1 Chronicles 16-17-18-19-20, Bible Highlights: week starting november 2

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NOV. 2 BIBLE READING: 1 CHRONICLES 16-20


(1 CHRONICLES 16:15)

“Remember his covenant forever, The promise he made, to a thousand generations,”

*** it-1 p. 917 Generation ***
But the expressions “unnumbered generations” and “a thousand generations” refer to that which is to time indefinite. (1Ch 16:15; Isa 51:8)

(1 CHRONICLES 16:30)

“Tremble before him, all the earth! The earth is firmly established; it cannot be moved.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 10 par. 7 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
16:30—What is the meaning of “severe pains” on account of Jehovah? The expression “pains” is here used figuratively to denote reverential fear of and high regard for Jehovah.

(1 CHRONICLES 16:31)

“Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be joyful; Declare among the nations: ‘Jehovah has become King!’”

*** w14 1/15 pp. 10-11 par. 14 Worship Jehovah, the King of Eternity ***
David brought the sacred ark of the covenant to Jerusalem. During this joyous occasion, the Levites sang a song of praise that contained a noteworthy statement, recorded at 1 Chronicles 16:31: “Declare among the nations: ‘Jehovah has become King!’” One might wonder, ‘Since Jehovah is the King of eternity, how is it that he became King at that time?’ Jehovah becomes King when he expresses his rulership or establishes an agency to represent him at a certain time or to deal with a specific situation.

*** it-2 p. 164 Kingdom of God ***
On the occasion of bringing the ark of the covenant, associated with Jehovah’s presence, to the capital, Jerusalem, David sang: “Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be joyful, and let them say among the nations, ‘Jehovah himself has become king!’” (1Ch 16:1, 7, 23-31) This illustrates the fact that, though Jehovah’s rulership dates from the beginning of creation, he can make specific expressions of his rulership or establish certain agencies to represent him that allow for his being spoken of as ‘becoming king’ at a particular time or occasion.

(1 CHRONICLES 16:33)

“At the same time let the trees of the forest shout joyfully before Jehovah, For he is coming to judge the earth.”

*** g87 6/22 p. 10 Live to See the Forests Rejoice! ***
Under divine rule, obedient mankind will be properly instructed in how to prevent air pollution and its by-product Waldsterben. Imagine how the earth will rejoice, symbolically speaking, when the balance of nature has been restored with positive effects on climate, agriculture, and health. “Let the earth be joyful, and let [it] say among the nations, ‘Jehovah himself has become king!’ . . . At the same time let the trees of the forest break out joyfully.” (1 Chronicles 16:31-33) Restored to a condition of greater beauty and well-being than ever before, “the trees of the forest” will indeed have every reason to “break out joyfully.”

(1 CHRONICLES 16:34)

“Give thanks to Jehovah, for he is good; His loyal love endures forever.”

*** w02 1/15 p. 11 par. 6 Jehovah—The Supreme Example of Goodness ***
After David had the Ark brought to Israel’s capital city, Jerusalem, Levites sang a song that included this expression: “Give thanks to Jehovah, you people, for he is good, for to time indefinite is his loving-kindness.” (1 Chronicles 16:34, 37-41) How delightful it must have been to hear those words from the lips of Levite singers!

(1 CHRONICLES 17:12)

“He is the one who will build a house for me, and I will firmly establish his throne forever.”

*** wi pp. 12-13 par. 9 What Is God’s Purpose for Mankind? ***
9 The first ruler from the line of Judah, King David, was promised by God: “Your house and . . . your throne shall be established forever.” (2 Samuel 7:16) God further promised: “I will set up thy seed after thee, . . . and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build Me a house, and I will establish his throne for ever.” (1 Chronicles 17:11, 12, JP) David’s son and successor, King Solomon, did indeed build Jehovah’s house, or temple, but he obviously did not rule forever. However, one of David’s seed would be the same “Shiloh,” or Messiah, prophesied at Genesis 49:10. (JP) Speaking prophetically about that one, King David wrote: “In his days let the righteous flourish, and abundance of peace, till the moon be no more. May he have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the River unto the ends of the earth.”—Psalm 72:7, 8, JP.

