Biography of Adolf Hitler… Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla… Isaac Newton… Simon Bolivar…

Biography of Adolf Hitler

(1889/04/20 - 1945/04/30)
Adolf Hitler
Politician and German dictator of Austrian origin

He was born on April 20, 1889 in Braunau am Inn (Austria).
Son of Alois Hitler, a customs officer amateur spirit, and the peasant Klara Hitler, for whom his son felt his life a great devotion.
Adolf Hitler was a mediocre student who did not finish secondary school. He requested admission to the Academy of fine arts in Vienna, but it was not admitted for lack of talent. He remained in that city until 1913, where he lived thanks to an orphan's pension and some income pictures painting.
In World War I he enlisted as a volunteer in the Bavarian army. Hitler proved to be a soldier handed over and brave, although high graduation got was held, since his superiors considered that he lacked leadership qualities. After the defeat of Germany in 1918, he returned to Munich and remained in the army until 1920. He was appointed officer of instruction and was assigned the task of immunizing soldiers in his charge against the pacifist and democratic ideas. Hitler joined the German workers party, nationalist sign, in September 1919, and in April 1920 was devoted all his time now. At that time, it had been renamed the Labor Party National Socialist German (briefly known as the Naziparty), and Hitler was elected its President in 1921 (Führer) with dictatorial powers. Spread its doctrine of racial hatred and contempt for democracy in numerous meetings organized by and, meanwhile, party paramilitary organizations terrorized his political enemies. He did not hesitate to become a key figure in Bavaria policy thanks to the collaboration of high-ranking officials and wealthy entrepreneurs.
In November 1923, at a time of political and economic chaos, led a revolt in Munich against the Weimar Republic, in which it proclaimed himself Chancellor of a new authoritarian regime. However, known as the Munich putsch failed for lack of military support. Adolf Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison as a leader of the attempted coup d ' état, and devoted the eight months of condemnation that met to write his autobiography: Mein Kampf (my struggle). He was released thanks to a general amnesty in December 1924. During the economic crisis of 1929, many Germans accepted his theory that explained it as a conspiracy between Jews and Communists. He managed to attract the vote of millions of citizens by promising to rebuild a strong Germany, create more jobs and restore national glory. The representation of the nazi party in the Reichstag went from 12 members in 1928 to 107 in 1930. The party continued to grow during the following two years taking advantage of the situation created by the increase in unemployment, fear of communism and the lack of decision of its political rivals.
In September 1931, his half niece Geli Raubal, committed suicide with the weapon of Hitler in his Munich apartment. It is believed that Geli maintained a romantic relationship with her uncle and that his death was a lasting source of pain.
When Hitler became Chancellor in January 1933, large employers hoped to be able to control him easily. Despite expected by economic power, once it agreed to the Government Headquarters, it soon proclaim itself a dictator of the nation, accumulating the Presidency of the Reich and the Chancery with the title of Reichsführer. Thousands of citizens opposed to the nazi party were sent to concentration camps and removed any hint of opposition. His parliamentary majority allowed him to pass a law that it transferred to the nazi party control of the bureaucracy and the judiciary, he replaced the trade unions for a Labour front German directed also by the nazis and he banned all political parties except the National Socialist. The Nazi authorities took control of the economy, the media and the cultural activities, making depend on the jobs of loyalty to their ideology. He had his secret police, the Gestapo, and with prisons and concentration camps to intimidate opponents, although the majority of Germans supported him enthusiastically.
