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2 Chronicles 10-11-12-13-14, Bible Highlights: week starting december 7

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Highlights From Bible Reading: 2 Chronicles 10-14. Information for personal study.

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Dec. 7 Bible reading: 2 Chronicles 10-14


(2 CHRONICLES 10:11)

“My father imposed a heavy yoke on you, but I will add to your yoke. My father punished you with whips, but I will do so with scourges.’””

*** it-2 p. 1180 Whip ***
WHIP
Usually a flexible cord or leather lash with a handle. This instrument has been used since ancient times to beat humans (2Ch 10:11, 14) as well as to drive and direct animals.—Pr 26:3; Na 3:2.
King Rehoboam boasted that, whereas his father Solomon had chastised the Israelites with “whips,” he would do so with “scourges.” Rehoboam’s expression was figurative, but the scourges alluded to may have been lashes equipped with sharp points, since the Hebrew word (ʽaq•rab•bimʹ) for “scourges” literally means “scorpions.”—1Ki 12:11, 14, ftn; 2Ch 10:11, 14.

(2 CHRONICLES 10:14)

“He spoke to them according to the advice of the young men, saying: “I will make your yoke heavier, and I will add to it. My father punished you with whips, but I will do so with scourges.””

*** it-2 p. 876 Scorpion ***
At 1 Kings 12:11, 14 and 2 Chronicles 10:11, 14, the Hebrew term ʽaq•rab•bimʹ, which is rendered “scourges,” literally means “scorpions.” The instrument of punishment alluded to may have been a scourge equipped with sharp points.

*** it-2 p. 1180 Whip ***
WHIP
Usually a flexible cord or leather lash with a handle. This instrument has been used since ancient times to beat humans (2Ch 10:11, 14) as well as to drive and direct animals.—Pr 26:3; Na 3:2.
King Rehoboam boasted that, whereas his father Solomon had chastised the Israelites with “whips,” he would do so with “scourges.” Rehoboam’s expression was figurative, but the scourges alluded to may have been lashes equipped with sharp points, since the Hebrew word (ʽaq•rab•bimʹ) for “scourges” literally means “scorpions.”—1Ki 12:11, 14, ftn; 2Ch 10:11, 14.

(2 CHRONICLES 11:12)

“and he supplied all the different cities with large shields and lances; he reinforced them to a very great degree. And Judah and Benjamin remained his.”

*** it-1 p. 171 Arms, Armor ***
The “large shield” (Heb., tsin•nahʹ) was carried by the heavily armed infantry (2Ch 14:8) and sometimes by a shield bearer. (1Sa 17:7, 41) It was either oval or else rectangular like a door. Apparently a similar “large shield” is designated at Ephesians 6:16 by the Greek word thy•re•osʹ (from thyʹra, meaning “door”). The tsin•nahʹ was large enough to cover the entire body. (Ps 5:12) It was on occasion used to set up solid-front battle lines with lances protruding. The large shield is sometimes mentioned with the lance or spear as a form of reference to weapons in general.—1Ch 12:8, 34; 2Ch 11:12.

(2 CHRONICLES 11:15)

“Jer•o•boʹam then appointed his own priests for the high places and for the goatlike demons and for the calves that he had made.”