(1 CHRONICLES 17:16)

“At that King David came in and sat down before Jehovah and said: “Who am I, O Jehovah God? And what is my house that you have brought me this far?”

*** it-1 pp. 215-216 Attitudes and Gestures ***
Sitting and prostrating. Sitting was another posture employed in prayer, the petitioner evidently kneeling and then sitting back upon his heels. (1Ch 17:16) From this position he could bow his head or rest it on his bosom. Or, as Elijah did, he might crouch to the earth and put his face between his knees. (1Ki 18:42)

(1 CHRONICLES 18:1)

“Some time later, David defeated the Phi•lisʹtines and subdued them and took Gath and its dependent towns out of the hands of the Phi•lisʹtines.”

*** it-1 pp. 614-615 Dependent Towns ***
DEPENDENT TOWNS
Small towns in the neighborhood of a larger town or city. The capital or primary city of a district was the metropolis, or “mother” city, as at 1 Chronicles 18:1: “Gath and its dependent towns” (literally, “Gath and her daughters”).

*** it-1 p. 746 Time of David ***
Gath 1Ch 18:1; 20:5-8

(1 CHRONICLES 18:3)

“David defeated King Had•ad•eʹzer of Zoʹbah near Haʹmath as he was on his way to establish his authority at the Eu•phraʹtes River.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 11 par. 5 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
18:3. Jehovah is the Fulfiller of his promises. Through David, he carried out his promise to give Abraham’s seed the entire land of Canaan, extending “from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates.”—Genesis 15:18; 1 Chronicles 13:5.

*** si p. 77 par. 16 Bible Book Number 13—1 Chronicles ***
16 David’s conquests (18:1–21:17). Through David, Jehovah now carries out His promise to give the entire Promised Land to Abraham’s seed. (18:3)

*** it-1 p. 143 Aram ***
Aram-Zobah was an Aramaean kingdom referred to as an enemy of Saul’s rule (1117-1078 B.C.E.). (1Sa 14:47) It appears to have been situated to the N of Damascus and exercised dominion N as far as Hamath and E to the Euphrates. When David was fighting Israel’s enemies he came into conflict with Hadadezer, powerful king of Aram-Zobah, and defeated him. (2Sa 8:3, 4; 1Ch 18:3; compare Ps 60:Sup.)

*** it-1 p. 1015 Hadadezer ***
HADADEZER
(Had•ad•eʹzer) [Hadad Is a Helper].
Son of Rehob and king of Zobah, a Syrian (Aramaean) kingdom that is thought to have been situated N of Damascus (2Sa 8:3, 5; 1Ki 11:23; 1Ch 18:3, 5) and that included vassalages. (2Sa 10:19) Before being defeated by King David, Hadadezer had waged warfare against Toi (Tou) the king of Hamath.—2Sa 8:9, 10; 1Ch 18:9, 10.
After the Syrians who had been hired by the Ammonites to fight against David were defeated, Hadadezer strengthened his forces by enlisting additional Syrians from the region of the Euphrates. (2Sa 10:6, 15, 16; 1Ch 19:16) This may be alluded to at 2 Samuel 8:3 (compare 1Ch 18:3), where the reference seems to be to Hadadezer’s seeking to put his control back again at the river Euphrates. On this, Cook’s Commentary notes that the Hebrew literally means “to cause his hand to return” and states: “The exact force of the metaphor must . . . be decided by the context. If, as is most probable, this verse relates to the circumstances more fully detailed [at 2Sa 10:15-19], the meaning of the phrase here will be when he (Hadadezer) went to renew his attack (upon Israel), or to recruit his strength against Israel, at the river Euphrates.”

(1 CHRONICLES 18:4)

“David captured 1,000 chariots, 7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 foot soldiers from him. Then David hamstrung all but 100 of the chariot horses.”

