change of allegiance it obeys what?. Simply point out that their purchase behavior has changed does not help us to understand the situation. Perhaps the film of the competition has been widely recommended by a friend or perhaps photographer change of brand, because he thought that competition brand captured better the colors of a photo topic of interest. On the other hand its decision may be due to a general dissatisfaction with the results of its regular film or an ad for the brand from the competition.
So the decision-making process, described the decision-making process of the consumer regarding products and services. The basic steps of the process are the recognition of the problem, search and evaluation of information, purchase and post-purchase behavior. The process begins when a consumer recognises the existence of the problem that occurs when the remarkable difference between his situation and his concept of the ideal situation in his conscience. This can be made through the internal activation of a motive as hunger or you due to other variables such as social or situational factors. However, in one case action occurs only when the consumer receives a rather large discrepancy between the actual state and the ideal State.
And the consumer feels compelled to act and enters the stage which is to begin to look for information. This usually starts with an internal search, i.e. a review fast and unconscious memory in search of information and stored experiences that relate to the problem. This information consists of the beliefs and attitudes that have influenced consumer preferences for certain brands. Often the search is accomplished recognize a strong preference for the brand, producing then a regular purchase.
If the internal search does not provide sufficient information about the products or how to evaluate it, the consumer will continue a more decisive external search. It has contact as well with numerous inputs, called stimuli, which may come from the most diverse sources: ads, printed product presentations and comments from friends.
All informational stimulus measures is subject to information processing activities, of which the consumer uses to obtain the meaning of stimuli. This process consists of paying attention to available stimuli, infer its meaning and then save it in what is known under the name of short-term memory, which can retain briefly so that further processing is carried out.
In the phase of evaluation of alternatives, compares the information collected with the process of searching for other products and brands with the criteria or standards of judgment that the consumer has been developed. Where the comparison leads a positive evaluation, consumer will surely have the intention of buying the option receiving a more favourable assessment.
A purchase process normally comes after a strong purchase intent, this process consists of a series of options, including the type of store and brand or service to use. Later, the purchase gives rise to several results. One of them is the satisfaction produced by the experience of using the brand. Satisfaction will affect the beliefs of the individual related to the brand. Other results are the dissatisfaction and doubt after the purchase. Both can generate a more intense desire to get more information and influencing the subsequent recognition of problems. And is as well as the experiences after purchase in a way gives feedback at the stage of recognition of problems.



A popular approach to corporate strategy planning has been proposed in 1980 by Michael E. Porter in his book Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors.
The point of view of Porter is that there are five forces that determine the consequences of a market or some segment of this long-term profitability. The idea is that corporation must assess its objectives and resources against these five forces that govern industrial competition:

Threat of entry of new competitors

Market or segment is not attractive depending on if entry barriers are easy or not of franking by new participants that may come with new resources and capabilities to seize a share of the market.
The rivalry between competitors
For a corporation, it will be harder to compete on a market or in one of its segments where competitors are well positioned, are very numerous, and fixed costs are high, as it will constantly be faced with wars of prices, aggressive ad campaigns, promotions and new products entry.

Bargaining power of suppliers

A market or market segment will not appeal when the suppliers are very well organized Guild, have strong resources and can impose their conditions of price and size of the order. The situation will be even more complicated if inputs which supply are key for us, have no substitutes or are few and expensive. The situation will be even more critical if suit the company strategically integrate forward. (For an explanation of the concept of integration forward see the process of evolution of the planning strategic traditional).

Bargaining power of buyers

A market or segment will not be attractive when customers are very well organized, the product has several or many substitutes, the product is not very differentiated or is of low cost for the customer, allowing that it may make substitutions alike or at very low cost. Largest organization of older buyers are their requirements in terms of reduction of prices, highest quality and services and therefore the Corporation will have a decrease in utility margins. The situation is made more critical if organizations of buyers they should strategically integrate backwards. (For an explanation of the concept of integration back see the process of evolution of the planning strategic traditional).

