Biography of Christopher Columbus… Leo Messi - Lionel Messi… Aristotle… Benito Juarez…

Biography of Christopher Columbus

(Unknown - 1506/05/20)
Christopher Columbus
Cristoforo Colombo
Navigator and discoverer

It was born around the year 1451 in territory of the Republic of Genoa (today part of Italy), although the exact location remains in dispute. Some historians argue that it was not of Genoa, placing its origin in Aragon, Spain; others say that he was born in Portugal.
Son of Domenico Colombo, Weaver of wool, and Susanna Fontanarossa. He had four brothers Bartholomew, Giovanni Pellegrino and Giacomo, Bianchinetta.
Bartholomew worked as a cartographer in a workshop in Lisbon and as Christopher had always vocation by sea. Christopher is also dedicated to the sale of maps and charts as a youngster. It was sailor since age 15 and remote controlled boat from the 20 or 22 years old. In one of his writings, Colon claims to have gone to sea at the age of 10 years. In 1470, the family moved to Savona, where his father took over a tavern.
Between 1470 and 1476, he toured all the important trade routes of the Mediterranean, from Chios in the Aegean, to the Iberian peninsula, in the service of the most important Genoese signatures. He participated in the clash of Renato de Anjou and the King of Aragon, Juan II, the succession to the Crown of Naples. In 1474, with 23 years, he was hired as a sailor on a ship bound for the island of Khios in the Aegean Sea. After spending a year on the island, he returned to Italy financially independent. It seems that he came to the coasts of the South of Portugal (Lagos), near Sagres, after a naval battle that took place near Cape St. Vincent, the 13 August 1476. Burned down his boat, he saved his life by grabbing a rowing and swimming to the coast. He lived in Portugal almost ten years. The Portuguese learned to know the ocean and frequent trade routes ranging from Iceland to Madeira. In the year 1477, he travelled to England and Iceland, and in 1478 travels from Lisbon to the archipelago of Madeira with loads of sugar.
It seems that he married in 1479 with Felipa Perestrello e Monis, daughter of a wealthy Portuguese family. Of this marriage, was born around 1482 on the island of Porto Santo, the Madeira Archipelago, his successor Diego Colón. His wife died of tuberculosis only six years after getting married. In 1487 he took as a mistress in Spain Beatriz Enríquez de Arana, 20 years of age and with whom he had his son Hernando Colón, August 15, 1488.
1483 or 1484 he defended his circumnavigation project before the Portuguese, who rejected it. At the end of 1484 or 1485 principles left Portugal secretly and travel to Castilla. Arriving with his son Diego to some port in the Gulf of Cadiz, Palos de la Frontera, perhaps visited the Franciscan monastery of Santa María de La Rábida, where it received material assistance. January 20, 1486, the Reyes Católicos first received Columbus in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid) and then appointed a Board of experts to assess the Columbian project. While many did not give credit to what promised, never lacked protectors. Some of the most consistent were friars with influence to the Kings, as the staunch, good astrologer and understood in navigation, fray Antonio de Marchena. Another religious influential, master of Prince don Juan, and always friendly Columbus was fray Diego de Deza. A third religious, decisive in 1491 and 1492, was the Friar of La Rábida, Juan Pérez. It also had the support of some distinguished courtiers, as it was the case of Luis de Santángeland Gabriel Sánchez, Juan Cabrero . To address their needs, worked with his hands painting maps get dizzy or portolanos and traded with picture books.
The Catholic monarchs decided to support his plan. On 17 April 1492 were signed the Capitulations of Santa Fe or documento-contrato, which stipulated the conditions in which Cristóbal Colón would make the trip discoverer. The document has two parts, a preamble which reads as follows: "Your Highnesses give and grant to Cristóbal Colón in some satisfaction that has discovered the Oceanas seas and journey than now, with the help of God has Fazer by them in service of your Highnesses, are as follows is". That "discovered" is, for the supporters of the theory of Prediscovery, documentary litmus test, since Colon is attributed, before 1492, discoveries in the ocean that is now transferred to the Catholic monarchs, in virtue of which these correspond you giving a number of privileges, which form the second part of the document:
1st) the office of Admiral of the sea Oceana, lifelong and hereditary, in all what you discover or win, and according to the model of the Admiral of Castile.