*** it-1 pp. 966-967 Goat-shaped Demon ***
GOAT-SHAPED DEMON
The Hebrew sa•ʽirʹ (literally, hairy) refers to a goat or kid of the goats. (Le 16:18; Nu 7:16) However, in four texts (Le 17:7; 2Ch 11:15; Isa 13:21; 34:14) the word is generally considered by translators as having a sense beyond its ordinary meaning of “goat” or “kid.”
At both Leviticus 17:7 and 2 Chronicles 11:15 it is clear that the term (seʽi•rimʹ, plural) is used in referring to things to which worship and sacrifice are given, and this in connection with false religion. The translators of the Greek Septuagint and Latin Vulgate, therefore, rendered the Hebrew word as “the senseless things” (LXX) and “the demons” (Vg). Modern translators and lexicographers in general adopt the same view in these two texts, using “demons” (Ro), “satyrs” (RS, AT, JB, JP), or “goat-shaped demons” (NW; see also Koehler and Baumgartner’s Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros, Leiden, 1958, p. 926, and A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament by Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 1980, p. 972), exceptions being the translation by Robert Young, which renders the term literally as “goat(s),” and the American Standard Version, which uses “he-goats.”
Joshua’s words at Joshua 24:14 show that the Israelites had been affected to some extent by the false worship of Egypt during their sojourn there, while Ezekiel indicates that such pagan practices continued to plague them long afterward. (Eze 23:8, 21) For this reason some scholars consider that the divine decree issued in the wilderness to prevent the Israelites from making “sacrifices to the goat-shaped demons” (Le 17:1-7) and Jeroboam’s establishing priests “for the high places and for the goat-shaped demons and for the calves that he had made” (2Ch 11:15) indicate there was some form of goat worship among the Israelites such as was prominent in Egypt, particularly in Lower Egypt. Herodotus (II, 46) claims that from such Egyptian worship the Greeks derived their belief in Pan and also in the satyrs, woodland gods of a lustful nature, who were eventually depicted as having horns, a goat’s tail, and goat’s legs. Some suggest that such half-animal form of these pagan gods is the source of the practice of picturing Satan with tail, horns, and cloven feet, a custom prevalent among professed Christians in the Dark Ages.
Just what such “hairy ones” (seʽi•rimʹ) actually were, however, is not stated. While some consider them to be literal goats or idols in the form of goats, this does not necessarily seem to be indicated; nor do other scriptures provide evidence of that nature. The term used may simply indicate that in the minds of those worshiping them such false gods were conceived of as being goatlike in shape or hairy in appearance. Or, the use of “goats” in these references may be merely a means of expressing contempt for all idolatrous objects in general, even as the word for idols in numerous texts is drawn from a term originally meaning “dung pellets,” not denoting, however, that the idols were literally made of dung.—Le 26:30; De 29:17.

(2 CHRONICLES 11:18)

“Then Re•ho•boʹam took as his wife Maʹha•lath the daughter of David’s son Jerʹi•moth and of Abʹi•ha•il the daughter of Jesʹse’s son E•liʹab.”

*** it-1 pp. 21-22 Abihail ***
4. The daughter of Eliab, David’s oldest brother. (Though the Hebrew word bath [daughter] at 2 Chronicles 11:18 may also mean “granddaughter.”)
The King James Version at 2 Chronicles 11:18 says: “And Rehoboam took him Mahalath the daughter of Jerimoth the son of David to wife, and Abihail the daughter of Eliab the son of Jesse.” This would make Abihail appear to be the second wife of Rehoboam. However, the original Hebrew allows for a different rendering, and hence many modern translations here read: “Mahalath the daughter of Jerimoth the son of David, and of Abihail the daughter of Eliab the son of Jesse.” (See RS, AT, JP, NW, JB.) Concerning this, the Soncino Books of the Bible says in a footnote on 2 Chronicles 11:18: “The conjunction is implied. Mahalath was the daughter of Jerimoth and Abihail. Some commentators regard Abihail as the name of another of Rehoboam’s wives.” (Edited by A. Cohen, London, 1952) The singular pronouns used in the following verses (19, 20) support the view that only one wife of Rehoboam is meant in verse 18. It therefore appears most probable that Abihail was the mother of Rehoboam’s wife Mahalath.

(2 CHRONICLES 11:21)

“Re•ho•boʹam loved Maʹa•cah the granddaughter of Abʹsa•lom more than all his other wives and concubines, for he took 18 wives and 60 concubines, and he became father to 28 sons and 60 daughters.”

*** it-2 pp. 1142-1143 Uriel ***
3. Father of Micaiah (Maacah), who was the wife of King Rehoboam and mother of Abijah. (2Ch 13:1, 2; 11:21) Maacah was Absalom’s granddaughter. Since Absalom’s three sons apparently died young and childless (2Sa 14:27; 18:18), Micaiah must have been the child of Absalom’s daughter Tamar and of Uriel, not the son of Absalom, but the son-in-law.

(2 CHRONICLES 11:23)

“However, he acted with understanding and sent some of his sons to all the regions of Judah and Benjamin, to all the fortified cities, and gave them abundant provisions and acquired many wives for them.”