The progress of the arms industry ended unemployment, workers were attracted by an ambitious programme of leisure activities and the successes achieved in foreign policy was impressed by the nation. Thus, he molded the German people to become flexible tool needed to establish the domain of Germany over Europe and other parts of the world. He ridiculed the concept of equality between human beings and claimed the racial superiority of the Germans. Because they were considered members of a superior race, they believed to be entitled to subdue all the Nations which had undergone.
Adolf Hitler began the rearming of Germany in 1935 (against what was agreed in the Treaty of Versailles which had put an end to the first world war in relation to the defeated Germany), he sent troops into the demilitarized Rhineland region in 1936, and annexed Austria and the Sudetenland (Sudeten); of Czechoslovakia in 1938. The rest of the Czechoslovak territory was under German control in March 1939. Hitler came to the aid of troops rebels of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), led by Francisco Franco. None of the leaders of other countries were opposed to these actions, bewildered amid fears that a new war occur. He signed the Pact of neutrality Moscow with the promise that give way to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) a part of the territory of Poland when this nation was defeated, which attacked her in September 1939. The poles were quickly and their allies, the British and the French, who had declared war on Germany, could do nothing to help them. The forces of Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway in the spring of 1940 and, weeks later, defeated the troops of the Netherlands, Belgium and France. The defeat of Britain could be avoided thanks to the intervention of air forces reais (RAF), who rejected the Luftwaffe (German air force). He returned his attention to the Soviet Union. The first step of Adolf Hitler was to conquer the Balkan peninsula to protect this flank. The invasion of the Soviet Union, which began in June 1941, did not hesitate to take the German armies at the gates of Moscow but the Russians forced them to retreat in December, precisely when United States decided to intervene in the conflict. As time passed, the defeat was more inevitable, but Hitler continued to refuse to capitulate to the belief that Germany did not deserve to survive by failing to fulfill its mission. On the other hand, the plan to exterminate the Jews continued their March throughout this period, and countless trains that transported millions of prisoners to concentration camps were a scourge to the economic war effort. In July 1944, a group of officers organized a conspiracy to assassinate him and put an end to the conflict, but the plan failed. At the end of 1944, the Red Army and the Western allies were advancing into Germany. On 16 December, it launched an offensive in the Ardennes that failed.
On 20 April, in his 56 birthday, he made his last public appearance leaving the Führerbunker (refuge of the Führer) of the surface. In the ruins of the Reich Chancellery garden, delivered iron crosses to some child soldiers who were fighting near Berlin. On 23 April, the Red Army surrounded by full of Berlin and Joseph Goebbels called on its citizens to defend the city. On that same day, Hermann Göring argues that while Hitler in Berlin, he, Göring, should assume the leadership of Germany. Hitler responded by sending arrest Göring. On 28 April he discovered that Heinrich Himmler, who left Berlin on April 20, was negotiating the surrender with the Western allies, so we also ordered his arrest.