Threat of substitute products entry

A market segment is not attractive if there are actual or potential substitute products. The situation is complicated if substitutes are more advanced technologically, or they can enter at prices lower by reducing the usefulness of the Corporation and industry margins.
For this type of traditional model, defense was to build barriers of entry around a fortress that had the Corporation and that allowed, by protecting that gave him this competitive advantage, for profits that then could be used in research and development, to finance a price war or to invest in other businesses.
Porter identified six barriers to entry that could be used to create a competitive advantage to the Corporation:

Economies of scale

It means to which possess them, since their high volumes allow you to reduce costs, make it difficult for a new competitor to enter with low prices. Today, for example, the fall of geographical barriers and the reduction of the life cycle of products, requires us to assess whether the search for economies of scale in local markets remains for us flexibility and makes us vulnerable against competitors more agile operating globally.

Product differentiation

It assumes if the Corporation difference and its product is strongly positioned, the incoming company to large investments to reposition his rival. Today the copy speed with which react competitors or their improvements to the existing product seeking to create the perception of a higher quality, erode this barrier.

Equity investment

It is considered that if the Corporation has strong financial resources you will have a better competitive edge over smaller competitors, it will allow you to survive longer than these in a war of wear, investing in assets that other companies cannot do, have a global reach or expand the domestic market and influence the political power of the countries or regions where they operate.
Today in most of the countries of the world have been enacted antitrust laws trying to at least in theory avoid the heavy concentrations of capital to destroy the smaller and weaker competitors. The creation of competitive barriers by a strong concentration of financial resources is a very powerful weapon if the Corporation is flexible in the strategy, agile in their tactical movements and conforms to anti-trust laws.
However its financial strength, the Corporation must take into account that smaller competitors can form alliances or resorting to strategies of niches. Sun Tzu here warns us:
"If an attack on the ratio of one against ten you have to compare, first, the sagacity and General contenders strategy..."

Disadvantage in costs irrespective of the scale

It would be the case when companies established in the market have advantages in costs that do not can be emulated by potential competitors regardless of its size and economies of scale. These advantages could be patents, control over sources of raw materials, the geographical location, Government subsidies, its experience curve. To use this barrier the dominant company used its advantage in costs to invest in promotional campaigns, in the redesign of the product to prevent the entry of substitutes or new technology to prevent competition from creating a niche.

Access to distribution channels

To the extent that the distribution channels for a product are well served by established firms, new competitors must persuade retailers that accept its products through price reductions and increase in utility for the channel margins, share costs of promotion of the Distributor, engage in greater promotional efforts at the point of sale, etc, which will reduce the incoming company profits. When it is not possible to penetrate existing distribution channels, the incoming company acquires its own distribution structure at its cost and even can create new distribution systems and appropriating part of the market.

Governmental policy

Government policies can limit or even preventing the entry of new competitors issuing laws, standards and requirements. Governments set, for example, standards on the control of the environment or on the requirements of quality and safety of products which require large investments of capital or technological sophistication and that alert in addition to existing companies on the arrival or the intentions of potential opponents. Today the trend is deregulation, the Elimination of subsidies and tariff barriers, to arrange with the influential supranational political and economic interest groups and in general to sail in a same economic ocean where financial markets and products are becoming more intertwined.
The strategy is increasingly dynamic. The sources of traditional advantages no longer provide long-term security. The traditional barriers to entry to the market are still low temperatures by players skillful and fast. The strength of a given strategy is not determined by the initial movement, but as well we anticipate and face to manoeuvres and reactions of competitors and the changing demands of customers over time.
The success of the strategy depends on that so effectively this can handle the changes that occur in the competitive environment. Globalization and technological change are creating new forms of competition; deregulation is changing the rules of competition in many industries; the markets are becoming more complex and unpredictable; flows of information in a strongly interconnected world it is allowing companies detect and competitors to react much more quickly.
This accelerated competition is telling us that it is not possible to wait by the action of the competitor for us to decide how we are going to react. The new battle cry is to anticipate and prepare to face any eventuality. Every movement of the competition must deal with a fast contramaniobra, since any advantage is merely temporary.