*** it-1 p. 1015 Hadadezer ***
David also captured many of Hadadezer’s horses, horsemen, chariots, and footmen. The variation in the enumeration of these at 2 Samuel 8:4 and 1 Chronicles 18:4 may have arisen through scribal error. In the Greek Septuagint both passages indicate that 1,000 chariots and 7,000 horsemen were captured, and therefore 1 Chronicles 18:4 perhaps preserves the original reading.

*** it-1 p. 1026 Hamstring ***
In carrying out war operations, the Israelites hamstrung the horses of their enemies; on one occasion Joshua was specifically directed to do so by Jehovah. (Jos 11:6, 9; 2Sa 8:3, 4; 1Ch 18:3, 4) This was the simplest method of putting horses out of the battle, and after being disabled in this way, the horses undoubtedly were killed, destroyed along with the war chariots. By not appropriating to themselves the horses of their enemies and then using them in warfare, the Israelites would be safeguarded from being ensnared into relying on horses instead of on Jehovah for protection.—Compare De 17:16; Isa 31:1, 3.

*** it-1 p. 1145 Horse ***
King David of Israel was mindful of Jehovah’s prohibition against multiplying horses. In his victory over Hadadezer of Zobah, David could have added many horses to his army, but, instead, he kept only the number he deemed sufficient for his immediate purposes and ordered the remainder to be hamstrung.—2Sa 8:3, 4; 1Ch 18:3, 4; compare Jos 11:6, 9; see HAMSTRING.

(1 CHRONICLES 18:7)

“Moreover, David took the circular shields of gold from the servants of Had•ad•eʹzer and brought them to Jerusalem.”

*** it-1 p. 1015 Hadadezer ***
David also took much copper from Betah (apparently also called Tibhath) and Berothai (perhaps the same as Cun), two cities of Hadadezer’s realm, and brought the gold shields belonging to Hadadezer’s servants, probably the vassal kings, to Jerusalem. (2Sa 8:7, 8; 1Ch 18:7, 8; compare 2Sa 10:19.)

(1 CHRONICLES 18:8)

“From Tibʹhath and Cun, cities of Had•ad•eʹzer, David took a great quantity of copper. With it Solʹo•mon made the copper Sea, the pillars, and the copper utensils.”

*** it-1 p. 292 Betah ***
BETAH
(Beʹtah).
A town mentioned along with Berothai in connection with David’s defeat of Hadadezer, king of Zobah. (2Sa 8:8) The site is unknown, although the Aramaean kingdom of Zobah is considered to have been to the N of Damascus. In a parallel account of David’s victory, 1 Chronicles 18:8 refers to “Tibhath,” and some lexicographers consider Tibhath to be the more correct rendering. The Syriac Peshitta reads “Tebah” instead of Betah at 2 Samuel 8:8. It is to be noted that simply by an inversion of the first two Hebrew consonants Betah becomes Tebah. Since Betah (or Tibhath) was an Aramaean city, some scholars associate it with Tebah, the son of Nahor.—Ge 22:24; see TIBHATH.

*** it-1 p. 291 Berothah ***
BEROTHAH
(Be•roʹthah), Berothai (Be•roʹthai) [Wells].
In Ezekiel’s vision concerning the territorial inheritance of Israel, Berothah is listed as on the northern boundary in the area between Hamath and Damascus. (Eze 47:16) It appears to be the same as Berothai of 2 Samuel 8:8, a city belonging to Hadadezer king of Zobah, from which David carried away “copper in very great quantity.” In the parallel record at 1 Chronicles 18:8 the name Cun appears in its place. Berothah (or Berothai) is generally identified with present-day Britel (Bereitan), about 10 km (6 mi) SW of Baalbek in the valley known as the Beqaʽ, lying between the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon mountains.

(1 CHRONICLES 18:12)

“A•bishʹai the son of Ze•ruʹiah struck down 18,000 Eʹdom•ites in the Valley of Salt.”