Finally, leaving behind of Yes de si a to a Germany invaded and defeated, after midnight April 29, married Eva Braun in a simple ceremony in the Führerbunker. After a breakfast of wedding with his wife, dictated to his Secretary Traudl Junge, his testament. On that same evening, he was informed of the execution of Benito Mussolini. On April 30, 1945, after an intense fight Street to street and House to House, when Soviet troops were within one or two blocks from the Reich Chancellery, Hitler and Braun committed suicide; Braun bit a cyanide capsule and Hitler stuck a shot. Their bodies were taken by the emergency exit of the bunker until bombarded behind the Chancellery garden, where after being placed in a crater made by a pump, they were sprayed with gasoline and burned as it continued the bombardment of the Red Army.
During his youth he smoked 25 to 40 cigarettes a day until she left him because the habit was "a waste of money". She started taking amphetamines occasionally since 1937 and became addicted to late 1942. Hitler was vegetarian. Your service had a greenhouse constructed near the Berghof which ensured him a steady supply of fresh fruit and vegetables throughout the war. It publicly eschewed alcohol although he occasionally drank beer and wine in private. He stopped drinking definitely in 1943 due to his weight gain. Several researchers have suggested that you suffered from diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, lesions in the skin, irregular heartbeat, coronary sclerosis, Parkinson, syphilis, and tinnitus. In a report prepared for the Office of strategic services in 1943, Walter C. Langer of Harvard University described him as "neurotic psychopath".
Paula Hitler, last living member of his immediate family, died in 1960.
President of Germany
2 August 1934 – 30 April 1945
Paul von Hindenburg
Karl Dönitz
Chancellor of Germany
30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945
Kurt von Schleicher
Joseph Goebbels
Leader of the Nazi party
on July 29, 1921 – April 30, 1945
Anton Drexler
Martin Bormann
Oberster SA-Führer
1930 1931
Franz Pfeffer von Salomon
Ernst Röhm
Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres
19 December 1941 - 30 April 1945
Walther von Brauchitsch
Ferdinand Schörner
Reichsstatthalter of Prussia
on January 30, 1933 – January 30, 1935
Hermann Göring
Chronology of Adolf Hitler
20 April
Born in Braunau, town on the Inn in the austro-bavara border
After 6 years of wandering and misery in Vienna, Hitler moved to Munich
It takes part in the war, in the Bavarian army
He obtained the degree of Cape and it is decorated with the class iron cross
Official instructor, Hitler took part in a meeting of the party worker German", which becomes his propagandist
February 25
Presents, in a meeting, the 25 point program of the movement, renamed "National Socialist German workers party" (NSDAP)
8 November
Coup d'etat in Munich
The next day, police opened fire on a nazi demonstration
Hitler is arrested and his party set out the law
2 December
After having been sentenced to 5 years in prison, is released
During his imprisonment he wrote My fight
In the Reichstag elections, the nazis obtained 12 seats on 491
4 of September
The NSDAP obtained 107 seats in the Reichstag
1 April
Hitler, gets 13.5 million votes in the presidential elections
Elected. Hindenburg is reelected
January 30.
Hitler is named Chancellor
on March 24.
It receives full power for 4 years
30 June
Massacre of the heads of the SA (division of assault of the NSDAP), in the "night of the long knives"
August 2
Death of Hindenburg
Hitler is Führer and Reich Chancellor
September 15
The Nuremberg law deprived Jews of their rights and citizenship
November 5
Hitler needed their political ends to senior officers
February 4
It assumes command of the army
November 9
Pogrom of the "night of Crystal"
1 September
German attack on Poland; the second world war broke out
November 9
Attack on Hitler, hatched by the Gestapo for propaganda purposes
January 20
Adoption of the "final solution" to the Jewish problem
March 13
Failure of the attack prepared by officers of the Russian front
July 20
Attack on the headquarters at Rastenburg
30 April
Hitler and Eva Braun's suicide in the Chancellery bunker