2nd) the offices of viceroy and Governor on everything you discover or win. Not to speak of heredity. To cover the charges in the Indies, you can propose terna Kings so that they choose.
3rd) the tenth part of all profits obtained in the Admiralty.
4th) that all the lawsuits related to the new lands can resolve them it or its justices. This point was never fulfilled because it was conditional on the Castilian precedents.
5th) the right to participate with the eighth part of the costs of any Navy, receiving in Exchange the eighth part of the benefits.
With this capital document and other mercedes, turned to the village of Palos to prepare discovering fleet. Three boats, Pinta, Niña, and Santa Maria; a budget of about two millions of Maravedis. and approximately 90 men, recruited with the invaluable help of the brothers Martín Alonso and Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, they formed more transcendental discovering fleet history.
On August 2, 1492, Cristóbal Colón sent to ship all his people, and the next day, before the Sun, leaving puerto de Palos. The first scale were the Canary Islands, where they had to fix the rudder of the Pinta. It took two accounts about the distance traveled: a secret or real (only for it), and other public or false, which would be less. On September 13, he discovered the magnetic declination of the Earth; and 16 came to the Sargasso Sea. As of October 1 realizes that something goes wrong. 6, they have already exceeded the 800 leagues and there is no indication of land. During the night of 6-7 October, occurred the first mutiny among the sailors of the Santa Maria. The Pinzon brothers supported Columbus and suffocated him. However, on the night of 9-10 October malaise spread to all, including the own Pinzón. They agreed to sail three days more and at the end of that time if they did not find ground return. Did not lack: on the night of 11-12 October the sailor Rodrigo de Triana launched the cry of: "Earth!". The following day landed on the island of Guanahani (which they named San Salvador), current island of Watling, in the archipelago of the Bahamas, and took possession of the new land on behalf of the Catholic monarchs. On 28 October, they sailed to Cuba, and on 21 November it walked away from the fleet Martín Alonso Pinzón. December 6th they arrived on the island of Hispaniola; and 24 ran aground Santa Maria, whose remains and the help of the chieftain of the area, Guacanagarí, built the Fort of Christmas. After leaving 39 Spanish there, they followed the coast, found Martín Alonso Pinzón (January 6), and sailed to the coast of Samana. From this area, the 16 January 1493, the Admiral gave the order to return to Spain. The trip was peaceful until the Azores, where ensued a severe storm (12-15 February) that forced the PT to the spreading of the Admiral and arrive at Bayona (Pontevedra). Another storm, near Lisbon (March 4) forced the discoverer to disembark in Portugal. On 15 March, don Cristobal, under the command of the girl, entered triumphant clubs. Martin Alonso did with the Pinta Caravel few hours later. I got very sick, and a few days later died.
Following the success of the discoverer, Christopher reported to the Kings, who were in Barcelona, went to their meeting and was received by them with full honors. On September 25, 1493, the Admiral sailed from Cadiz in command of 17 ships and 1,200 men, carrying the first seeds and cattle. Out of the Canary Islands, Colon put heading more South than on the first trip to the place called the entrance of the Indies, in the Lesser Antilles. After discovering the island of Puerto Rico, reached the Fort of Christmas and found that it had been destroyed and the Spanish were dead. He founded the first city in America, the Isabela. He toured the South coast of Cuba, arrived in Jamaica, and at the end of 1494 was discovering South America (Cumaná), but he hid it until the third trip. 11 June 1496 he arrived at Cádiz dressed in a sackcloth of Franciscan Friar.
It took long to organize the third Colombian fleet. Indies already did not attract much and missing crew members. Eight vessels and 226 crew comprised the fleet, which left Sanlucar de Barrameda between February and 30 may 1498. From the Canary Islands, continued to Cape Verde and one latitude further south than previous navigations, what he did suffer a calm area. He discovered the island of Trinidad. Path of the Spanish sighted the Margaret Island, where you fished pearls, to reach the new capital of the Indies, Santo Domingo on August 20. Most of the Spanish, led by Francisco Roldán, had rebelled against the authority of the Colon. The arrival of the viceroy did not resolve the problem. Complaints against the Colon family, compounded with some other proceeding doubtful of the Admiral, as hiding the Kennel of pearls of Margarita and Cubagua, they came to the Court and the Kings decided to dismiss him.
