Biography of Antoine Lavoisier… Nicolas Maduro… Charles Darwin… José María Morelos y Pavón… Montesquieu...

Biography of Antoine Lavoisier

(1743/08/26 - 08/05/1794)
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
French chemist

He was born on August 26, 1743 in Paris in the bosom of a wealthy family.
He studied at the Instituto Mazarin and studied law graduating as a lawyer in 1764. It is oriented to scientific research.
He is considered the creator of chemistry as a science. It showed that in a chemical reaction, the quantity of matter is the same at the end and at the beginning of the reaction. These experiments provided evidence for the law of the conservation of matter. He also investigated the composition of water and called its components oxygen and hydrogen.
Some of his experiments examined the nature of combustion, demonstrating that it is a process in which the combination of a substance with oxygen occurs. It also revealed the role of oxygen in the breathing of animals and plants. Together with the French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet and others, conceived a chemical nomenclature, or system of names, which serves as a basis of the modern system. She described her method of chemical nomenclature (1787).
In elementary chemistry Treaty (1789), he clarified the concept of element as a simple substance that can not be divided by any known chemical analysis method. He wrote about the combustion (1777) and considerations about the nature of acids (1778). More than 60 of his communications were published in the Academy of Sciences.
Member of the Academy of Sciences since 1768. He held various public offices, as the principal's State of the works for the manufacture of gunpowder in 1776, Member of a Commission to establish a uniform system of weights and measures in 1790 and Commissioner of the Treasury in 1791.
Leader of the peasants, was responsible for the collection of contributions. For this reason, he was arrested in 1793. It is judged by the Revolutionary Tribunal , and guillotined on 8 May 1794, on the place de la Concorde, Paris.
Seems that Halle exhibited to the Court all the jobs that Lavoisier had made, and it is said that, then the President of the Court pronounced a famous phrase: "the Republic does not need wise».

Biography of Nicolas Maduro

(23/11/1962 - Unknown)
Nicolas Maduro
Nicolas Maduro Moros
Venezuelan politician

He was born on November 23, 1962 in Caracas and grew up in the popular parish of El Valle.
He finished high school at the Liceo Avalos.
It belonged to the Socialist League in his years of high school and worked at a young age as a driver in the Caracas Metro. CIA reports say that he was the driver with more fines for the company. Became Union Leader becoming a member of the Board of Directors of the public enterprise. Founder of the new Union of the Metro de Caracas (SITRAMECA).
Member of revolutionary Bolivarian movement 200 (MBR-200) one of the many forms which adopted the political movement led by Hugo Chávez, after directing an attempt of coup d ' état against the second Government of Carlos Andrés Pérez. National founder of the Bolivarian force of workers (FBT). In the Decade of the 90 form part of the movement Fifth Republic, MVR, party that participated in the presidential campaign of 1998 in which Hugo Chávez was elected President of Venezuela. Elected Member of the constituent Assembly in 1999 that I write a new Constitution that same year, is newly elected Deputy to the National Assembly of Venezuela in 2000, office where he was re-elected in the elections of 2005, being appointed shortly after Parliament President.
In 2006 leaves office to enter the Cabinet as head of the Ministry of the people for Foreign Affairs power, replacing the Minister Ali Rodriguez Araque. Defender of the nation within MERCOSUR entry as well as the Foundation and promotion of important regional as UNASUR and CELAC spaces.
On 10 October 2012, after the presidential elections, was named Executive Vice President occupying the position of Elías Jaua. On December 8, 2012, Hugo Chávez declares that should be disabled by cancer suffering, Nicolas Maduro, in his capacity as Vice President, would be responsible for the post of President of the Republic until the announcement of new elections, in accordance with article 233 of the Constitution. The relationship between Maduro and Chavez goes back to the time when he, along with his girlfriend Cilia Flores were activists for the freedom of the military retiree when he was imprisoned by the coup attempt of 1992.
The 8 of March 2013, after the death of Hugo Chávez, was inaugurated interim President, 48 of Venezuela, at a swearing-in ceremony held in the Chamber in the Federal Legislative Palace. The controversial swearing-in came after a ruling of the Supreme Court, which enabled him as candidate to the Presidency without having to resign.
In the presidential elections of Venezuela of the 14 of April 2013, beat the leader of the opposition, Henrique Capriles, in a hard-fought election day. Just 200,000 votes separated Maduro's main rival. The chavista candidate achievement 50,66% support versus 49,07% of Capriles.
Friday, April 19, 2013, was invested as President of Venezuela to culminate in 2019 the term that began January 10 of that same year the late Chavez. "I swear it before this Constitution adopted by the people," Maduro said with the Magna Carta in the hand before the President of the National Assembly, Diosdado Cabello.
Pair of Cilia Flores, Attorney general of the Republic and former member of the National Assembly of Venezuela by the Capital District. Flores was elected in the parliamentary internal vote as President of the National Assembly, is the first Venezuelan woman to assume the post. They were married on July 15, 2013, in a private ceremony officiated by the Mayor of Caracas, Jorge Rodríguez, to legalize the relationship in fact that had since years ago.

