Biography of Gregor Mendel… Napoleon Bonaparte… Martin Luther… Agustin de Iturbide…

Biography of Gregor Mendel

(1822/07/22 - 1884/01/06)
Gregor Mendel
Gregor Johann Mendel
Austrian botanist

He was born on July 22, 1822, at Heinzendorf (today Hyncice, Czech Republic).
The son of a veteran of the Napoleonic wars that exploded a small farm. In 1841 his father was crushed by a tree trunk and was forced to sell their properties. Her sister gave her part to help him in his ecclesiastical studies.
For two years he studied physics and mathematics at Olmütz philosophical Institute. He entered the Augustinian monastery in Brünn (now Brno, Czech Republic) and became an Augustinian novice at age twenty-one and adopted the name of Gregor. He began a course of four years of studies at the Theological College of Brünn in 1845 and was ordained a priest in 1847.
They assigned the Executive Professor of mathematics advanced post in 1849. In the year 1850 suspends biology in the qualification examination for teachers. He was sent to the University of Vienna for two years to study practical and mathematical physics, chemistry, zoology, paleontology, systematic Botany and plant physiology, which included the new cellular theories.
After some time he began working as a substitute teacher in the Brunn school technique where he actively investigate the variety, inheritance and evolution of plants in a garden of the monastery intended to the experiments. Between 1856 and 1863 he cultivated and studied at least 28,000 pea plants by analyzing in detail seven pairs of the seed and plant characteristics. Thanks to his numerous experiments managed the formulation of two principles that later would be known as the inheritance laws. His observations led him also to coining two terms that are still used in the genetics of our day: dominant and recessive.
The so-called law of the uniformity of the first generation hybrids , says that when cross two varieties of purebred individuals both homozygous for a certain character, all hybrids of the first generation are equalphenotypically.
He reported his findings at a meeting of the society for the study of the natural sciences in Brno, and published their results in the records of the society, in the year of 1866. The importance of their findings was not appreciated by other biologists of his era, and they were despised for 35 years. Only gained due recognition in 1900 by three researchers, one of which was the Dutch botanist Hugo de Vries, and only in the late 1920's and early 1930, was realized its true scope, especially in what refers to evolutionary theory. Their later experiments with the hawkweed Hieracium, were inconclusive, and due to pressure from other occupations, in the 1870's he had already abandoned his experiments on inheritance.
Gregor Mendel died on 6 January 1884 in Brünn.

Biography of Napoleon Bonaparte

(1769/08/15 - 1821/05/05)
Napoleon I Bonaparte
Emperor of France (1804-1815)

