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This astronomical phenomenon occurs in the form of cycles known as cycle of solar activity that has an approximate duration of about eleven years and is regulated by the magnetic fields of the Sun, in alternating periods of high solar activity with others in which reduces both the frequency and the intensity of them.
The particles that make up the solar wind are able to travel through space at speeds ranging 450 kilometers per second, which can reach the Earth in 3 to 5 days. This wind is spread in space like a shock wave that can reach the surface of the various planets and spread beyond the boundaries of our solar system, bringing with him the solar magnetic field as well as a significant amount of material on its surface. The total area of the space that can be reached by the solar wind is called the heliosphere and estimated that far beyond the Planet Pluto, the last of our solar system reaches.
In the case of the Earth, the Earth's atmosphere is able to stop particles from the solar wind, thus giving rise to phenomena such as the Aurora Borealis in the northern hemisphere and southern in the southern hemisphere. This is due to the clash of particles that make up the solar wind with the magnetic field of the poles of the Earth, being trapped in it and becoming a part of the atmosphere known as the ionosphere where contact with the gases that compose it gives rise to emission of light which characterizes the Aurora.
The solar wind has a direct effect on the Earth's magnetic field, being able to give rise to phenomena as the magnetic storm, made that may cause interference with radio communications, as well as affect the normal operation of equipment such as satellites located on the Earth's orbit.
These solar emissions are able to reduce the atmosphere of planets that have a low magnetic field, also called the magnetosphere, to delete it completely. The most typical example of this phenomenon is mercury, the planet closest to the Sun which receives the greatest impact of the solar wind, our moon also lacks a magnetic field and hence of atmosphere.
Article contributed by the team of collaborators.