Biography of Charles Darwin

(12/02/1809 - 1882/04/19)
Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin
British naturalist

"There is grandeur in this conception of life,... that while this planet has been running under constant law of gravitation, have been developed and are being developed, from a simple beginning, endless forms most beautiful and wonderful"
Charles Darwin
He was born on February 12, 1809 in the family home, called "The Mount" (del monte), in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England.
It was the fifth of six children of the doctor and financial Robert Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood. Grandson of two prominent abolitionists: Erasmus Darwin by part of father and Josiah Wedgwood's mother. At the age of eight he had interest in natural history.
From September 1818 and together with his brother most Erasmus, he attended the nearby Shrewsbury School, Anglican school. At the end of his studies in 1825 at this institution, he entered the University of Edinburgh, where he began to study medicine. Two years later he left the race and he was admitted to the University of Cambridge in order to become Minister of the Church of England. There he met the geologist Adam Sedgwick and the naturalist John Stevens Henslow. Teen borrachín and dissolute, Darwin became paradoxically to science when studying to cure in a seminar and didn't lose faith until he saw dying her daughter of tuberculosis.
In 1831 obtained graduate at Cambridge in 1831, after which joined at age 22 on the ship HMS Beagle as unpaid naturalist recognition, to undertake an Science around the world expedition. There he had the opportunity to observe various geological formations in various continents and Islands as well as a wide variety of fossils and living organisms . In his geological observations, Darwin was very surprised by the effect of the natural forces in the configuration of the Earth's surface. At that time, most geologists supported the catastrophic theory, which argued that the Earth was the result of a succession of creations of animal and plant life, and that each of them had been destroyed by a sudden catastrophe. According to this theory, the universal flood, had destroyed all forms of life that had not been included in the Ark of Noah. The others were only present in the form of fossils. The geologist Charles Lyell challenged this point of view. This argued that the Earth's surface is subject to constant change as a result of natural forces that act in a uniform manner over long periods of time.
On board the Beagle, Darwin discovered that many of his remarks coincided with the theory of Lyell's uniformitarian . Although traveling South America, also observed great diversity of plants, animals and fossils, collecting a large number of samples which would study on his return to England. Closely related species observed in the Galapagos Islands, but who possessed a different stature due to its structure and feeding habits. After this, Charles Darwin deduced that these species had not appeared at this place but had migrated to the continent from Galapagos. When he continued his study in England, came to the conclusion that, when the finches arrived in the archipelago from the mainland they found great variety of food, and having no competitors and be isolated geographically, suffered a rapid adaptation to different environments; so it appeared new species all from an common ancestor descended.
In 1836, after his return to England, he devoted himself to meet his ideas about the change of species. Found the explanation of the evolution of organisms to read the book essay on the principle of population (1798) of the British Economist Thomas Robert Malthus, who explained how the balance was maintained in human populations. Malthus argued that any increase in the availability of basic foodstuffs for the survival of the human being able to offset the pace of population growth. This could just be braking by natural limitations, such as famine or disease, or by human actions like the war. He applied this reasoning to the animals and plants, and in 1838, he had gotten an orientation of the theory of evolution through natural selection. His next twenty years dedicated to this theory and other natural history projects.
Darwin published his theory, but a year later it would appear complete as the origin of species by means of natural selectionin 1858. This book sold out the first day of its publication by what you had to do six successive editions. The reference work of Darwinism that dealt a mortal blow to the antropocentrista of the world vision provoked immediate reactions. Some biologists criticized that Charles Darwin could not prove your hypothesis. Others, their concept of variation, holding or could explain the origin of variations or how is passed on to successive generations. Although attacks on Darwin's ideas found greater echo came not from their religious opponents. The idea that humans had evolved by natural processes denied the divine creation of man and seemed to place it at the same level as animals. The hierarchy Anglican launched incendiary sermons against natural selection and the caricaturists of Victorian newspapers ridiculed scientist portraying it as a hairy and illiterate monkey.
He spent the rest of his life extending different aspects of the issues raised in the origin of species. His last books were: the variation of animals and plants under the action of domestication (1868), sexual selection and human offspring (1871), and expression of the emotions in man and animals (1872).
He was elected member of the Royal Society (1839) and the French Academy of Sciences (1878).
In 1839 he married his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and together they moved to the small property of Down House, in Kent. They had ten children, although three died when they were children.
After being diagnosed with angina pectoris, Charles Darwin died at Down House on 19 April of 1882, made after which surrendered him the honor of being buried at the Abbey of Westminster, near Isaac Newton. His last words were to his family saying to his wife: "have No fear of death. Remember what a good wife you have been to me. Tell my children to remember how good that have been with me". "Almost it was worth being sick to receive your care". His funeral was held on Wednesday, April 26, and counted with the presence of thousands of people.