He was born 15 August 1769 in Ajaccio (Corsica) and received the name of Napoleone.
Son of Letizia Ramolino and Carlos Bonaparte, a lawyer who fought for the independence of Corsica.
His training at Brienne and at the military school in Paris was subsidized by the King Louis XVI. He was Lieutenant in an artillery regiment and during the French Revolution was Lieutenant-Colonel of the Corsican National Guard (1791); However, when Corsica declared its independence in 1793, Bonaparte, decidedly partisan of the Republican regime, fled to France with his family.
He was named Chief of artillery of the army responsible for the recapture of Toulon, a naval base with the support of Great Britain (which along with Prussia, Austria, Netherlands and Spain, following the Declaration of French war to the latter, had formed the First coalition against France in 1793). Expelled from the port to the British ships and finally retook the position. Thanks to this action, they ascended him to the grade of brigadier general at the age of 24. In 1795, he saved the revolutionary Government restoring order after a realistic insurrection in Paris.
In 1796 he married civil marriage to Joséphine de Beauharnais, widow of an aristocrat guillotined during the revolution and mother of two children. In 1796 he was commander of the French army in Italy. He beat on four Austrian General whose troops were superior in numbers and forced Austria and its allies to sign peace. The Treaty of Campoformio stipulated that France could retain the conquered territories, in which Bonaparte, founded in 1797 the Cisalpine Republic (Venice), Italian Republic (Lombardy) and the Ligurian Republic (Genoa). In 1798 he led an expedition to Egypt, which was under Turkish rule, to cut the British route to India. His fleet was destroyed by the British Admiral Horatio Nelson and was isolated in North Africa after being defeated in the battle of the Nile. In 1799 he failed to do with the conquest of Syria, but he defeated the Turks in Abukir. Meanwhile, France was facing a new international situation: Austria, Russia, Naples and Portugal had allied with Great Britain, setting up the Second Coalition.
On his return to Paris he joined a conspiracy against the Government and along with his companions took power during the coup d ' état of 9-10 November 1799 (18-19 Brumaire according to the revolutionary calendar) and established a new regime, the Consulate. According to the Constitution of the year VIII, Napoleon, who had been appointed first consul, had almost dictatorial powers. The Constitution of the year X, he dictated in 1802, he provided life its Consulate and finally proclaimed himself Emperor in 1804. In 1800 he crossed the Alps defeating the Austrians at the battle of Marengo and signed the Concordat with the Pope Pius VII, who defused the atmosphere in the interior of the country for an end to the confrontation with the Catholic Church in 1801. Great Britain resumed the naval war with France in April 1803 and 1805, Russia and Austria joined the British in the third coalition. It was decided that all its armies were against the austro-rusas forces, who defeated at the battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. He conquered the Kingdom of Naples in 1806 and appointed King to his older brother, Joseph; It was titled King of Italy (1805), broke up the old United Provinces (today the Netherlands), which in 1795 had been constituted as a Republic of Batavia, and founded the Kingdom of the Netherlands, at the head of which was his brother Luis, and established the Confederation of the Rhine which was under his protection. It was then when Prussia and Russia forged a new Alliance and attacked the Confederacy. It annihilated the Prussian army at Jena and Auerstedt (1806) and Russian in Friedland. In Tilsit (July 1807), established an agreement with Tsar Alexander I by which the territory of Prussia was greatly reduced and also new States joined the Empire: the Kingdom of Westphalia, ruled by his brother Jerome, and the Duchy of Warsaw, among others.
He imposed the Continental system in Europe, which consisted of a blockade on British goods in order to ruin the powerful trade of Great Britain. In 1807 he conquered Portugal and a year later appointed his brother José (Pepe Botella) King of Spain, after achieving the abdication of Ferdinand VII in Bayonne and invade the country, leaving Naples as a reward for his brother-in-law, Joachim Murat. The arrival in Spain of Jose Bonaparte worsened the war of Spanish independence. Napoleon spent some time in Spain and won several victories, but the fight was resumed after his departure, extending for five years the war between the French troops and the Spanish (supported by Great Britain), playing a key role the guerrillas fight.
He defeated the Austrians at Wagramin 1809, made the territories conquered in the Illyrian provinces (today part of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro) and conquered the Papal States. He remarried, in 1810 with Marie-Louise, Archduchess of Austria , and daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria, belonging to the House of Habsburg. With this link linked his dynasty to the oldest of the Royal houses of Europe, with the hope that her son, born in 1811 and to which granted the title of King of Rome as heir to the Empire, was accepted by the reigning monarchs.
The Napoleonic code was implemented in all States created by the Emperor, feudalism and serfdom were eliminated, and established freedom of worship (except in Spain). He was awarded to each State a Constitution which granted male universal suffrage and a declaration of rights and the creation of a Parliament; was established in the administrative system and judicial French; the schools were subject to centralized management and expanded free education system. Each State had an Academy or Institute for the promotion of the arts and Sciences.
Its alliance with Tsar Alejandro I was cancelled in 1812 and undertook a campaign against Russia that ended with the tragic retreat from Moscow. After this failure, Europe joined to fight him. His marshals refused to continue fighting in April 1814. Being rejected his proposal to renounce their rights in favour of his son, had to abdicate, allowing him to retain the title of Emperor and giving the Government of the island of Elba. Maria Luisa and her son were in the custody of the father of the Emperor of Austria, Francisco I, and did not return to see them never. In 1815 he escaped from Elba, arrived in France and marched on Paris after defeating the troops sent to capture him, initiating the so-called Hundred daysperiod. The result was the campaign of Belgium, which ended with defeat at the battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815.
He abdicated in favour of his son, Napoleón II and marched to Rochefort where capitulated to the captain of the British ship Bellerophon. An island in the South of the Atlantic Ocean was held then in Saint Helena.
Captive Englishmen and surrounded by a small group of followers, he began to suffer a pain on the right side that is identical to his father took shortly before his death, possibly because of a stomach cancer. The pain, which some experts have also pointed out that it could be caused by poisoning, was slowly consuming Bonaparte. Died May 5, 1821, at 17:49 Napoleone di Buonaparte at 51 years of age. According to people who were present at his deathbed, his last words were: "France, army, Josefina». Although he asked in his will to be buried in Paris, the British did not want to feed the myth and ordered the body not out of Santa Elena. Later, in 1840, at the request of the Government of Luis Felipe I, his remains were repatriated.