The SWOT analysis

FODA (in English SWOT), is the acronym used to refer to an analytical tool that will allow you to work with all about having your business, useful to examine their strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats.
This type of analysis represents an effort to examine the interaction between the particular characteristics of your business and the environment in which it competes.
The SWOT analysis has many applications and can be used by all levels of the Corporation and in different units of analysis such as product, market, product line of products, Corporation, company, division, strategic business unit). Many of the conclusions drawn as a result of the SWOT analysis, may be useful in the analysis of the market and marketing strategies that I designed and who qualify to be incorporated into the business plan.
The SWOT analysis should focus only toward the key factors for the success of your business. You must highlight the strengths and differential internal weaknesses to compare in an objective and realistic with the competition and the opportunities and key threats in the environment.



Neuromarketing is the application of techniques from neuroscience to the field of marketing, studying the effects of advertising in the human brain with the intention to get to predict consumer behavior.
Neuromarketing would make it possible to improve techniques and help understand the relationship between the mind and the conduct of the addressee, something that nowadays can be considered the most important challenge for the marketing and advertising resources. However, his detractors criticize that they could reach control decisions of customer consumption, and that these techniques can be considered invasive for the privacy of persons, to get to orient the personal emotions to products on the market. According to Le Monde, it would be the last version of subliminal perception, that would try to impregnate a brain of advertising unless the person can realize.
At the moment only DaimlerChrysler investigates these possibilities, but there are many other interested companies that do not recognize it.



The market not only in segments, but also in niche and ultimately can be divided into individuals. Insofar as a selling company subdivided a market by identifying more unique features, the segments tend to become a set of niches.
An attractive niche characteristics are as follows:
• Customers who constitute the niche have a set of needs, to some extent, unique and complex.
• They are willing to pay a premium to the company that best meets your needs.
• If it is to succeed, the mercadeologo specialist niches will have to specialize its operations; and it is not easy to attack the leader of the niche for competitors. (Kotler, P.).
The marketing specialists will no longer concentrate in large segments to find and refer to specific niches. In the niches there is wealth.

What to ask is when you build a niche market

1 people want what you're trying to sell you or you have to convince her to sell your product or service?
If your company needs to create the need, your effort will be very expensive. It is best to be sure that the need exists before entering the business.
2. to make niche marketing, the key is to specialize.
In what to specialize your business?
Is it going to specialize geographically?
By customer size?
In a single product, a type of product or a product line?
In quality and price?
In service?
In a single channel or multiple channels?
3 your potential market is poorly attended or unattended? In other words, have you competition in that market for your products or services?
Many other companies do exactly what you do?
You have the market fit for another company?
What is your level of risk?
How easy is entering this market?
What will be the likely reaction of the main competitors?
4 is your potential market big enough to consider it a segment of the market?
What is the size of your market goal and the purchasing power of customers?
If it is very small so profitable it is to take care of it?
5 is your company able to meet the geographical area of their niche?
How much will address it in terms of all the resources that will demand your coverage cost you?
Your organization to develop distribution channels or is easy to penetrate the existing ones?
Can your company establish a direct channel with your customers via phone, fax or computer?
6 is your niche easy to reach through its marketing and communications efforts?
Will you buy the niche through a very high investment of resources?
Is this cost effective purchase?
What are their costs, competition and customer?
What so high is the risk?
Would it be better to reframe your business?
7 what is what sets apart it, to be special and unique, from its competitors?
Will your company be an improved version of an existing product or going to present to the market a completely different option which complement or replace options that have current users? A clear differentiation and positioning are critical to your business. Not worth providing the same (price, service, technology) offered by others. But it has a clear strategy of differentiation and positioning will be part of the heap.
8 is your company able to refocus and redesign its niche when the circumstances require?
What is the probability that your niche is exhausted or is attacked?
Niche strategy must be flexible in such way that it can adapt to the changes that occur in the scenario of the market. The trend in the strategy of the companies is to have multiple niches to increase the chances of survival.

Advantages of market niches in times of crisis

The fierce competition enhances the more generalist is our project, i.e. the services and offers standard and broad target market is saturated and in that single segment it is possible to compete to force invest large expenditures on marketing in general and advertising in particular.
Therefore, the gist for entrepreneurs in Internet without large sums of capital is to create products or completely innovative services, and better yet, enter microsegmentos in the market where there are no competitors, or that have not yet reached the stage of maturity.
It's isolating elements of a market that is already dominated in its general scope but having even without conquering the total small-scale development, i.e. the application of market niches, which are nothing more than micromercados without conquering that the dominant competitor cannot reach or cover in optimal conditions for reasons of profitability or inability to offer variety of products or services.