Biography of José María Morelos y Pavón

(30/09/1765 - 1815/12/22)
José María Morelos y Pavón
Priest and Mexican insurgent

He was born September 30, 1765 in Valladolid, current Morelia (Michoacán).
He studied in this city and during his youth was a disciple of Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in the Colegio de San Nicolas, of which Hidalgo was rector. At the age of fourteen, he left the city of Valladolid to work at the hacienda de San Rafael Tahuejo, Felipe Morelos property, cousin of his father. He worked also as a carrier.
He taught in grammar and rhetoric for two years in Uruapan. His rich grandfather, Pedro Pérez Pavón, left a capital for his natural son José Antonio, provided that is order priest, but to marry, the mother of Morelos, he requested that the capital passed to his son in the year 1797 was ordered priest and began to serve as pastor until he joined the rebellion of Hidalgo in 1810.
Related Brígida Almonte, in Carácuaro, with whom he had Juan Nepomuceno Almonte, born in 1803, and Guadalupe Almonte, born in 1809, and although she was responsible for his upbringing and education, not gave them his surname.
It wasn't done with the control of a vast territory in the South of Mexico. In the retreat of Cuautla, breaking the site on May 2, 1812, fell off a mule causing a wound that became infected him and kept him weeks sick. The death of Hidalgo, remained at the forefront of the revolution. In 1813 he was Acapulco , and in December 1813, the realistic forces defeated him in Santa María, so it was forced to remain in a defensive war.
He convened the Congress of Chilpancingo, which issued a Declaration of independence, the first Constitution in the history of Mexico, the Constitution of Apatzingán, promulgated on October 22, 1814 - remained valid in the territories which were able to control during the course of the war of independence- and he was named Generalissimo of the insurgent Government. He refused to be addressed as "Highness", proclaiming themselves as "servant of the nation".
Congress dismissed him from his post of Supreme Commander, so he was part of the triumvirate of the Supreme Government in Apatzingan. Hounded by the troops sent by the viceroy, Calleja, he was unable to escape and was captured by the realistic in November 1815, while protecting the Congress in its retreat to Tehuacán.
They accused him of heresy and it was taken out of their habits by the Inquisition. José María Morelos y Pavón was delivered to the secular authorities and executed on December 22, 1815 in San Cristóbal Ecatepec. Coerced by their executioners, retreated in Exchange for receiving the sacraments before dying.
In 1828 his hometown, Valladolid, received the name of Morelia and in 1869 Benito Juárez decreed the creation of the State that bears his name.

Biography of Montesquieu

(1689/01/18 - 1755/02/10)
Charles-Louis de Secondat
French jurist and writer
"Happy the people whose story is read with boredom"

He was born on January 18, 1689 in the Château de La Brède.
Of noble family, he belonged to one of the most aristocratic of the ancient region of Guyenne, in the South-West of France. According to tradition, parents Jacques de Secondat and Pesnel Marie-François - who died when Montesquieu was seven years of age, who chose a beggar so it was his baptism Godfather, with intent that the child not never forget that the poor also were his brothers.
He began his internal studies at the College of the Abbey of Juilly, near Paris, where he learned music, fencing, horse riding and received the teachings of the fathers of the Congregation of the oratory, that instilled you the values of the spirit beyond the social status. He subsequently studied law in Bordeaux. Subsequently he worked as judge and would play the post of Advisor in the regional Parliament of Guyenne, in substitution of his uncle, and would enter as a member of the Academy of the Sciences of Bordeaux.
After the death of his father (1713), is under the guardianship of his aunt, who left as a legacy the family fortune, was elected Councillor of the Parliament of Bordeaux, and in 1716 he inherited from his uncle, the baron de Montesquieu, a Presidency of the Parliament and the title of baron. This same year he joined the Academy of Sciences of Bordeaux, where he read an essay on religious of the Romans and various memories politics and economic, scientific and medical trials. He married Jeanne de Lartigue in 1715, a Protestant who also gave him a significant dowry.
He became known as a writer with his Persian letters (1721). The fame he acquired this and other works opened the doors of the Académie française in 1728. Considerations on the causes of the grandeur and decadence of the Romans (1734), was his second important work, one of the first works of weight in the philosophy of history. His masterpiece is the spirit of the laws (1748), which is among three major of Political theory. Here she analyses the three main forms of Government (Republic, monarchy and despotism) which argues that it should be given a separation and a balance between the different powers in order to guarantee the rights and liberties. Most of his writings were censored by the Catholic Church and included in the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, indicating the writings listed as harmful to the faith.
The doctrine of Montesquieu's show that all kinds of Government takes shape and is divided into a set of specific laws, which relate to various aspects of human activity and constitute the structure of the Government. These laws refer to education, the administration of Justice, to luxury, marriage and, finally, to civilian life. In Latin America, his texts are read avidly at the beginning of the 19th century. In the Rio de la Plata agriculture (1802) of weekly newspaper and mail trade (1810) served as a means of dissemination of the ideas of Montesquieu and Rousseau, ferment of what would later become the 1810 may revolution, home to the emancipation of Latin America.
In the last years of his life, dedicated to justify their theses and polishing them; he prepared a new edition of the spirit of the laws (1757) and an essay, the tastefor the encyclopedia, which affirmed their solidarity with the new trends. It began to lose gradually sight, until it is completely blind.
Montesquieu died of a fever in Paris on February 10, 1755.

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