Biography of Martin Luther

(1483/11/10 - 1546/02/18)
Martin Luther
Martin Luther
German theologian who began the Protestant Reformation

He was born on November 10, 1483 in Eisleben.
The family took their surname in different variants: Luder, Lüder, Loder, Ludher, Lotter, Lutter or Lauther. His father Hans (1459-1530) and his wife Margaret, née Lindemann (1459-1531), were farmers and owners of mines. It is believed that it was the first or second son of probably in nine siblings. He was raised in the nearby Mansfeld.
He studied at the Latin school in Mansfeld from 1488 and then at Magdeburg, and then in Eisenach. In 1501, he studied in Erfurt with the intention of becoming a lawyer. Four years later is Dr. He entered the monastery of the Augustinians of Erfurt. In 1506 he professed monk and a year later was ordered priest. In 1509 he took a degree in theology and returned to Erfurt.
In 1510, he travels to Rome on behalf of seven Augustinian monasteries. It outraged the worldliness of the Roman clergy. In 1512 he obtained his doctorate and took the Chair of Biblical Theology until his death.
October 31, 1517 his 95 theses or propositions became a public figure by exhibiting at the door of the Church of all the saints of Wittenberg written in latin against the sale of indulgences to the great work of the Popes Julius II and Leo X: the construction of the basilica of Saint Peter in Rome. Quickly translated into German, they got a wide spread.
Defending their views in debates University at Wittenberg, and in other cities, so it was investigated by the Roman Church, determining the condemnation of Pope León X (June 15, 1520) of his teachings and his excommunication in January of 1521. In April of that year, was summoned to the Emperor Charles V at the diet of Worms, is asking that retractase to the secular and ecclesiastical authorities there collected. He denied making that to do so they would have to convince him with Scripture and reason. The Emperor condemned it, but the elector Frederick the wise detained it in his Castle (Wartburg), where launched its translation of the New Testament from the original Greek into German.
Disorders caused in Wittenberg by his followers was forced to return to the city in March 1521. He was involved in the peasants war (1524-1526). Thomas Münzer (founder of the sect of the Anabaptists) based their demands on the writings of Luther and although this supported many of their political aspirations, their theological arguments considered false. He took a stance totally contrary to the peasants. While the requests of these were common sense: right to take firewood from the forests, abolition of serfdom, reducing taxes, stop arbitrary punishments, etc. Stood on the side of the authorities by writing a hard allegation against the murderous hordes and thieving peasants.
He married on 27 June 1525 with Catherine of Bora, a former nun, who became his collaborator. Luther had with her three daughters and three sons born in Wittenberg: Johannes (1526-1575), Elisabeth (1527-1528), Magdalena (1529-1542), Martin (1531-1565), Paul (1533 – 1593), and Margarete (1534-1570).
After articulate their basic theology in his first writings -of Christian freedom (1519), the nobility of Christian of the German nation (1520), Babylonian Church captivity (1520), from the bondage of the will (1525) - published his most famous book, small catechism (1529) where he shows the theology of the Evangelical reform commenting briefly, in the form of questions and answers the ten commandments, the Apostolic creed, the Lord's prayer, baptism and the Eucharist.
To be banned to attend the Diet of Augsburg, the defense of the reformers, formulated in the Augsburg Confession (1530), in his friend, the humanist delegated Philip Melanchthon (Felipe Schwarzerd). His translation of the Hebrew original of the New Testament was published in 1532.
Martin Luther died February 18, 1546 in Eisleben.