Biography of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla

(1753/05/08 - 1811/07/30)
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Father of the homeland, insurgent and Mexican priest

He was born May 8, 1753 at the hacienda of San Diego of Corralejo, Pénjamo, Guanajuato.
He was the second son of Cristóbal Hidalgo y Costilla and Ana María de Gallaga.
He studied at the Colegio de San Nicolas where became rector, in the city of Valladolid (today Morelia). In the year 1778 was ordained a priest and in 1803 he took charge of the parish of Dolores, Guanajuato. Worried in improving the conditions of their parishioners, nearly all indigenous people, teaching them to cultivate vineyards, the raising of bees and directing small industries of earthenware and bricks.
In 1809 he joined a secret society formed in Valladolid , whose purpose was to bring together a Congress, to govern New Spain in the name of King Ferdinand VII, prisoner of Napoleon and, where appropriate, obtain the independence of the country. Discovered the conspirators, the insurrection moved to Querétaro where he met with Ignacio Allende.
On September 16, 1810, carrying a banner with the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron of Mexico, launched the so-called cry of pain that started the revolt and, accompanied by Allende, managed to gather an army consisting of over 40,000 Mexicans. They took Guanajuato and Guadalajara, but failed to reach the City of Mexico.
The day, 11 January 1811 was defeated near Guadalajara by a contingent of soldiers realistic. He escaped to Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, but was captured and sentenced to death. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla died in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, New Spain. His head, along with that of Allende and other insurgents, was exhibited as punishment in the alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato.
Following the establishment of the Mexican Republic, in 1824, it was recognized as the first insurgent and father of the nation. The State of Hidalgo bears his name and the town of Dolores became renamed Dolores Hidalgo in his honor. On 16 September, the day that proclaimed his rebellion, is celebrated in Mexico Independence day.
Your last day has been described thus:
"Returned to their prison, they served a breakfast of chocolate, and having him taken, she begged that instead of water will serve you a glass of milk, which sped with extraordinary display of you want and would like to." A moment later he was given notice that the hour was arrival leave the ordeal; It heard it without alteration, stood and was soon to be leaving. He left, in effect, the hateful cube where was, and having advanced fifteen or twenty steps of it, stood for a moment, because the officer of the guard had asked him if something was offered to have finally; This answered Yes, I wanted to bring you some sweets that had left on their pillows: they brought them indeed, and having them distributed among the same soldiers who had to make fire and marched back, encouraged them and he comforted his forgiveness and his sweet words so that they comply with their craft; and as he knew very well that were commanded that they not fired over his head, and feared to suffer much, because it was still the time of twilight and objects not clearly, concluded: "the right hand which I will put on my chest, will be, my children, the safe target that you must go".