The 23 August 1500, Francisco de Bobadilla was entering the port of Santo Domingo to replace the viceroy and Governor. There was some resistance from the Colon, which explains something Bobadilla hardness. At the beginning of October 1500, Christopher, Bartolomé and Diego Colón returned to Spain charged chains accused of starring in a despotic management in the colony of Haiti. The monarchs not replaced it in their lost crafts. They promised they would, while they charge you the fourth voyage.
With four ships and 150 men departed from Cádiz on May 11, 1502. The objective was to find a passage that would reach the spices because Colon still believing that the Antillean area was the prelude to Asia. To cross the ocean, followed a route similar to the second trip. He wore no stop in Santo Domingo. It passed through the Caribbean to the cabo de Honduras; She followed to the of Gracias a Dios and toured the coast of Panama. Not found or step, or gold, or spices, suffered the loss of two boats. 1 may 1503 putting heading to Hispaniola, but was forced to anchor in Jamaica, in the Bay of Santa Ana, where he had two ships aground and wait. The feat of Diego Méndez and Bartolomé Fiesco managing to get in two canoes from Jamaica to the Spanish managed to save them. June 28, 1504, they left Jamaica and on 12 September, in two ships, they were heading to Spain. After arriving to Sanlúcar de Barrameda the 7 of November of 1504, failed and sick, she followed to court and unsuccessfully claimed rights. In his later years became extremely religious.
Cristóbal Colón (also known as reactive arthritis) Reiter's syndrome died May 20, 1506 in Valladolid. His last words of were: "Into your hands, Lord, I commend my spirit".
Columbus begins his travels of cabotage in the region of Genoa (Italy)
September: Together with his father Doménico in Genoa signed a document which claims to be older than 19
At least once he sailed to the island of Chios as dealer
August 13: the ship that travels sinks off the coast of Portugal and Colon is brought to Lisbon
1476 1477
Columbus in Lisbon working as a cartographer and commercial agent
He travelled to England and shipped in Bristol with destination to Iceland
September-October: She marries Felipa Perestrelo e Moniz, and resides in Madeira and Porto Santo
Diego Colón was born his son in Porto Santo
War between Spain and Granada
Columbus traveled at least twice to Guinea
Interview with King Juan II of Portugal. Your plan is rejected by a Royal Commission
January: dies his wife Felipa Perestrelo e Moniz
You reach the monastery of La Rábida, Palos de la Frontera, with his son Diego
The Catholic monarchs are Cristóbal Colón
Conference of the Board of Cosmographers, which rejects the Columbian plan
Born in Cordoba Hernando Columbus, son of Cristóbal Colón and Beatriz Enríquez de Arana
Send your brother Bartolomé Colón with its plans to the Kings of France and England
Cristóbal Colón visit to the Catholic Monarchs in the Santa Fe camp
Columbus landed on Guanahani
January 2: conquest of Granada by the Catholic monarchs
The last Muslim King, Boabdil, abandons the Iberian Peninsula after more than 700 years of occupation
End of the Reconquista
March 31: edict of prescription against the Jews
April 17: will sign the capitulations of Santa Fe between Cristóbal Colón and the Catholic monarchs
August 3: begins his first Atlantic crossing from the port of Palos de la Frontera (Huelva)
August 9: up to Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, where pt is repaired
12 August: arrives at the island of la Gomera (Canary Islands)
September 6: sail from la Gomera
October 12: arrives at the island of Guanahani (possibly in the Bahamas)
15 October: up to the Fernandina island
October 15: arrive at Isabela
October 28: up to the island Juana (current Cuba)
December 6: up to Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic)
December 25: the Santa Maria ran aground in Haiti and his remains are used to build the strong Christmas, first Spanish settlement in America
January 4: aboard the girl leaves the Fort of La Navidad on the island of Hispaniola (today Haiti and Dominican Republic) and begins his journey back to Spain
February 19: the Portuguese Navy tries to apprehend in the Azores Islands Columbus on his return trip, to avoid that it report the other route to the Indies who believes to have discovered
March 1: the Caravel La Pinta docks in the port of Bayonne (Pontevedra) back from America
The scoop of the success of the expedition of Columbus was given
March 15: returns to Palos de la Frontera after his first trip
April: the Catholic Kings receive him with honours in Barcelona
May 2: Bull of the Pope Alejandro VI setting the areas of demarcation of Portugal and Spain
26 September: second trip