*** it-1 p. 680 Edom ***
At 1 Chronicles 18:12 and in the superscription of Psalm 60, Abishai and Joab respectively are described as effecting the conquest of the Edomites. Since David was commander in chief and Joab was his principal general, while Abishai was a divisional commander under Joab, it can be seen how the accounts could differ in crediting the victory, depending upon the viewpoint taken, even as is the case in modern times. Similarly the difference in figures in these texts is likely due to the narrator’s particular view of the different aspects or campaigns of the war. (Compare 1Ki 11:15, 16.)

(1 CHRONICLES 18:16)

“Zaʹdok the son of A•hiʹtub and A•himʹe•lech the son of A•biʹa•thar were priests, and Shavʹsha was secretary.”

*** it-1 p. 24 Abimelech ***
5. The Masoretic text, followed by the King James Version, reads “Abimelech” in 1 Chronicles 18:16. The Greek Septuagint, Latin Vulgate, Syriac Peshitta, and 12 Hebrew manuscripts read “Ahimelech,” which is in agreement with 2 Samuel 8:17.

(1 CHRONICLES 19:4)

“So Haʹnun took the servants of David and shaved them and cut their garments in half at their buttocks and sent them away.”

*** it-1 p. 266 Beard ***
when Hanun the king of Ammon grossly insulted David’s ambassadors by cutting off half their beards, David sympathetically told his men to stay in Jericho until their beards grew abundantly again. The Ammonites knew that it was a signal insult to David and that they had become foul-smelling in his eyes over the incident, and so they prepared for war.—2Sa 10:4-6; 1Ch 19:1-6.

(1 CHRONICLES 19:5)

“When David was told about the men, he at once sent others to meet them, because the men had been deeply humiliated; and the king told them: “Stay in Jerʹi•cho until your beards grow back, and then return.””

*** it-1 p. 266 Beard ***
when Hanun the king of Ammon grossly insulted David’s ambassadors by cutting off half their beards, David sympathetically told his men to stay in Jericho until their beards grew abundantly again. The Ammonites knew that it was a signal insult to David and that they had become foul-smelling in his eyes over the incident, and so they prepared for war.—2Sa 10:4-6; 1Ch 19:1-6.

(1 CHRONICLES 19:6)

“In time the Amʹmon•ites saw that they had become a stench to David, so Haʹnun and the Amʹmon•ites sent 1,000 silver talents to hire chariots and horsemen from Mes•o•po•taʹmi•a, Aʹram-maʹa•cah, and Zoʹbah.”

*** it-1 p. 143 Aram ***
Aram-maacah is mentioned along with Zobah, Rehob, and Ishtob as among the Aramaean kingdoms from which the Ammonites hired chariots and horsemen to war against David. The king of Aram-maacah joined these mercenary forces, which David’s army soon put to flight. (1Ch 19:6-15; 2Sa 10:6-14) The kingdom of Maacah probably lay E of the Jordan, with Mount Hermon on its N side.—Jos 12:5; 13:11.

*** it-2 p. 385 Mesopotamia ***
It was probably from northern Mesopotamia that Ammonite King Hanun hired chariots and horsemen for his fight against King David.—1Ch 19:6, 7.

(1 CHRONICLES 19:9)

“And the Amʹmon•ites went out and drew up in battle formation at the entrance of the city while the kings who had come were by themselves in the open field.”

*** it-2 p. 724 Rabbah ***
Captured by David. The city is mentioned again in connection with war resulting from the abuse of David’s messengers by King Hanun of Ammon. (2Sa 10:1-19; 1Ch 19:1-19) Joab and his troops fought Syrians hired by the Ammonites, while the Israelites under Abishai went up against the Ammonites “at the entrance of the city,” evidently Rabbah. (1Ch 19:9)

(1 CHRONICLES 19:16)

“When the Syrians saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they sent messengers to summon the Syrians in the region of the River, with Shoʹphach the chief of the army of Had•ad•eʹzer leading them.”