*** it-2 p. 768 Rehoboam ***
Before his death at the age of 58, and the ascension of Abijah to the throne in 980 B.C.E., Rehoboam distributed many gifts among his other sons, presumably to prevent any revolt against Abijah after his death. (1Ki 14:31; 2Ch 11:23; 12:16)

(2 CHRONICLES 12:2)

“In the fifth year of King Re•ho•boʹam, King Shiʹshak of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, for they had behaved unfaithfully toward Jehovah.”

*** it-1 pp. 149-150 Archaeology ***
At Karnak (ancient Thebes), on the Nile River, a vast Egyptian temple contains an inscription on its S wall confirming the campaign of Egyptian King Shishak (Sheshonk I) in Palestine, described at 1 Kings 14:25, 26 and 2 Chronicles 12:1-9. The giant relief depicting his victories shows 156 manacled Palestinian prisoners, each representing a city or village, the name of which is given in hieroglyphics. Among the names identifiable are those of Rabbith (Jos 19:20), Taanach, Beth-shean and Megiddo (where a portion of a stele or inscribed pillar of Shishak has been excavated) (Jos 17:11), Shunem (Jos 19:18), Rehob (Jos 19:28), Hapharaim (Jos 19:19), Gibeon (Jos 18:25), Beth-horon (Jos 21:22), Aijalon (Jos 21:24), Socoh (Jos 15:35), and Arad (Jos 12:14). He even lists the “Field of Abram” as one of his captures, the earliest reference to Abraham in Egyptian records.

*** it-1 p. 697 Egypt, Egyptian ***
Shishak (known as Sheshonk I from Egyptian records) had founded a Libyan dynasty of Pharaohs (the “Twenty-second Dynasty”), with its capital at Bubastis in the eastern Delta region. In the fifth year of the reign of Solomon’s son Rehoboam (993 B.C.E.), Shishak invaded Judah with a powerful force of chariots, cavalry, and foot soldiers including Libyans and Ethiopians; he captured many cities and even threatened Jerusalem. Because of Jehovah’s mercy, Jerusalem was not devastated, but its great wealth was handed over to Shishak. (1Ki 14:25, 26; 2Ch 12:2-9) A relief on a temple wall at Karnak depicts Shishak’s campaign and lists numerous cities in Israel and Judah as having been captured.

*** it-2 p. 934 Shishak ***
Some years later, in the fifth year of Solomon’s successor Rehoboam (993 B.C.E.), Shishak invaded Judah with a mighty force of chariots and horsemen. He captured fortified cities in Judah and then came to Jerusalem. But Jehovah did not allow him to bring Jerusalem to ruin, for Rehoboam and the princes of Judah humbled themselves upon receiving a message from the prophet Shemaiah. Shishak, however, did strip the city of its treasures.—2Ch 12:1-12.
There is archaeological evidence concerning Shishak’s invading the area of Palestine. A fragment of a stele found at Megiddo mentions Sheshonk (Shishak), possibly indicating that the stele was erected there to commemorate his victory. (Ancient Near Eastern Texts, edited by J. Pritchard, 1974, pp. 263, 264) Also, a relief on a temple wall at Karnak (the N part of the ancient Egyptian city of Thebes) lists numerous cities or villages that Shishak conquered. (PICTURE, Vol. 1, p. 952; Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, Leiden, 1957, Vol. IV, pp. 59, 60) A considerable number of the places that can be identified with Biblical sites were located in the territory of the ten-tribe kingdom. This would indicate that the purpose of Shishak’s campaign was, not to assist the ten-tribe kingdom, but to gain control of the important trade routes and thereby extend Egypt’s power and influence.

(2 CHRONICLES 12:4)

“He captured the fortified cities of Judah and finally reached Jerusalem.”

*** it-1 pp. 149-150 Archaeology ***
At Karnak (ancient Thebes), on the Nile River, a vast Egyptian temple contains an inscription on its S wall confirming the campaign of Egyptian King Shishak (Sheshonk I) in Palestine, described at 1 Kings 14:25, 26 and 2 Chronicles 12:1-9. The giant relief depicting his victories shows 156 manacled Palestinian prisoners, each representing a city or village, the name of which is given in hieroglyphics. Among the names identifiable are those of Rabbith (Jos 19:20), Taanach, Beth-shean and Megiddo (where a portion of a stele or inscribed pillar of Shishak has been excavated) (Jos 17:11), Shunem (Jos 19:18), Rehob (Jos 19:28), Hapharaim (Jos 19:19), Gibeon (Jos 18:25), Beth-horon (Jos 21:22), Aijalon (Jos 21:24), Socoh (Jos 15:35), and Arad (Jos 12:14). He even lists the “Field of Abram” as one of his captures, the earliest reference to Abraham in Egyptian records.