Biography of Isaac Newton

(1642/12/25 - 1727/03/31)
Isaac Newton
British physicist and mathematician

"What we know is a drop of water; what they ignore is the ocean"
Isaac Newton
Born December 25, 1642 (according to the Julian calendar), January 4, 1643 (Gregorian calendar), in Woolsthorpe, a village in the County of Lincolnshire, England.
Posthumous child; a prosperous illiterate farmer also named Isaac Newton was born prematurely three months after the death of his father. Its small size and delicate State do fear about their fate but finally survive. His mother Hannah Ayscough remarried when Newton was three years old, going to live with her new husband, the Reverend Bernabé Smith, leaving the small Isaac in the care of his grandmother, Margery Ayscough. His mother had three children in this second marriage. When he was 14, his stepfather (he hated) died and Newton returned to Woolsthorpe.
From a young age appeared as "quiet, silent and reflective" but full of imagination. Be entertained building contraptions: a windmill, a water clock, a carricoche who walked through a crank driven by own driver, etc. His mother wanted to become farmers, but Newton hated farming.
From age 12 until he was 17, he studied at the primary school in Grantham. In 1661, he joined the Trinity College of the University of Cambridge, where he studied mathematics under the direction of the mathematician Isaac Barrow. He received his Bachelor's degree in 1665 and he was named fellow at Trinity College in 1667 (between 1665 and 1667 Cambridge University was closed by the plague and Newton returned to Woolsthorpe). From 1668 he was Professor. Newton was devoted to the study and research of the latest advances in mathematics and natural philosophy.
He made fundamental discoveries that were useful in his scientific career. Got your greatest accomplishments in the field of math. Generalized methods that had been used to draw lines tangent to curve and to calculate the enclosed area under a curve, discovering that the two procedures were inverse operations. Joining them in what he called the method of the fluxions, developed in 1666 which is known today as calculation, a new and powerful method that placed the mathematics modern above the level of Greek geometry. In 1675 Leibniz came independently to the same method, which he called differential calculus; its publication made Leibniz received praise for the development of this method, until 1704, when Newton published a detailed exposition of the method of fluxions. In 1669 he obtained the Chair Lucasiana of mathematics at the University of Cambridge.
Optics was also of interest to Newton. He came to the conclusion that the sunlight is a heterogeneous mixture of rays different - each of them representing a different color - and making the reflections and refractions that colors appear to separate the mixture into its components. He proved his theory of colors by passing a beam of sunlight through a Prism, which divided the light beam into separate colors. In the year 1672, he sent a brief summary of his theory of colours to the Royal Society of London.
After the death of his mother in 1678, Newton went into six years of intellectual imprisonment where only communicates with brief notes. In 1704, he published his work optics, where explained his theory in detail.
In 1684 he received the visit of Edmund Halley, an astronomer and mathematician that discussed the problem of orbital motion. Two years and following medium, established the modern science of dynamics by formulating three laws of motion. He applied these laws to Kepler's laws of orbital motion and deduced the law of universal gravitation. He published his theory in Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (mathematical principles of natural philosophy, 1687), which marked a turning point in the history of science, and that was considered the most influential in the physics work. It took two years to write it is the culmination of over twenty years of thought. Newton laid the foundations of our scientific age. His laws of motion and the theory of gravitation based much of modern physics and engineering.
In 1687 he supported the resistance of Cambridge against the efforts of King James II of England to turn the University into a Catholic institution. After the Glorious revolution of 1688, the University chose him as one of their representatives at a special convocation of the British Parliament. That same year Newton meets the philosopher John Locke, between the two is enough hours dedicated to the discussion of theological issues, especially that of the Trinity, Newton channeled its efforts on the problems of Biblical chronology. In 1693, Newton showed symptoms of a severe emotional illness. Although he regained health, his creative period had come to an end.
He was appointed inspector and later director of the Mint in London, where he lived until 1696; During his term of office was changed British pattern coin silver, to the gold standard. In that year he participated in a mathematical challenge proposed by Jacob Bernoulli, the contender was Leibniz which fails to overcome the solutions put forward by it in promptly. Belonging to the younger generation of Fellows of the Royal Societyin 1703 was elected its President, a position he occupied until the end of his life. In addition to his interest in science, also he was attracted by the study of Alchemy, mysticism and theology.
Newton also had fame for his bad temper and conflicts with other people, notably with Robert Hooke and Gottfried Leibniz.
Their years of maturity and old age passed at his residence at Cranbury Park, near Winchester, to the care of a niece, Cátherine Barton daughter of a half-sister and married to John Conduit, who was to become his most ardent apologist.
After a sudden deterioration in his kidney condition, Newton died in London while he slept, of March 20, 1727 (Julian calendar), March 31, 1727 (Gregorian calendar), being buried in Westminster Abbey, being the first scientist to receive this honor. Voltaire may have been present at his funeral.
Some biographers corrected that Isaac Newton died a Virgin. His apparent misogyny, coupled with an extreme Puritanism, prevented him from going to brothels. He left a substantial collection of manuscripts. The researchers found thousands of pages containing studies of Alchemy, reviews of biblical texts, as well as airtight calculations obscure and unintelligible. His hair was examined in 1979 and found mercury, probably as a result of its alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain the eccentric behavior of Newton in the old age.
De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinite (1669)
Method of Fluxions (1671)
Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (1671-75)
De motu corporum in gyrum (1684)
Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (1687)
Opticks (1704)
Reports as Master of the Mint (1701-25)
Arithmetica universalis (1707)
The System of the World, Optical Lectures, The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms, and De mundi systemate (1728)
Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. John (1733)
An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754)