Cristóbal Colón set sail from Cadiz
November 12 - November 15: arrive at Dominica, Marigalante, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Santa María la Antigua del Darién, Santa María la Redonda, eleven thousand virgins, and San Juan Bautista, current Puerto Rico
November 27: find the ruins of the Christmas
January 2: Foundation of Isabela
May 13: up to the island of Jamaica
June 7: Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal, setting new zones of demarcation
March 10: returns to Spain
June 11: landed in Cadiz
January: ago testament
April: we start preparations for another expedition
May 30: began his third trip in Sanlúcar de Barrameda
July 31: up to the island of Trinidad
August 2: navigates through the mouth of snakes where notes the strength of the current of the Orinoco River that flows there and sweetens the water
August 4: enters the Gulf of Paria, is to the Orinoco delta and puts the foot on the American continent
August 5: in his third voyage to the new world landed for the first time in the American continent in the place where in 1738 will be based the future population of Macuro, on the Peninsula of Paria - Sucre - Venezuela
August 14: up to the island of Cubagua - new Esparta - Venezuela
August 15: the island's car and the assumption Island (Marguerite) - Venezuela
January 26: Vicente Yáñez Pinzón above to the Brazil coast
May 10: published the first geographical Américo Vespucio cards
May 18: Juan de la Cosa and Alonso de Ojeda set sail from Cadiz heading to the new world, where Ojeda above to the Leeward Islands (Netherlands Antilles) and De la Cosa explores the shores of Guyana and Venezuela
May 21: the Catholic monarchs granted freedom to those who travel to America
August 27: Bobadilla reach Hispaniola as Governor
September 23: Bobadilla stopped the Colon brothers and early October are sent to Spain
November 24: Columbus and his brothers, chained, landed in Cadiz
17 December: received in Granada by the Catholic monarchs
February: sale to the Spanish Governor Nicolás de Ovando
May 11: in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz, Spain), Columbus set sail to his fourth voyage to America
15 June: up to the islands of Martinique and St. Mary
10 may: Cayman Islands top
24 April: cover what would be the first Spanish settlement on mainland American Santa María de Belén, on the shores of Veraguas (Panama)
November 7: Columbus landed in Sanlúcar de Barrameda
November 26: die Isabel the Catholic in Medina del Campo
20 may: dies in Valladolid

Biography of Leo Messi - Lionel Messi

(1987/06/24 - Unknown)
Leo Messi
Lionel Messi
Lionel Andrés Messi Cuccitini
Argentine footballer

He was born on 24 June 1987 in Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina.
He has Italian ancestry; his paternal great-grandfather came to Argentina in 1883. Raised in a humble family, he is the son of Jorge Horacio Messi, Celia María Cuccittini, a part-time cleaner, and a factory worker. His birth weight was 3 pounds and measured 47 cm. Two brothers and a sister has.
Child he played street football with his brothers Matias and Rodrigo, and also his cousin Tomi. They nicknamed the flea for his short stature. With five years it starts at Grandoli, a small team of his neighborhood which his father trained.
In 1995, he spent training in the lower categories of Newell's Old Boys, club which won the Cup of friendship of Peru in 1997. At age eight he was diagnosed a deficiency in growth hormone, which prevented him from having a normal physical development. The treatment was very expensive and their parents could not afford it. Leo Messi was discovered by FC Barcelona. He left the Club Atlético Newell's Old Boys of Rosario moved to Europe with his family, where the Catalan club paid the expenses of his hormonal disease (900 USD per month). For several years he daily received two injections of growth hormone helping it to grow 23 centimeters. Finally, he came to reach 1.70 centimeters in height and wears a size 40 foot.
Messi made his debut in the first team of FC Barcelona in December 2003, in a friendly match against FC Porto, coached by José Mourinho, although his official game debut came the following year, in the season 2004 / 2005, in a League with the RCD match Espanyol, becoming the youngest player in the Barcelona in a game of the First Division of the Spanish League (16 years).
The club won the Liga 2004/05, and the following year the 2005/06 UEFA Champions League . In the 2006/07 season Leo Messi became part of the holder box, scored a hat-trick in El Clásico against his great rival, Real Madrid, ending the season with 14 goals in 26 matches played. The season 2008 / 2009 has established itself as the best player in the world and the Barcelona would get the hat-trick. Messi scored a total of 38 goals.