*** it-1 p. 1015 Hadadezer ***
After the Syrians who had been hired by the Ammonites to fight against David were defeated, Hadadezer strengthened his forces by enlisting additional Syrians from the region of the Euphrates. (2Sa 10:6, 15, 16; 1Ch 19:16) This may be alluded to at 2 Samuel 8:3 (compare 1Ch 18:3), where the reference seems to be to Hadadezer’s seeking to put his control back again at the river Euphrates. On this, Cook’s Commentary notes that the Hebrew literally means “to cause his hand to return” and states: “The exact force of the metaphor must . . . be decided by the context. If, as is most probable, this verse relates to the circumstances more fully detailed [at 2Sa 10:15-19], the meaning of the phrase here will be when he (Hadadezer) went to renew his attack (upon Israel), or to recruit his strength against Israel, at the river Euphrates.”

(1 CHRONICLES 19:18)

“But the Syrians fled from Israel; and David killed 7,000 charioteers and 40,000 foot soldiers of the Syrians, and he put Shoʹphach the chief of the army to death.”

*** it-1 p. 1015 Hadadezer ***
At Helam the forces of Hadadezer under the command of Shobach (Shophach) met those of David and were defeated. Immediately afterward, Hadadezer’s vassals made peace with Israel. (2Sa 10:17-19; 1Ch 19:17-19) In the conflict 40,000 Syrian horsemen were killed. Perhaps in order to escape through rough terrain, these horsemen dismounted and were slain as footmen. This could account for their being called “horsemen” at 2 Samuel 10:18 and “men on foot” at 1 Chronicles 19:18. The difference in the number of Syrian charioteers killed in battle is usually attributed to scribal error, the lower figure of 700 charioteers being considered the correct one.

(1 CHRONICLES 20:1)

“At the start of the year, at the time when kings go on campaigns, Joʹab led a military expedition and devastated the land of the Amʹmon•ites; he came and besieged Rabʹbah, while David stayed in Jerusalem. Joʹab attacked Rabʹbah and tore it down.”

*** it-1 pp. 93-94 Ammonites ***
The following spring Rabbah, the capital city of Ammon, came under siege by David’s forces. During one desperate sally by the besieged Ammonites, Uriah the Hittite died. (2Sa 11:1, 17, 24, 26, 27; see RABBAH No. 1.) The length of the siege is difficult to determine. The record of the birth of the adulterine child to Bath-sheba and the later birth of Solomon may fit chronologically within the period of the siege or may simply be given in complete form in order to terminate the account involving Bath-sheba, even though one or both of the births could have taken place after the siege. While the account at 1 Chronicles 20:1, 2 does not seem to indicate a protracted period, it would not be unusual if the siege had lasted into the following year. The full conquest of the Ammonite capital was finally effected by David.—2Sa 12:26-29.

(1 CHRONICLES 20:2)

“Then David took the crown of Malʹcam from its head, and found that it weighed a talent of gold, and in it there were precious stones; and it was placed on David’s head. He also took a vast amount of spoil from the city.”

*** it-1 p. 94 Ammonites ***
While the account at 1 Chronicles 20:1, 2 does not seem to indicate a protracted period, it would not be unusual if the siege had lasted into the following year. The full conquest of the Ammonite capital was finally effected by David.—2Sa 12:26-29.
“The crown of Malcam,” referred to in the capture of Rabbah, was evidently a crown placed on the head of the Ammonite idol god, elsewhere called Molech or Milcom. While the Revised Standard Version translates the Hebrew term Mal•kamʹ here as “their king,” it does not seem logical that a human king is referred to, inasmuch as the crown weighed “a talent of gold” (c. 34 kg; 92 lb t). It also seems likely that the crown’s being placed on David’s head was only a momentary act, perhaps to demonstrate the victory over this false god.—2Sa 12:30.

*** it-1 p. 552 Crown ***
The crown (ʽata•rahʹ) David took as a prize of war from the Ammonites at Rabbah originally was kept on the head of the idol Malcam. This crown’s form is not revealed, but it was “a talent of gold in weight [c. 34 kg; 92 lb t], and in it there were precious stones.” “It came to be on David’s head,” he possibly placing this heavy crown on his head only briefly, perhaps to signify his triumph over the false deity.—1Ch 20:2; see MOLECH.