*** it-2 p. 1057 Taanach ***
Archaeological evidence from Taanach and the relief on a temple wall at Karnak indicate that the city was taken by Pharaoh Shishak when he invaded Palestine in the fifth year of the reign of Solomon’s son and successor Rehoboam.—2Ch 12:2-4.

(2 CHRONICLES 12:9)

“So King Shiʹshak of Egypt came up against Jerusalem. He took the treasures of the house of Jehovah and the treasures of the king’s house. He took everything, including the gold shields that Solʹo•mon had made.”

*** w88 2/1 p. 26 Part 1—Ancient Egypt—First of the Great World Powers ***
Shishak (Sheshonk I, “22nd Dynasty”) is the first Pharaoh mentioned by name in the Bible. With a mighty force of chariots and horsemen, he invaded Judah, threatened Jerusalem, and “took the treasures of the house of Jehovah and the treasures of the king’s house. Everything he took.” (2 Chronicles 12:9) This event is confirmed by a relief on the southern wall of the temple of Amon at Karnak (ancient Thebes). It shows 156 manacled prisoners, each representing a captured city or village, including Megiddo, Shunem, and Gibeon. Among the places captured, Shishak even lists the “Field of Abram”—the earliest reference to Abraham in Egyptian records.

(2 CHRONICLES 13:5)

“Do you not know that Jehovah the God of Israel gave to David a kingdom over Israel forever, to him and to his sons, by a covenant of salt?”

*** w05 12/1 p. 20 par. 2 Highlights From the Book of Second Chronicles ***
13:5—What is meant by the expression “a covenant of salt”? Because of its preserving properties, salt became a symbol of permanence and immutability. “A covenant of salt,” then, denotes a binding agreement.

*** it-1 p. 521 Covenant ***
The Bible uses the expression “covenant of salt” to denote the permanence and immutability of a covenant. (Nu 18:19; 2Ch 13:5; Le 2:13) Among ancient peoples it was a sign of friendship to eat salt together and denoted enduring fidelity and loyalty; the eating of salt with communion sacrifices symbolized perpetual loyalty.

*** it-1 p. 834 Fire ***
Salt represented freedom from corruption and was a symbol of enduring loyalty, as found in the expression “covenant of salt.” (2Ch 13:5)

*** it-2 pp. 842-843 Salt ***
Because salt prevented decay, it became a symbol of stability and permanence. Often when covenants were made, the parties ate together—eating salt together—denoting perpetual loyalty and fidelity to one another in the covenant relationship. “A covenant of salt” therefore was considered very binding. (Nu 18:19) Accordingly, Judean King Abijah’s statement that Jehovah had made “a covenant of salt” with David and his sons meant that the covenant with David’s line for the kingship would stand forever. Jesus Christ the “son of David” and “the root of David” proves to be the one holding the Kingdom and administering its affairs forever.—2Ch 13:4, 5; Ps 18:50; Mt 1:1; Re 5:5; Isa 9:6, 7.

(2 CHRONICLES 13:9)

“Have you not driven out Jehovah’s priests, the descendants of Aaron, and the Levites, and have you not appointed your own priests just like the peoples of the other lands? Anyone who came along with a young bull and seven rams could become a priest of what are not gods.”

*** it-1 p. 831 Fill Hand With Power ***
Later, King Jeroboam, in instituting calf worship in Israel, installed his own priests from the people in general; the Aaronic priests and the Levites remained loyal to Jehovah’s worship centered at Jerusalem and were, evidently for this reason, driven out of the ten-tribe kingdom.—1Ki 12:31; 13:33; 2Ch 13:9.

(2 CHRONICLES 13:19)

“A•biʹjah kept chasing after Jer•o•boʹam and captured cities from him, Bethʹel and its dependent towns, Jeshʹa•nah and its dependent towns, and Eʹphra•in and its dependent towns.”