Biography of Simon Bolivar

(1783/07/24 - 1830/12/17)
Simón Bolívar
Military and South American politician

From the heroic to the ridiculous there is only one step.
Simón Bolívar
He was born on July 24, 1783 in Caracas (Venezuela).
Descendant of a family of Basque origin established in Venezuela since the end of the 16th century, occupying a prominent economic and social position in the province.
Son of Colonel don Juan Vicente Bolívar y Doña María Concepción Palacios and white. He had three older brothers that he, María Antonia, Juana and Juan Vicente, in addition to another girl, María de el Carmen, who died at birth. Before age three years, Simon lost his father, who died in January 1786.
The education of the children came from the mother. His upbringing was you entrusted Luisa de Mijares and later the black Hippolyta.
He studied with teachers like Andrés Bello and Simón Rodríguez. Fifteen Bolivar was already orphaned of father and mother. His uncle and guardian Don Carlos Palacios, made him move to Madrid to continue his studies. With only 19 years of age, on May 26, 1802, he married Maria Teresa of the Toro y Alayza, returning to Caracas to engage in agriculture in the inherited estates. January 22, 1803, his wife died of yellow fever. By then, he had love affairs with Anita Lemoit, native of Salamis. Simón Bolívar returns to Spain and wide his studies under the guidance of the Marquis Gerónimo de Ustariz, who introduced him to the reading of the classics ancient and modern philosophers and great thinkers. Through Spain, France and Italy. In the Monte Sacro, in Rome, he swore to liberate his fatherland (August 15, 1805). In Paris he took as a lover to Fanny de Villar.
Back in Caracas in June 1807, plotted against the regime realistic. On April 19, 1810 the Creoles dismissed the Governor and captain general Vicente Emparán, integrating a Conservative Board of the rights of Ferdinand VII, euphemism after which hiding true intentions of political independence. With the rank of Colonel, he was on a diplomatic mission to London, where he managed to tip the sympathy of the British Government towards the Venezuelan Revolution. In the same English capital, he met with Francisco de Miranda , and invited him to return to Venezuela. When already missed the first Republic, due to the military failure of the Marqués del Toro, first, and after Francisco de Miranda, who capitulated in San Mateo (25 July 1812), the main leaders had to leave the country as exiles. He was awarded the passport for Curaçao, from where they traveled to Cartagena de Indias. It was there where he published the Manifesto of Cartagena (November 2, 1812), which criticized the unresolved performance of Miranda, which led him to surrender; and in the memory to the citizens of New Granada (December 15, 1812), invited them to accompany him to liberate Venezuela, after explaining to them what were the causes of the Republican failure, listing among them the adoption of tolerant system, the dissipation of State revenues and the federal system.
He began a brilliant campaign along the river Magdalena to Cucuta. From there it undertakes the so-called 'admirable campaign' (14 of May 1813), it took him triumphantly to Caracas (August 6), after retaking the towns in its path. In Trujillo he issued the proclamation of "war to the death". When the capital city was reconquered, Simón Bolívar ruled by three Secretaries of State, but not parked in Caracas, they fought in Bárbula (September 30) and in The trenches (October 3). The Municipality of Caracas proclaimed him captain general of the armies of Venezuela, with the title of liberator (October 14). On November 10, 1813 he was defeated in Barquisimeto, although, despite everything, he could beat in Vigirima (Nov. 25) and Araure (5 December). Beat twice to the realist José Tomás Boves in San Mateo (28 February and 25 March), and on Cagigal in the first battle of Carabobo (May 28) wins that failed to strengthen the army of Bolivar. This pressed by Boves, he emigrated to East in front of 20,000 caraqueños (July 7). In Aragua de Barcelona Bolivar and Bermudez lost to Morales the bloodiest battle of the war of independence (August 17). Santiago Mariño and Bolívar proscribed by the own Patriots, they departed for Cartagena de Indias, then that the Liberator issued his famous Manifesto of Carúpano (September 7). At the end of 1814 Boves died, and the Patriots were defeated in Urica (December 5).
Before the internal dissensions of the neogranadian, Simón Bolívar resigned and embarked bound for Jamaica (May 10, 1815), where he gave his famous Letter from Jamaica (September 6), considered prophetic by the visionary scope containing as regards the future policy of the Latin American countries. Jamaica became Haiti, where Venezuelan exiles named him Supreme head, and with this character organized the 'Expedition of Los Cayos' ships and ammunition provided by the Haitian President Alexandre Pétion. At the forefront of this expedition, landed Bolivar Juan Griego, isla Margarita (2 May 1816), after having delivered the day before the naval battle near Los Frailes. Unsuccessful this part of the campaign, despite having moved on to Ocumare coast, returns to Haiti, and with a second expedition landed in Juan Griego (28 December), extending the Patriot action to other areas of the East and South. April 11, 1817, the battle of San Félix, took place in which the general Manuel Piar won the victory, put at the disposal of the Patriots the immense resources of Guyana and the important waterway of the OrinocoRiver. Public authorities settled in Angostura (today Ciudad Bolívar).