In 2009 / 2010 managed to score 47 goals in the season, of which 34 were in League competition. He won the Golden Shoe matching top scorer Ronaldo registration in season 1996 / 1997.
In the Selection Argentina Leo Messi wore the cuff of Captain in different parties. In 2006 he became the youngest player in the selection to attend a FIFA World Cup, which won second place in the Copa América 2007. In 2008, at the Beijing Olympic Games, Messi won a Gold medal.
They have compared it with Diego Armando Maradona, who declared him as his successor. In addition to the Argentine nationality , since 2005 it has also the Spanish. On January 9, 2012 he received theGolden Ball, FIFA 2011, in a ceremony held at the Palacio de Congresos of Zurich, after overcoming the vote to teammate Xavi Hernández and striker of Real Madrid, Cristiano Ronaldo.
Lionel Messi received on 29 October 2012 the Golden Shoe, the award which recognizes the top scorer in the European leagues. The 50 so many in 37 matches he scored in the season 2011-2012 make it for the second time in the continental top scorer, something which already got makes two campaigns, when he scored 34 goals.
On January 7, 2013 Leo Messi wins fourth consecutive Golden Ball. Did to overcome in the final vote to Cristiano Ronaldo and Andrés Iniesta and leaves behind Marco van Basten, Johan Cruyff and Michel Platini, the other players who had three awards.
In June 2013 Messi paid the Spanish tax agency ten million euros in additional personal income tax statements for their image rights corresponding to the fiscal years of 2010 and 2011. He performed this payment voluntarily after a court in Gava (Barcelona) attributed him with his father by having defrauded more than four million euros to the tax agency from 2006 to 2009 for their image rights.
He has his own Foundation responsible for supporting children with limited resources to fulfill their dreams; It is also the UNICEF International Ambassador.
On July 13, 2014, next to your selection, faced Germany in the final of the FIFA World Cup in Brazil by a goal by Mario Götze in the minute 114'. Messi was chosen by FIFA to receive the Golden Ball of the world as "Best player of the tournament".
On June 6, 2015 it attained its fourth Cup in Europe after defeating Juventus in Berlin; then rising with 26 titles and becoming the Argentine more champion of history. Barcelona won three trophies this season. The La Liga, the Copa del Rey and the Champions League, in this order.
He met his partner, Antonella Rocuzzo, at age 9, she had 8, and is a cousin of his best friend. His eldest son Thiago Messi Rocuzzo, was born November 2, 2012 in Barcelona, and Matthew, his second son, the 11 September 2015.
One of his favorite hobbies is to play with the PlayStation. Especially like football games and it seems that it is almost invincible, according to fellow. His favorite dish is the Milanese to the Neapolitan: breaded chicken breast fillets, covered by a layer of tomato sauce, a few slices of ham, au gratin with cheese. But that his mom, prepares not they serve in restaurants.
National trophies
Spanish League - F. C. Barcelona - 2005
Supercopa of Spain - F. C. Barcelona - 2005
Spanish League - F. C. Barcelona - 2006
Supercopa of Spain - F. C. Barcelona - 2006
Copa del Rey - F. C. Barcelona - 2009
Spanish League - F. C. Barcelona - 2009
Supercopa of Spain - F. C. Barcelona - 2009
Spanish League - F. C. Barcelona - 2010
Supercopa of Spain - F. C. Barcelona - 2010
Spanish League - F. C. Barcelona - 2011
Supercopa of Spain - F. C. Barcelona - 2011
Copa del Rey - F. C. Barcelona - 2012
Spanish League - F. C. Barcelona - 2013
Spanish League - F. C. Barcelona - 2015
Copa del Rey - F. C. Barcelona - 2015
International trophies
FIFA World Youth Championship - selection of Argentina - Netherlands - 2005
Champions League - F. C. Barcelona - Paris - 2006
Gold at the Olympics - selection of Argentina - Beijing - 2008
Champions League - F. C. Barcelona - Rome - 2009
UEFA Super Cup-F. C. Barcelona - Monaco - 2009
Club World - F. C. Barcelona - UAE - 2009
Champions League - F. C. Barcelona - London - 2011
UEFA Super Cup-F. C. Barcelona - Monaco - 2011
Club World - F. C. Barcelona - Japan - 2011
Champions League - F. C. Barcelona - Berlin - 2015
Trofeo Joan Gamper - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2004
Copa Catalunya - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2004
Copa Catalunya - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2005