*** it-2 p. 424 Molech ***
It is generally agreed that the Malcam referred to at 2 Samuel 12:30 and 1 Chronicles 20:2 is the idol image of the Ammonite god Milcom, or Molech, although the Hebrew term could be rendered “their king.” (Compare KJ; AS.) Earlier in the Biblical account the Ammonite king is referred to by his name Hanun (2Sa 10:1-4); hence, it is reasonable to conclude that the name Hanun rather than Malcam would have appeared in the Scriptural record if the king rather than the idol were intended. Also, it is thought unlikely that a king would have worn a crown weighing about 34 kg (92 lb t). For the same reason it has been suggested that David placed Malcam’s crown on his head only temporarily, perhaps to denote his victory over the false god. According to the reading of the Targum, which has been adopted by numerous translators, the crown had only one precious jewel. This has given rise to the view that it was the precious jewel, rather than the crown itself, that came to be on David’s head.

(1 CHRONICLES 20:3)

“And he brought out the people who were in it and put them to work at sawing stones and at working with sharp iron instruments and with axes. That was what David did to all the cities of the Amʹmon•ites. Finally David and all the troops returned to Jerusalem.”

*** w05 2/15 p. 27 Questions From Readers ***
Questions From Readers
Did David, a man agreeable to God’s own heart, treat his captives savagely, as some conclude from 2 Samuel 12:31 and 1 Chronicles 20:3?
No. David merely consigned the Ammonite captives to forced labor. David’s actions have been misunderstood because of the way some Bible translations render these verses.
Describing the treatment meted out to the Ammonites, those Bible versions portray David as barbaric and cruel. For example, 2 Samuel 12:31, according to the King James Version, reads: “He brought forth the people that were therein, and put them under saws, and under harrows of iron, and under axes of iron, and made them pass through the brickkiln: and thus did he unto all the cities of the children of Ammon.” The account at 1 Chronicles 20:3 is rendered similarly.
However, as noted by Bible scholar Samuel Rolles Driver, cruelty “is alien to all that we know of the personal character and temper of David.” Thus, a comment in The Anchor Bible states: “David is setting up work crews of captives for the economic exploitation of the conquered territory, evidently standard practice for victorious kings.” Along the same line, Adam Clarke comments: “The meaning therefore is, He made the people slaves, and employed them in sawing, making iron harrows, or mining, . . . and in hewing of wood, and making of brick. Sawing asunder, hacking, chopping, and hewing human beings, have no place in this text, no more than they had in David’s conduct towards the Ammonites.”
Reflecting this more accurate understanding, various modern translations make it clear that David should not be charged with inhumane treatment. Note the rendering of the New English Translation (2003): “He removed the people who were in it and made them do hard labor with saws, iron picks, and iron axes, putting them to work at the brick kiln. This was his policy with all the Ammonite cities.” (2 Samuel 12:31) “He took the city’s residents and made them work with saws, iron picks, and axes. David did this to all the cities of the Ammonites.” (1 Chronicles 20:3) The rendering of the New World Translation is also in keeping with the latest scholarship: “The people that were in it, he brought out that he might put them at sawing stones and at sharp instruments of iron and at axes of iron, and he made them serve at brickmaking.” (2 Samuel 12:31) “The people that were in it he brought out, and he kept them employed at sawing stones and at sharp instruments of iron and at axes; and that was the way David proceeded to do to all the cities of the sons of Ammon.”—1 Chronicles 20:3.
David did not subject the defeated Ammonites to barbarous torture and gruesome massacres. He did not copy the sadistic and brutal war customs of his day.
[Footnote]
By a difference of one letter, the Hebrew text can read “he put them into the saw” or “he cut (sawed) them in pieces.” Moreover, the word for “brick kiln” can also mean “brick mold.” Such a mold would be too narrow for anyone to pass through.