*** it-1 pp. 754-755 Ephraim ***
3. A city generally considered to be the same as the Ephrain captured by Abijah the king of Judah from Jeroboam the king of Israel. (2Ch 13:19)

(2 CHRONICLES 14:3)

“He removed the foreign altars and the high places, smashed the sacred pillars, and cut down the sacred poles.”

*** w09 6/15 p. 12 par. 4 Be “Zealous for Fine Works”! ***
Asa “removed the foreign altars and the high places and broke up the sacred pillars and cut down the sacred poles.” (2 Chron. 14:3) Jehoshaphat, fired by his zeal for the worship of Jehovah, “removed the high places and the sacred poles from Judah.”—2 Chron. 17:6; 19:3.

*** w09 6/15 p. 12 Be “Zealous for Fine Works”! ***
Asa may have removed the high places associated with the worship of false gods but not those where people worshipped Jehovah. Or it may be that high places were rebuilt in the latter part of Asa’s reign and that these were removed by his son Jehoshaphat.—1 Ki. 15:14; 2 Chron. 15:17.

*** it-1 pp. 183-184 Asa ***
The record at 2 Chronicles 14:2-5 states that Asa “removed the foreign altars and the high places and broke up the sacred pillars and cut down the sacred poles.” However, 1 Kings 15:14 and 2 Chronicles 15:17 indicate that “the high places he did not remove.” It may be, therefore, that the high places referred to in the earlier Chronicles account were those of the adopted pagan worship that infected Judah, while the Kings account refers to high places at which the people engaged in worship of Jehovah. Even after the setting up of the tabernacle and the later establishment of the temple, occasional sacrificing was done to Jehovah on high places, which was acceptable to him under special circumstances, as in the cases of Samuel, David, and Elijah. (1Sa 9:11-19; 1Ch 21:26-30; 1Ki 18:30-39) Nevertheless, the regular approved place for sacrifice was that authorized by Jehovah. (Nu 33:52; De 12:2-14; Jos 22:29) Improper modes of high-place worship may have continued in spite of the removal of the pagan high places, perhaps because the king did not pursue their elimination with the same vigor as he did the removal of the pagan sites. Or Asa may have effected a complete removal of all high places; but if so, such cropped up again in due time and had not been removed by the time of the conclusion of his reign, allowing for their being smashed by his successor Jehoshaphat.

(2 CHRONICLES 14:5)

“So he removed from all the cities of Judah the high places and the incense stands, and under him, the kingdom continued without disturbance.”

*** it-1 pp. 183-184 Asa ***
The record at 2 Chronicles 14:2-5 states that Asa “removed the foreign altars and the high places and broke up the sacred pillars and cut down the sacred poles.” However, 1 Kings 15:14 and 2 Chronicles 15:17 indicate that “the high places he did not remove.” It may be, therefore, that the high places referred to in the earlier Chronicles account were those of the adopted pagan worship that infected Judah, while the Kings account refers to high places at which the people engaged in worship of Jehovah. Even after the setting up of the tabernacle and the later establishment of the temple, occasional sacrificing was done to Jehovah on high places, which was acceptable to him under special circumstances, as in the cases of Samuel, David, and Elijah. (1Sa 9:11-19; 1Ch 21:26-30; 1Ki 18:30-39) Nevertheless, the regular approved place for sacrifice was that authorized by Jehovah. (Nu 33:52; De 12:2-14; Jos 22:29) Improper modes of high-place worship may have continued in spite of the removal of the pagan high places, perhaps because the king did not pursue their elimination with the same vigor as he did the removal of the pagan sites. Or Asa may have effected a complete removal of all high places; but if so, such cropped up again in due time and had not been removed by the time of the conclusion of his reign, allowing for their being smashed by his successor Jehoshaphat.

(2 CHRONICLES 14:8)

“Aʹsa had an army of 300,000 men from Judah, equipped with large shields and lances. And out of Benjamin were 280,000 mighty warriors who carried bucklers and were armed with bows.”

