Biography of Isabel I de Castilla - Isabel la Católica… Porfirio Diaz… Emiliano Zapata… Tales of Mileto…

Biography of Isabel I de Castilla - Isabel la Católica

(1451/04/22 - 1504/11/26)
Isabella I of Castile
Isabel la Católica
Queen of Castile (1474-1504)

He was born April 22, 1451 in Madrigal de las Altas Torres.
Daughter of John II and his second wife Isabella of Portugal.
At the death of his father, in 1454, her half-brother Henry IV (nicknamed the impotent) occupied the throne.
Princess Isabel was sent with his mother, Isabella of Portugal, to Arévalo, near Medina del Campo, to which castillo de la Mota was closely linked.
His early years therefore passed in the company of his brother Alfonso, two years younger, and his mother, a depressive, almost insane woman no more consolation than religion.
He received a careful education since childhood and lived surrounded by an excellent group of ladies-in-waiting and tutors included Lope de Barrientos, Gonzalo de Illescas, Juan de Padilla, Gutierre de Cardenas and fray Martín de Córdoba. Of them received a humanistic education based on grammar, rhetoric, painting, philosophy and history.
On 25 October de1464 is appointed the Prince don Alfonso as heir to the Kingdom of Castile. The 5 June 1465, Enrique IV causes rupture of the concordia agreed in views between Cabezón and Cigales, and a day later produced the "farce of Avila", the symbolic dethroning of Enrique IV and division of the Kingdom into two Obediences with the proclamation of the Príncipe Alfonso as King of Castile. The 5 July 1468 dies Prince don Alfonso in Cardeñosa with Elizabeth at his side. In the bulls of Guisando (1468) Pact, Enrique acknowledged Elizabeth as heir and successor of their kingdoms.
His conduct showed his extraordinary piety, since their protection to the Catholic Church to his will. However, at times the reasons of State weighed more than their faith. He didn't wait to have the papal dispensation for marriage with Ferdinand of Aragon, suggesting that he put the interests of the Kingdom to any other consideration. The 19 October 1469 he married Fernando, son of John II of Aragon and Juana Enríquez (of the House of Trastámara). The next day, as it was mandatory, the marriage was duly consummated in the bridal Chamber before a select group of witnesses. Both did not know until a few days before the wedding and the link was agreed. The couple had 5 children. The consanguinity of both spouses (they were cousins) was resolved through a fable of Papal dispensation signed by Pope Calixto, Bull had been falsified by the Bishop of Segovia. Enrique IV heard of that marriage had been consummated without his consent, he overturned what is agreed in the bulls of Guisando and told his daughter Juana La Beltraneja, as legitimate and heir to the throne.
On the death of Henry IV of Trastamara, 11 December 1474, the nobility was grouped in lathe it naming it heir against the rights of Juana la Beltraneja. The next day, Isabel I proclaimed with all solemnity reigns of Castile and sent letters to the major cities of the Kingdom demanding obedience. He made war with his niece Juana and triumph in the succession conflict coincided with the two crowns of Castile and Aragon dynastic union. The victorious Elizabeth demanded her niece entered as a nun in the convent of the Poor Clares of Coimbra. Therefore the Queen sought to ensure at all costs that his rival had no offspring. Owner of the Crown, served by its own power and led to the Kingdom of Castile at the peak of his prestige. Isabel and Ferdinand inaugurated the modern Statein Spain . He was with them when the medieval company of the reconquestwas completed, began the road to the territorial unit and emerged with a new internal organization authoritarian monarchy.
Started the legal reorganization of the Cortes of Toledo, the collection of the Royal ordinances of Castile (performed by Alonso Díaz de Montalvo) and the inclusion of lawyers in the Government as addicted to the power of the monarchy. The nobility, which complied with the victory of the war of succession, was also his collaborator in the new regime, strengthened its economic and social domain and legally generalised institution of the mayorazgo.
The Kings set out to end with the last bastion of Muslim in Western Europe by the conquest of the Kingdom of Nazari of Granada (1481-1492), to which it repopulated with over 35,000 castellanos. The new Inquisition (1478), was established in principle against the converted judaizaban in Andalusia and then extended across the Kingdom, the expulsion of the Jews (1492), measure complementary to the previous one, which were forced by decree to convert or emigrate, and the conversion of other religious minorities Tales as the moriscos of Granada, which tried to attract through tolerance and the preaching of fray Hernando de Talavera and , to not get it, imposed more severe methods of Cardinal Cisneros, provoking revolts from 1499 to 1501, followed by mass conversions to Catholicism.
Great effort put also the expanding overseas in the Atlantic, which started with Canary, ended with the discovery of America (1492). But after the first Columbian companies, neither she nor her husband, who followed Columbus, protecting were turned on the company.
She was mother of Isabel , born 1 October 1470, and who married the Infante Alfonso of Portugal, and his death is married cousin of the deceased King of Portugal with the name of Manuel I, the fortunate1495. It was Queen of Portugal between 1495 and 1498. The second son of Isabel the Catholic was born June 30, 1478 John . In 1497, he married Margaret of Austria (daughter of the Germanic Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg). He then was Joanna of Castile born November 6, 1479, Queen of Castile (1504-1555) with the name of Juana I. In 1496, he married Philip the handsome of Austria (also son of the Emperor Maximiliano I). The Queen gave birth later to Maria born 29 June 1482 he married in 1500 with the widower of his sister I Manuel de Portugal, the lucky. He had then to Catherine 12 December 1485, who was married to the Prince of Wales Arthur in 1502, that died a few months after the wedding. In 1509 he married with the brother of her deceased husband, who would be Henry VIII. It therefore became Queen of England.
Because of a cancer of the uterus and having granted testament to 12 October, Isabella of Castile, the Catholic, title which had been granted the Pope Alexander VI, died shortly before noon on November 26, 1504, in the Royal Palace, in Medina del Campo. She was buried in a simple grave in the monastery of San Francisco de la Alhambra, December 18, 1504. Not long after, his remains, along with her husband Fernando, were moved to the Royal Chapel of Granada, where they also rest his daughter Joanna I and her husband, Felipe el Hermoso.