Consider, to illustrate, in "real life": a local market for the furniture sector, which tends to be saturated and well covered with settlements of high, medium and low range, and even specialized in kitchen furniture. These stores have a full range of furniture and accessories. However its offer is extensive but not intensive, i.e. they have bedroom (up to 20 models as average), shelves, tables, etc, but always with a limited product range.

Let's take a hour ideas very segmented as establishments specialized in chairs that have become all the rage in the capitals. This, due to its intensive specialisation, are able to offer hundreds of models with localization and services after sales that would be impossible for a standard furniture store. They have conquered a niche market that was not covered and could not cover the large furnished.

Market niches in the network

Getting the market niches to Internet?, then the task boils down to define spaces of market not yet saturated, i.e. Services, sales or products still not dominated and not found en masse in the sites and portals of the network.
Specifically, at this point would be suicide by throwing a macroportal (although it is still done with the subsequent successive failure), but nobody has thought of, for example, creating a portal specializing in executives who don't have time to browse and want their private needs.
As noted, the idea is based on lower rungs on the market, making it easier to offer more content and service competitors wishing to cover all segments, making it impossible to specialisation and intensive in each service.
You should never forget the goal of profit, therefore isolating the portion of the market, it must be profitable, so it must be composed of interesting target audience from the economic point of view: the market should be reduced, but not revenues.
As a result, this can be a good solution to combat the current crisis, and on the other hand, ensure that Internet is well stocked products and services for all needs



Outlet call a business specializing in the sale of products of famous brands, whether defective or taken from the most recent catalogue of the producer.
Product, often of prestigious brands and quality, in particular, of famous fashion brands, goes to the outlet stores that is offered for sale at a price lower than usual. Thus, the producer can make a defective or discontinued products and consumers can purchase goods of different gender (clothes, design, food items, sports items, etc.) launched by famous brands getting a relevant discount on the previous price.
Sometimes, products are sold in the commercial space from the same manufacturer (sometimes given in management of a third party); most common is the formula of outlet shopping centre, or a commercial gallery, either brand or multi-brand, collected under the same structure with common services. The environments of the outlet are not different from normal malls or stores. Disposal and exposure of the merchandise, however, is much less apparent and the service is oriented to self-service. The rights of consumers in the field of the acquisition at an outlet store are usually protected by law as regards the price deals, transparency of discounts and defects of the merchandise, returns, warranty, etc. The phenomenon of the outlets is experiencing a phase of rapid growth in the demand and supply in recent years.



A pamphlet is a statement in the form of a booklet. It may consist of a simple piece of paper that is painted on both sides and edged with paint, folded in two, three, four or more parts, or it may simply consist of a few pages printed with lid.
The Royal Academy of the Spanish language (RAE) defines defamatory brief writing. Literary work of little aggressive expansion.
This being the most successful definition in Spanish language and referring to a controversial written, usually inspired by some made public and political content.
Its original format as well as the most common is the flyer, for easy printing, its low cost and its rapid spread.
UNESCO defines a pamphlet as any short book with requirements established in more than 5 but less than 48 pages, excluding hedges. If the page size is greater is a book.
The pamphlets can contain from information on kitchen appliances to data on computer science, advertising, religious or medical information. The leaflets are very important in marketing (which means marketing in English) simply because they are cheap and easy-to-reach customers. They have also been historically means to promote fights or political ideas, or campaigns of politicians in election times for similar reasons.
Individual pamphlets storage requires special care, since they can be easily folded, faded or torn, when they are in bad conditions of conservation or near hard cover books. For that reason, it is recommended to keep them in paper, inside a box of size considerable or supported vertically on a shelf.