*** it-1 p. 171 Arms, Armor ***
The “large shield” (Heb., tsin•nahʹ) was carried by the heavily armed infantry (2Ch 14:8) and sometimes by a shield bearer. (1Sa 17:7, 41) It was either oval or else rectangular like a door. Apparently a similar “large shield” is designated at Ephesians 6:16 by the Greek word thy•re•osʹ (from thyʹra, meaning “door”). The tsin•nahʹ was large enough to cover the entire body. (Ps 5:12) It was on occasion used to set up solid-front battle lines with lances protruding. The large shield is sometimes mentioned with the lance or spear as a form of reference to weapons in general.—1Ch 12:8, 34; 2Ch 11:12.

(2 CHRONICLES 14:9)

“Later Zeʹrah the E•thi•oʹpi•an came against them with an army of 1,000,000 men and 300 chariots. When he reached Ma•reʹshah,”

*** it-1 p. 951 Enemy Nations That Attacked Israel ***
Ethiopia 2Ch 14:9-13

*** it-2 p. 511 Number, Numeral ***
Occasionally numbers are used in an approximate sense, as round numbers, for example, at Psalm 90:10, where the psalmist speaks of man’s age limit, and possibly also at 1 Kings 19:18 (7,000 who had not bowed to Baal) and 2 Chronicles 14:9 (the million Ethiopians defeated by Asa).

(2 CHRONICLES 14:10)

“Aʹsa went out against him and they drew up in battle formation in the Valley of Zephʹa•thah at Ma•reʹshah.”

*** it-2 p. 1231 Zephathah ***
ZEPHATHAH
(Zephʹa•thah).
A valley near Mareshah where Jehovah enabled the forces of Judah’s King Asa to defeat those of Zerah the Ethiopian (967 B.C.E.). (2Ch 14:9-12) Zephathah is apparently one of the valleys N of Mareshah. The Greek Septuagint has been translated to read “in the valley north of Maresa” (Bagster), but “Zephathah” appears in the Hebrew Masoretic text.

(2 CHRONICLES 14:11)

“Aʹsa then called to Jehovah his God and said: “O Jehovah, it does not matter to you whether those you help are many or have no power. Help us, O Jehovah our God, for we are relying on you, and in your name we have come against this crowd. O Jehovah, you are our God. Do not let mortal man prevail against you.””

*** w12 8/15 p. 9 “There Exists a Reward for Your Activity” ***
Today, Jehovah’s people face many powerful opponents. We will not fight them with material weapons on a literal battlefield. Yet, we can be sure that Jehovah will reward with victory all faithful ones who wage spiritual warfare in his name. Our personal battles may include exertion to resist the pervading spirit of moral laxity, to fight our own weaknesses, or to protect our family from defiling influences. Whatever adversity we face, however, we can find encouragement in Asa’s prayer. His victory was Jehovah’s victory. It showed what can be expected by all who rely upon God. No human power can withstand Jehovah.

*** w12 8/15 pp. 8-9 “There Exists a Reward for Your Activity” ***
In view of Asa’s record, we should not be surprised that he prayed when confronted with the largest human army mentioned in the Scriptures. Asa knew that God rewards acts of faith. In his prayer, the king pleaded for Jehovah’s help. Asa recognized that if he relied on God and had his backing, it did not matter how numerous or powerful the enemy was. Jehovah’s name was involved in this conflict, and Asa therefore appealed to God on that basis. The king prayed: “Help us, O Jehovah our God, for upon you we do lean, and in your name we have come against this crowd. O Jehovah, you are our God. Do not let mortal man retain strength against you.” (2 Chron. 14:11) That was like saying: ‘The Ethiopian invasion is an attack on you, Jehovah. Do not allow your name to be dishonored by permitting weak humans to overthrow those who bear your name.’

(2 CHRONICLES 14:14)

“Further, they struck all the cities around Geʹrar, for the dread of Jehovah had come upon them; and they plundered all the cities, for there was much to plunder in them.”

*** it-1 p. 925 Gerar ***
After Jehovah brought about the defeat of the impressive army of Zerah the Ethiopian, King Asa’s forces pursued the fleeing enemy as far as Gerar. Thereafter the Judeans struck and plundered “all the cities round about Gerar” (probably because of their being allied with the Ethiopians); “even the tents with livestock they struck so that they took captive flocks in great number and camels.”—2Ch 14:8-15.

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