*** it-2 pp. 873-874 Saw ***
David put captive Ammonites to work at such tasks as sawing stones. (2Sa 12:29-31) Their tools included “axes,” or, literally, “stone saws,” according to the Masoretic text at 1 Chronicles 20:3. In some cases it appears that copper-bladed saws with stone teeth were used to cut stone. But apparently an abrasive such as emery powder was sometimes put under the cutting edge of a saw having a copper or a bronze blade so as to facilitate the cutting of stone.

(1 CHRONICLES 20:5)

“And there was war again with the Phi•lisʹtines, and El•haʹnan the son of Jaʹir struck down Lahʹmi the brother of Go•liʹath the Gitʹtite, whose spear had a shaft like the beam of loom workers.”

*** it-1 p. 706 Elhanan ***
1. The son of Jair who, in war with the Philistines, struck down Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite. (1Ch 20:5) In 2 Samuel 21:19 Elhanan is identified as “the son of Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite,” and it is said that he struck down Goliath. However, many scholars think that the original reading of 2 Samuel 21:19 corresponded to 1 Chronicles 20:5, the differences in the two texts having arisen through scribal error.—See JAARE-OREGIM; LAHMI.

*** it-1 p. 984 Goliath ***
A passage that has caused some difficulty is found at 2 Samuel 21:19, where it is stated: “Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite got to strike down Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like the beam of loom workers.” The parallel account at 1 Chronicles 20:5 reads: “Elhanan the son of Jair got to strike down Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like the beam of loom workers.”
Several suggestions have been made for an explanation of the problem. The Targum preserves a tradition that Elhanan is to be identified with David. The Soncino Books of the Bible, edited by A. Cohen (London, 1951, 1952), comment that there is no difficulty in the assumption that there were two Goliaths, commenting also that Goliath may have been a descriptive title like “Pharaoh,” “Rabshakeh,” “Sultan.” The fact that one text refers to “Jaare-oregim,” whereas the other reads “Jair,” and also that only the account in Second Samuel contains the term “Bethlehemite [Heb., behth hal•lach•miʹ],” while the Chronicles account alone contains the name “Lahmi [ʼeth-Lach•miʹ],” has been suggested by the majority of commentators to be the result of a copyist’s error.—See JAARE-OREGIM; LAHMI.

*** it-1 p. 1239 Jaare-oregim ***
JAARE-OREGIM
(Jaʹa•re-orʹe•gim).
A name appearing only at 2 Samuel 21:19. It is generally believed that scribal error has given rise to this name and that the correct reading is preserved in the parallel text at 1 Chronicles 20:5. “Jaare” is considered to be an alteration of “Jair,” and “oregim” (ʼo•reghimʹ, “weavers” or “loom workers”) is thought to have been copied inadvertently from a line below in the same verse.

*** it-2 p. 189 Lahmi ***
LAHMI
(Lahʹmi) [My Bread].
The brother of Goliath the Gittite. The account at 1 Chronicles 20:5 reads, in part, “Elhanan the son of Jair got to strike down Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite,” during a war with the Philistines. However, in a parallel text at 2 Samuel 21:19 the reading is: “Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite got to strike down Goliath the Gittite.” In the latter text it appears that ʼeth-lach•miʹ (in English, “Lahmi,” the Hebrew term ʼeth merely denoting that Lahmi is the object of a verb) was misread by a copyist to be behth hal•lach•miʹ (“Bethlehemite”). Therefore the original probably read, “got to strike down Lahmi,” just as the parallel text at 1 Chronicles 20:5 reads. This would make the two texts harmonize on this point. Lahmi, then, was evidently the brother of the Goliath that David killed. On the other hand, it is possible that there were two Goliaths.—See GOLIATH.

(1 CHRONICLES 20:8)

“These were descendants of the Rephʹa•im in Gath, and they fell by the hand of David and by the hand of his servants.”

*** it-1 p. 746 Time of David ***
Gath 1Ch 18:1; 20:5-8

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