Sponsor something is to keep an event, activity, person or organization providing money or other resources in Exchange for something, generally, advertising.
Sponsorship can be an agreement to swap advertising in Exchange for assuming responsibility for supporting a popular event or entity. For example, a company can supply equipment for a famous athlete or sports team in Exchange for brand recognition. Sponsor gains popularity as well as that the sponsored can save lot of money. This type of sponsorship is notorious in sports and television. Many companies want to change its logo to appear in the uniform of the team.
Recently, the sponsorship as an advertising technique more elegant than the mere issuance of an ad or placement of a fence has become widespread. By the same, is related to brand a company or product with a space radio, television, a sporting event or a cultural event. The rationale is that consumers plan to the positive qualities of the same brand or product sponsor. In the space using the formula "sponsored:" to present to the sponsor which in fact means that the company has paid a sum of money to change to show your brand or logo.
According to M.H.Westphalen and J.L. Piñuel in "Direction of communication", (1993), patronage and sponsorship designate the contribution of an enterprise to the celebration of an events, a person sustaining or the execution of a project that is alien to the normal activity of the company.
In 1991, a French decree defined patronage as a "bra financial or material, provided without direct consideration by the beneficiary, a play or a person for the exercise of activities showing a character of general interest". Sponsorship, on the other hand, is "a bra made a demonstration, a person, to a product or an organization with a view to get a direct benefit".
What seemingly makes the difference between the two activities is the nature of counterparts, thus, in the case of patronage should not lead to direct commercial benefits. In contrast, the sponsorship (sponsoring) develops an accurate, within the framework of the communications policies and strategic business strategy of the company. He sponsored, then yield necessarily benefits.
Pierre Sahnoun in his book Le sponsoring, mode d'emploi (1986), proposes the following definition: "sponsorship is a form of communication that allows linking directly to a brand or a company with an attractive event for a particular audience".
"Most of the time, patronage and sponsorship budgets are associated with different departments and they are managed by different sponsorship, which is objetivoaresponsables in the heart of the company: the increase in short term of the notoriety of the company and/or its products, patronage, Athis generally under the supervision of the Department of publicity." "that operates in a more qualitative way and a long-term improvement of the company image, is a matter of institutional communication, therefore, depends on affairs public, of the communication or the directorate-general".
While Cristian Antoine on "Patronage and Cultural sponsorship" (2005) "sponsorship" is permanent and organised practice through which a commercial organization or company allocates resources to partial or total financing of an event, a person or organization that acts in the field of sport, culture, the arts, and ecology, among others , waiting for an advertising benefit contributing to the elevation of his notoriety and image as consideration of its contribution. In practice it is very difficult to develop a clear and precise delimitation between this new mode of business communication and that ancient form of expression of individual philanthropy who was patronage. An eclectic overview between them will only conclude that the sponsorship is corporate and modern version of the ancient personal practice of patronage. If there are differences between them, they would be given by the desire to recover with mediate or deferred compensation over time, the amount delivered to subsidize the event in question.
For this author, the "Cultural sponsorship" would be that organized practice, through which a commercial organization or company allocates resources to the partial or total financing of an event in the field of symbolic content, and that to be upholstered in certain specific conditions, act as a support of a corporate message, then waiting for consideration of its contribution , a media contribution to the elevation of his notoriety and image in the environment. Antoine conceived it as a civic relationship that expresses the commitment between the company and the society. He makes the practice of everyday life a clear sample of the ethical behavior of the Corporation from concrete and tangible manifestations and not just mere speeches. It is thus an instrument of social legitimation, insofar as the company assumes new responsibilities in the community, without being obliged to do so. It stands for corporate patronage.