Trofeo Ramón de Carranza - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2005
Trofeo Joan Gamper - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2006
Cup Beckenbauer - F. C. Barcelona - Germany - 2007
Trofeo Joan Gamper - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2007
Copa Catalunya - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2007
Trofeo Joan Gamper - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2008
Trofeo Joan Gamper - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2010
Audi - F. C. Barcelona - Germany - 2011 Cup
Trofeo Joan Gamper - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2011
Paris trophy - F. C. Barcelona - France - 2012
Copa Catalunya - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2013
Trofeo Joan Gamper - F. C. Barcelona - Spain - 2013
Chang Champions Cup - F. C. Barcelona - Thailand - 2013
CIMB Challenge Cup - F. C. Barcelona - Malaysia - 2013
Individual distinctions
Golden Ball
FIFA World Player
Golden Shoe
FIFA Ballon d'Or
2010, 2011, 2012, 2013
UEFA European player
2011, 2015
Pichichi trophy
2010, 2012, 2013
Scorer of the LFP

Biography of Aristotle

(Unknown - Unknown)
Greek scientist and philosopher

Born in Stagira (current Stavros), Macedonia, in the first year of the Olympiad XCIX, towards the year 386/385 or 384 BC
Son of Nicomachus, personal physician of the King of Macedonia Amyntas III. On the death of his father and his mother, Festis, and after his single brother Arimnesto, he moved to the town of Atarneus. There he had as tutor to Proxeny. He traveled to Athens with 17 years with the intention of attending the Academy of Plato. Aristotle was disciple of his and other thinkers such as Eudoxus during the twenty years that was in the Academy, where dubbed "intelligent".
Upon the death of Plato in 347 BC, he traveled to Assos, city in Asia minor in which his friend ruled Hermias, which served as Adviser, also marrying his niece and adopted daughter, Pythias, with whom he had had a daughter. Also related to Hepylis, with whom he had another son who called Nicomachus and dedicated his Nicomachean Ethics.
After Hermias be executed at the hands of the Persians in 345 BC, Aristotle was moved to Pella, capital of Macedonia, where he was a tutor of the minor child of the King Philip II, who would be known as Alexander III the great. Philip commanded to call him for being the philosopher of more fame and more extensive knowledge. His teachings rebuilding again the city of Stagira, his hometown, that had been plagued by the same Philip were awarded. For 8 years the student received a comprehensive education in the area of Mieza, near Pella. It seems that Alexander not only learned the ethics and policy, but also took knowledge of other reserved teachings that philosophers called, "achromatic" and "epopticas", and which are not communicated to the "crowd". In 335 BC, accessing Alejandro to the throne, he returned to Athens and founded their own school: high school.
Aristotle opened the Liceo 334 BC in a space close to the door of Diocares. The name comes from Apollo Licio, God whom Aristotle devotes his institution. In high school, as before in the Academy, there were two groups of disciples: who participated in the most profound teachings and those receiving simpler teachings and practices. As much of the discussions were held while they walked through the school, the Center was known as peripatetic school.
It summed up all the knowledge of his time, but he especially shone in the descriptive Sciences. He was author of the first classification of animals, father of comparative Anatomy and master of other scientists, as the botanist Theophrastus, his successor at the Lyceum. It rejected the atomic theory of Democritus and held that matter originates in the mixture of four fundamental properties: hot, cold, wet and dry, which combine together to give rise to the four elements or essences: Earth, water, air and fire, to which he added a fifth (the fifth essence or ether), which would form the heavenly bodies.
He demonstrated the sphericity of the Earth by various methods and argued that this is located in the Center of the universe. It is the first to classify the sciences, which divided into theoretical (mathematics, physics and metaphysics), practices (ethics, politics and Economics) and poetry (Poetics, rhetoric, etc.). Logic, discovered by him, as the instrument for the straight is course in all of them is not included in this classification. He also invented the syllogism, fundamental instrument of Western thought.