Biography of Agustin de Iturbide

(27/09/1783 - 1824/07/19)
Agustín de Iturbide
Military and Mexican politician

He was born on September 27, 1783 in Valladolid(Michoacan, Mexico). Son of a wealthy Spanish named Joaquín de Iturbide and the michoacana Josefa María de Arámburu.
He studied in the Seminary of his native city and later joined the colonial army as second lieutenant of the provincial Regiment.
Accepted the Government of Viceroy Garibay when Iturrigaray was defeated in 1808. Second Lieutenant of the Army being Spanish refused to cooperate with the rebellion of the priest Miguel Hidalgo and participated in the arrest of the conspirators in Valladolid in 1809. A year later, when Hidalgo broke into the city, he decided to escape. That year also participated in the battle of Monte de las Cruces and promoted to captain. In 1811 he was appointed to the South of the country and fought the insurgent guerrillas Albino García, he took in 1812, and Ramón Rayón, which defeated at the bridge of Salvatierra in 1813. That year he began to exercise as a Colonel and he was appointed commander general of the province of Guanajuato, where he continued pursuing the rebels and began to be known as 'the iron Dragon'.
In 1815, as Commander general of the army of the North, he beat José María Morelos, but failed before the brothers Rayon in Coporo. Because of complaints made by the merchants of Guanajuato, it was ceased in 1816 by the Viceroy Calleja accused of embezzlement and abuse of authority; Although he was acquitted thanks to the support of the auditor of war Bataller. He took part in 1820 in the so-called conspiracy of professed to oppose the implementation of the Constitution of 1812 in Mexico, after the success of the liberal statement of Rafael del Riego in Spain. That same year, the viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca appointed him Commander of the South, with the mission to seek an approach to Vicente Guerrero and Asensio, who kept the (insurgency) insurgency in those territories.
With the support of the Bishops of Guadalajara and Puebla, Spanish merchants and the Creole landowners opposed to liberalism, he was able to furnish a numerous army and, after reaching an agreement with Guerrero on February 24, 1821, in the town of Iguala, published a political program that became known as Plan of Iguala (or the Three guarantees) , in which proclaimed their objectives: religion, independence and union. On February 25, 1822, a Constituent Congresswas elected, but a mutiny of the regiment of Celaya, in may 1822, he gave power to Iturbide, so was proclaimed Emperor with the name of Agustín I. When the Chamber was dissolved, created a founding Board in October, cracked down on Republicans and ceased the General Antonio López de Santa Anna, Governor of Veracruz in November.
A month later came the insurrection of Guadalupe Victoria and Santa Anna, who achieved the support of the majority of the army, forced to abdicate and Iturbide to restore Congress March 19, 1823. In April the Empire was abolished and in May left the country heading to Europe. After a short stay in Liorna (Italy), he settled in London and 13 February 1824 sent an exhibition to the Mexican Congress, announcing his intention to return to the country.
When he reached Sotola Marina, Tamaulipas, Le 18 juillet, was made prisoner, and executed in Padilla a day later.

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