Definition of logic

Logic is the science that teaches to think just. It is a formal science lacking content, devoted to the study of processes of reasoning. In other words, it is the study of methods and principles used to distinguish correct the incorrect reasoning. The etymology shows that the concept of logic derives from the latin logĭca, which in turn comes from the term Greek logikos (from logos, 'reason' or 'study'). The Greek philosopher Aristotle was the pioneer to use the term to refer to the study of the arguments as demonstrators of truth in science and is the ancestor of the syllogism, which is used to validate the formal truth of the conclusion.
Aristotle is considered the father of formal logic, whose principles are still valid to this day. On the other hand, informal logic is the methodical study of the probable arguments towards rhetoric, oratory and philosophy among other sciences. His specialty is to identify errors and paradoxes, and build speeches in the correct manner.
The natural logic is the natural tendency to reason just without resorting to science. Fuzzy logic, on the other hand, is one that admits some uncertainty over if the premises (processed proposals) are true or false, the image of human reasoning.
FROM the other hand, the mathematical (or formal) logic is one that operates through an artificial symbolic language as well as an abstraction of content.
There are other types or categories of logic, such as the binary logic, who works with variables not taking only two discrete values.