Aristotle wrote books, of which remain only fragments, and other notes, to the circle of its initiates, of which 47 are. The edition of Andronicus of Rhodes (h. 70 b.c.) is the basis of the Corpus aristotélicum, as has come down to us, which is composed of the following titles or collections: "Organon" (Treaty of logic), "physical" "Sky", "generation and corruption", "weather", "metaphysics", "history of animals", "movements of animals", " the generation of animals" "Policy", "soul", "Moral Nicomachean", "Moral to Eudemus", "rhetoric", "poetic" and "Parva Naturalia".
Aristotle in Chalcis, Kingdom of Macedonia, in 322 b.c. probably died of a stomach condition around sixty-three years of age. Before his death he wrote a testament by which leaves his family (his daughter Pythias, his son Nicomachus and his second wife Herpilis) under the protection of Antipater (Lieutenant of Alexander), and Theophrastus the address of the high school. Also delivered to the daughter of his first marriage in nuptials to his godson Nicanor, son of his tutor Proxeny and Alejandro staff officer.
Categories (Categoriae)
Interpretation (De interpretatione)
First analytical (Analytica priora)
Posterior Analytics (Analytica back)
Topics (topical)
Refutations rebuttals (De sophisticis elenchis)
Physics (Physica)
Treaty of Heaven (De caelo)
Generation and corruption (De generatione et corruptione)
Meteorology (weather)
Of the soul (De anima)
Small treatises of nature (Parva naturalia)
The senses and the sense (sensu et sensibilibus)
Memory and reminiscence (of memory et reminiscentia)
Of sleep and wakefulness (De somno et vigilia)
The dream (De insomniis)
Of divination for the dream (De divinatione per somnum)
The length and shortness of life (of EUM et brevitate vitae)
Youth and old age, life and death, and respiration (De juventute et senectute, De vita et morte, De respiratione)
History of animals (Historia animalium)
Parts of animals (of Guggenheim animalium)
The movement of the animals (De motu animalium)
Progression of animals (De incessu animalium)
Generation of animals (De generatione animalium)
Problems (Problemata)
Metaphysics (Disquisitio)
Ethics and politics
Nicomachean Ethics or (Ethica Nicomachea) Nicomachean Ethics
Great moral (Magna moralia)
Ethical eudemia or (Ethica Eudemia) Eudemian ethics
Policy (policy)
Economic (Oeconomica)
Constitution of the Athenians (Athenaion politeia)-work found in 1890, after the Bekker Edition
Rhetoric and Poetics
Rhetoric art (Ars rhetorica)
Poetics (Ars poetica)

Biography of Benito Juarez

(1806/03/21 - 1872/07/18)
Benito Juárez
Politician and Mexican national hero

"Patriotism not must measure the size of the sacrifices, but face them with resignation and because, before the health of the Republic, the man should not think itself, or take into account their conveniences"
Benito Juárez
He was born on March 21, 1806 in San Pablo Guelatao, of the Sierra de Ixtlán, Oaxaca.
Of indigenous extraction, he spoke only Zapotec during much of his childhood; His uncle speak Spanish and taught his nephew. Son of very modest peasants, Marcelino Juárez and Brígida García, was orphaned at the age of three years. Abandoned his people because of the poverty in which he lived escaping from the House of his uncle's December 17, 1818 to go to the city of Oaxaca.
In this city lived with his sister Josefa, who served in the House of don Antonio Maza. He was pastor and servant at home who would later be his in-laws, the Lords Maza, where on one occasion ate then-President Antonio López de Santa Anna. Years later, Juarez said that Santa Anna hated it because I couldn't stand that that Indian that served him later became its President.
His first job in the city was caretaker of a farm. It was later apprenticed to bookbinder Franciscan Antonio Salanueva, this Spanish priest protected it and thanks to he managed to study law at a seminar that continued at the Institute of Sciences and arts. It was perfectly fluent in latin. Prior to being a politician, Juarez is devoted to teaching. At age 24 he became responsible for the classroom of Physics of the Institute of Sciences and arts of Oaxaca and a year later became rector of the Institute, being the youngest to hold this position.
In 1847 he was appointed Governor of the State of Oaxaca, charge that returned to be elected a year later, for a period of four years. As Governor, Juarez doubled schools, going from 50 to 100. The Plan of Ayutla, enacted in 1854 in the calling for the creation of a constituent Assembly in the framework of a federal Constitution. To do with the power the general Antonio López de Santa Anna in 1853, was imprisoned and exiled to Havana. Deported to New Orleans (Louisiana, United States) where wrapping tobacco for their livelihood. He returned in 1855 to his country and took part in the liberal revolution that defeated Santa Anna.