It is defined as the detailed structuring of the strategy and chosen marketing programs, which include a set of tactics and successive and coordinated actions to achieve defined business objectives.
The marketing plan is essential to the success of all companies and leads to an efficient use of resources, the achievement of products valued by customers and the generation of profits that investors expect.
The marketing plan is a management tool that determines the steps to follow, methodologies and times to achieve certain objectives. Thus we have that the marketing Plan is part of the strategic planning of a company.
We must not forget that it should not be an isolated activity, but on the contrary must be perfectly combined with other departments of the company (finance, production, quality, personal etc...)
It is a document prior to an investment, a product launch or start of a business where, among other things, detailing what is expected to achieve with this project, which will cost, time and resources to use for their achievement, and a detailed analysis of all the steps that must be taken to achieve the proposed aims. Also can be addressed, apart from the purely economic aspects, technical, legal, and social aspects of the project.
The Marketing Plan has two tasks: internal and external. The first has some parallels with what is understood by project engineering; in this bonus the technical aspect, that is mainly economic. They share both the desire to be comprehensive, it is not a sketch of an idea; and in both cases it's a systematic plan for some purposes.
Instead of an engineering plan, the Marketing Plan is not subject to any regulation. The conscientious writing requires a detailed analysis of the factors of all sorts that have impact on the project. This implies that some analyses that have been approved from a brief and intuitive, analysis will be not carried out for not being clear their profitability. However, projects approved by a full study will better benefit favorable circumstances, to have been planned in advance and have pointed to possible solutions.
The Marketing Plan, as mentioned, has also an external task: usually is the memorandum presented to the uptake of financial resources or to the owners of the company so that they can decide on the activation of a strategic move or the launch of a product. In this sense, it aims to convince them, giving the image of a solid idea, well defined and profiled based on your objectives.

Stages of marketing plan

The Marketing Plan requires a methodology to follow with some precision if we don't want to fall into disorder. It is important to follow each and every one of the next steps in the described order

1) analysis of the situation

Existing competitors
SWOT (weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities)
Products, prices, discounts, location, billing, design, manufacture, finance etc., each
Sales policy, channels of distribution, employees, advertising and promotion.
Environment and situation of the market, economic, political and legal situation, technology etc.
Consumer behavior, patterns of use of the product, sector, industry or market customs
Trends and possible evolution of the market
Situation of our company regarding policies products, finance, technological, productive capacity of r & d costs, personnel, media...
Who are our customers?
Why do they buy?
When do they buy?
Where do you buy?
How do you buy?
How much to buy?
How often?

2) prognosis
3) objectives

General objectives of the marketing plan
Sales by product goals
Market share objectives
Objectives for participation of marcasoliticas of sale, distribution channels used, advertising and promotion.
Quality objectives
Targets on deadlines and times
Pricing objectives
Margins and cost objectives
Advertising and promotion objectives
Determination of the target (Target)
Shares of sale by seller, delegation, team...

4) strategy

By strategy we mean the way of achieving the objectives. Or what is the same what to do to reach the goal?
The term strategy from the military language. Charles O. Rossoti said that strategy is "The engine that increases the flexibility of the Organization to adapt to change and the capacity to achieve new and creative opinions"
The strategy is a creative work.
Here we would enter in detail in these 4 sections:
(a) product policies
• What product would want to market?
• Product features
• Packaging design
• Brands
• Tags
• Target or target market
• Qualities
• Presentations
b) pricing policies
• Rates
• Terms of sale
• Discounts
• Margins
• Break-even point
(c) distribution policies
• Physical distribution of goods
• Distribution channels to be used
• Organization of the sales network
(d) advertising and promotion policies
• Promotions
• Merchandise
• Media plan
• Development of the advertising campaign
• Analysis of the effectiveness of the ads

5) tactics to use

The tactic is a strategy of order lower. Actions for achieving smaller goals in smaller time periods. Not as global as they would be strategies and more specific tasks.
• What should each particular person do?
• When should you do it?
• How should he do it?
• Who should do?
• What resources account?
• Planning the work and tasks
• Technical, economic and human resources
• Organization

6) controls to be used

It should establish control procedures that allow us to measure the effectiveness of each of the actions, as well as determining that scheduled tasks are of the form, method and schedule.
There are three types of control:
• Preventive
They are those that we determined in advance as possible causes for error or delay. They have established in the event of corrective action.
• Corrective actions
They are made when the problem happened.
• Late
When it is too late to correct.
For this reason it is advisable to establish preventative controls for each of the actions proposed.

7) Feed Back

Feedback. As we are implementing the marketing plan can be the circumstance that some initial conditions change. For example any reaction of the competition, entry to the market of new products etc..
This implies that we must correct the marketing Plan as appropriate.
Marketing should not be rigid and immutable. On the contrary it should show some flexibility in its application.
It is important to establish a plan of contingencies for each new situation.