Bolívar created the Council of State on September 30 and the Governing Council five days later, also founded the Correo del Orinoco (June 27, 1818) as a means of disseminating ideas and Republican actions. He established personal contact with general José Antonio Páez in Los Llanos (January 30, 1818), and with this and other Patriots heads undertook known as 'Campaign of the Center', sharing (black hole, February 12) wins and losses (Semen, March 16) with Pablo Morillo. He returned to Angostura, where you installed the second Congress of Venezuela (February 15, 1819). The Speech of Angostura is the largest speaking part of Simón Bolívar. It is a sociological analysis of Venezuelans; is pronounced against slavery and for democracy; It maintains your preference by centralism front to the federal Constitution; proposes a hereditary Senate as the Foundation of the legislative power; tipped by an energetic Executive in the British style; It makes popular education "firstborn care of the paternal love of Congress", coining the maxim: "Moral and lights are the poles of a Republic: morality and lights are our first needs". And it raises a moral power to prevent administrative corruption, which was not welcomed by the representatives from then but as Appendix to the Constitution of Angostura (August 15, 1819).
On February 15, 1819 she was named him President of Venezuela, Bolivar, man of action, he went in search of the freedom of New Granada. From Apure, with Prairie and official troops of the British Legion, it launched the 'Campaign of the Andes', which culminated with the defeat of Barreiro in Boyacá on August 7. Fleeing Bogota the viceroy Juan Sámano, Nueva Granada was free. Bolívar created Government in Bogota, naming Vice President General Francisco de Paula Santander, issued administrative measures and returned to Angostura, where he created the Republic of Colombia, with the departments of Cundinamarca , Venezuelaand Quito (December 17, 1819).
In 1820 he signed that year an Armistice and a Treaty of regularization of the war (27 November) with the Spanish general Pablo Morillo. When this was completed it was the battle of Carabobo (June 24, 1821), which ensured the independence of Venezuela. It was entrusted to the general Antonio José de Sucre the incorporation of Guayaquil to Colombia. When this was achieved Sucre rushed to liberate Quito, what you got with the battle of Pichincha (May 24, 1822), while the Liberator won cylinder (April 7, 1824) and Junín (August 6, 1824), preludes of the battle of Ayacucho (9 December 1824), RID by Sucre, with what remained free of Spanish South America.
Manuela Sáenz, who his partner will be virtually until the end of his days he knew Bolívar in Quito. After the interview of Bolivar and José de San Martín in Guayaquil (July 27, 1822), he helped Peru with soldiers and weapons. He arrived in Lima, whose Government asked him to lead the war. Peru's Congress named him dictator (10 February 1824), and managed to control the intrigues of Peruvians themselves, at the time that organized State, created schools, established the University of Trujillo, or decreed the death penalty for the fraudsters from the public Treasury; until he was forced to delegate all their powers in Sucre (October 24, 1824), by being suspended the authority to conduct the war in Peru. After the battle of Ayacucho (9 December 1824), an Assembly gathered in Chuquisaca remembered the creation of Bolivia (August 6, 1825), whose Constitution drafted the own Bolivar. When way from Venezuela, called by the outbreak of La Cosiata (April 30, 1826), was on his in Peru named him President for life (November 30, 1826); but the Liberator did not accept. In Venezuela, it pardoned the engaged in the Cosiata and held in the office of top civilian and military Chief in Paez (January 1, 1827). Dissolved the Convention of Ocaña (9 April - 10 June 1828), Bolívar issued the Organic Decree of dictatorship (August 27) in addition to suppress the Vice Presidency of Colombia, which Santander was without authority. This led to the attempt on the life of the liberator of November 25 of that year. If physically, was saved thanks to the intervention of his lover Manuela Saenz, was morally very affected.
Bolivar resigned before the last Congress of Colombia (April 27, 1830), and departed Bogota 11 days later to Cartagena. It was there where he was told July 1, that Sucre had been murdered. This ended up undermining health already resentful of the deliverer, who arrived in Santa Marta on December 1 to move then to the quinta San Pedro Alejandrino, Santa Marta, his final resting place. Simón Bolívar died on December 17, 1830.
Twelve years later (1842), his mortal remains were transferred to Caracas. Burial at the National Cemetery took place on October 28, 1876.
Liberator of Bolivia
August 12, 1825 - December 29, 1825
Antonio José de Sucre
Dictator of the Peru
February 17, 1824 – January 28, 1827
José Bernardo de Torre Tagle
Andrés de Santa Cruz
Dictator of Guayaquil
July 11, 1822 – July 31, 1822
José Joaquín de Olmedo
First President of the Gran Colombia
December 17, 1819 – may 4, 1830
Sunday Caicedo
Third President of Venezuela
February 15, 1819 – December 17, 1819
José Antonio Páez
Second President of Venezuela
on August 6, 1813 - July 7, 1814
Cristóbal Mendoza
19th President holder of the Republic of Colombia
November 21, 1819 - December 7, 1819
Fernando Serrano Uribe
Francisco de Paula Santander
21st President holder of the Republic of Colombia
February 21, 1827 – June 13, 1830
Francisco de Paula Santander
Sunday Caicedo and Santa Maria

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