He was Secretary for Justice of the new Government and began theLaws of reform'(liberal reforms), which were included in the Constitution of 1857. As Secretary for Justice, it issued a law with its name ended with the jurisdiction of the Church and spread its relationship with the State. A year later began to serve as interim Chairman after bursting a rebellion spearheaded by conservative elements. Gradually they were eating you land until you see in a situation that was fleeing the capital, so moved the new headquarters of his administration to Veracruz , where he started a series of radical reforms, such as reducing the power of the Catholic Church by the embargo of ecclesiastical properties. He beat in 1860 to conservative forces again establishing their Government in the City of Mexico.
In 1861, and in accordance with the Constitution, he was named President; with this position it created the Civil Registry, appealed the privileges of the clergy, confiscated all their property and recognized all religions. Due to the poor financial situation, caused by five years of civil war, was forced to suspend payments to foreign creditors. France, Spain and Great Britain, in protest, landed troops in Veracruz. He negotiated with Britain and Spain getting his troops to leave Mexico, but the French remained in the country and were made with city of Mexico. Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, imposed by the Emperor Napoleón III of France It was crowned Emperor of Mexico in 1864. Juarez moved his capital to the North of the country and continued military resistance. He defeated the Government of Maximilian in 1867 and was reelected President of the Republic; He devoted himself to organize the economic situation of the country, reduced army, organized an educational reform, ordered to quell the military uprisings and faced the division of the Liberals. He was respectful to the Organization of workers and artisans. Nevertheless, there were several sectors against his Government, including Porfirio Díaz, political candidate who led a revolt in 1871.
It is believed that he was initiated into Freemasonry in the Rite Yorkino in Oaxaca, while for others it was the Mexican national Rite reaching to the highest degree, the nine, which is the equivalent of grade 33 of the ancient Scottish Rite and accepted. Their initiation ceremony they attended by distinguished Freemasons, as Manuel Crescencio Rejón, author of the 1840 Constitution of Yucatan; Valentín Gómez Farías, President of Mexico; Pedro Zubieta, Commanding General in the Federal District and the State of Mexico; Deputy Fernando Ortega; Deputy Tiburcio rods; Deputy Francisco Banuet; Deputy Agustín Buenrostro; Deputy Joaquín Navarro and Deputy Miguel Lerdo de Tejada. Being an apprentice mason adopted the symbolic name of William Tell.
His wife Margarita Maza stop, was his second spouse since before he was married and it seems that he had a son although spouse is unknown the name of his first. Marriage, with Margarita this was 17 years old, while he had 37. Juarez-maza marriage, faced separation and premature by five of his twelve sons death.
Juarez spent his last months trying to end various rebellions. He died suddenly the night of July 18, 1872, at the National Palace, City of Mexico.
President of Mexico
on January 15, 1858 – July 18, 1872
Ignacio Comonfort
Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada
President of the Supreme Court of Justice
Minister of Justice and public instruction
1855 1855
Governor of Oaxaca
Law on religious freedom
Law on nationalization of church property
Announcement of the program of the liberal government
Civil Marriage Act
Secularization of the hospitals and charitable establishments
CESA intervention of the clergy in the graveyards and cemeteries
Extinction of religious communities in Mexico
Regulations for the fulfillment of the law of nationalization
In San Pablo Guelatao
He was born don Benito Juárez.
At age three he was
orphaned of father and mother;
and even though he grew up Shepherd
It was very very honorable.
All are distinguished:
male full and brave;
even the Chair arrived
seven-time President,
leaving our country
a decent reform.
It was very much pursued,
they arrive to banish;
Benito Juárez said:
"No go you to forget,
Respect foreign law,
If you want to live in peace..."
Enslave the country
looking for Maximilian,
but don Benito Juárez
fought against the tyrant;
and proved the French
What a Mexican is worth.
To defend our homeland
I fight against the invader;
was undefeated Benemérito
that humble Shepherd,
that donate you to Oaxaca.
a Crown of honor.
It was very much pursued,
they arrive to banish;
Benito Juárez said:
"No go you to forget,
Respect foreign law,
If you want to live in peace..."

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