8) financial planning

The aim of this section focuses on the need to plan for costs and budgets related to the Marketing Plan.
It is necessary to provide in advance all and each of the costs as well as different budgets which we will assign to each Department.
• Advertising and promotion costs
• Costs and sales revenue
• Research costs
• Product development costs
• Logistic costs and distribution
• Margins and balance
• Determination of budget for each Department / area

Difficulties within a marketing plan

There are certain difficulties that we can not ignore in terms of the implementation of the marketing plan. Likewise it is important to identify them in order to prevent them. The best known are the following:
• Poorly defined or desmesurados goals
• Lack of technical resources, human or financial
• Does not provide for the possible reaction of the competition
• Not have alternative plans
• Short planning regarding the implementation of the actions
• Lack of involvement by management
• Do not establish adequate controls
• Little motivated or trained staff
• Inappropriate Target
• Lack of foresight in terms of contingency plans
• Insufficient market information
• Little precise analysis of the information
• Excess information and unnecessary bureaucracy
• Lack of coordination between the different departments of the company
To achieve the maximum of efficiency in the implementation of a Marketing Plan should include the following elements:
1. coverage of market and distribution: can be local, regional, national or international. The distribution can be direct to consumer or retailer or may require a wholesaler, distributor or agent.
2. market segmentation: A market segment is a group of customers who share common characteristics that differentiate them from other customers. Market segments are described in terms of geographic, demographic or psychographic.
3. changes and trends of market demand: the company will describe any significant changes that have occurred in the market in recent years.
4. main clients and concentration: who are the main clients of the company? What are the main clients of the company? What are its key characteristics? What they want and need products?
5 tactics for sale: describe the method that is used or intended to use for the products or services of the company. The company used its own sales team, or will appeal to representatives, distributors or retailers? What role will you play the advertising, promotion and public relations?
6 participation in the market and sales: what share of the total market of the sector corresponds to your company?
7 objectives: On the basis of the information contained in paragraphs earlier what should get the company's marketing campaign? Can increase the benefits? Put an end to a decline in sales? Give reply to the competition? Do take advantage of the weakness of the competition?
8. strategy: The strategy of the company shall comprise the eight key modern marketing combination points: packaging, product, price, special offers, promotion, physical distribution, personal selling and advertising.
9. combination of media: the marketer of today has at its disposal a wide range of media, which include local, regional and national daily newspapers, sectoral publications, magazines, radio and TV, direct mail, outdoor advertising, special events, community relations and personal selling.
10. budget: The allocation of a budget is one of the most difficult decisions that have to be taken within the company. There is a foolproof formula for determining a budget.


• Description of the environment of the company: allows to know the market, competitors, legislation, economic conditions, technological situation, expected demand, etc., as well as the resources available to the company.
• Management control: It provides for the possible changes and plan the detours necessary to overcome them, allowing to find new ways that lead to the desired goals. Thus, allows you to see clearly the difference between what was planned and what actually is happening.
• Scope of the objectives: the project schedule is extremely important and, for this reason, all those involved have to understand what their responsibilities and as fit their activities in the whole of the strategy.
• Resources: in fact, is what the Marketing Plan is used in the majority of cases.
• Optimize the use of limited resources: the research for Marketing Plan and the analysis of the strategic alternatives stimulates to reflect on the circumstances that influence the process to develop and on events that can appear, changing ideas and the previous goals.
• Organization and temporality: in any project is critical time factor, almost always there is a date of termination, which must be respected. It is, therefore, important program activities so that they can take advantage all foreseeable circumstances to carry out the plan within the set deadlines. The elaboration of the plan tries to avoid the suboptimización, or that it is a part of the project to the detriment of the whole optimization optimize. On the other hand, achieved that everyone knows has to make under the Plan and when.
• Discuss issues and future opportunities: a detailed analysis of what you want to do will show problems in those who had not thought at the beginning. This allows search solutions prior to the emergence of problems. You can also discover favourable opportunities that have escaped in a previous analysis.
Extracted from the website: Liderazgo y Mercadeo
This is a translation published for educational purposes and may contain errors or be inaccurate.

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