Biography of Porfirio Diaz

(1830/09/15 - 1915/07/02)

Porfirio Diaz Mori

Military and Mexican politician, President (1876-1880; 1884-1911)

"In politics, all friends are false, all true enemies"
Porfirio Díaz
He was born on September 15, 1830 in Oaxaca.
Son of José Díaz and Petronila Mori. His father at the age of three.
He studied for five years in the Oaxacan seminar. In 1843 he entered the Institute of Sciences and arts to the career of laws that would not end. From 1852 he worked as a Shoemaker and Carpenter. In 1854 he was librarian at the Institute where he studied law.
In 1855 there was the revolution of Ayutla, which took up arms, joining in the mixteca to the general José María Herrera. Thus he began his military career, the 22 December 1856 was captain of the National Guardinfantry. He also participated in three wars: the Mexican-American Guerra (1846-1848); the civil war (1858-1860) between Liberals and conservatives, called Guerra de la Reforma, which supported the liberal cause of Benito Juárez and the patriotic war (1863-1867) against Maximilian I, Archduke of Austria and Emperor of Mexico.
On January 23, 1860 he suffered a defeat by the reactionary forces that responded to Cobos in the town of Mitla. On January 30, 1860 he was appointed Chief of the Brigade de la Sierra, of the Division of operations of the State of Oaxaca. On 19 April of the same year received an honorable mention by the assault and taking of the block immediately to the Convent of the conception in Oaxaca. During the reform war fought 12 battles, he was badly hurt, created a secret police suffered peritonitis, installed a munitions factory, became an expert in sudden attacks and ambushes.
In 1867 he married Delfina Ortega Díaz, his carnal niece, daughter of his sister Manuela, in that marriage has children Porfirio and light. Did not reach the Presidency of Mexico against Juárez in 1867, neither in 1871. After each defeat he spearheaded unsuccessful military rebellions, which intended to achieve power. In 1876, he starred in a long series of military actions and overthrew President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, assuming the Presidency of the Republic. Under the Mexican Constitution, could not remain in office for two consecutive terms therefore had to resign in 1880 although it continued in the Government as Secretary of development. He was re-elected in 1884 and got the approval of an amendment to the Constitution that allowed the succession of presidential mandates, remaining in power until 1911.
During his tenure, the economy of Mexico is stabilized and the country experienced an unprecedented economic development: invested foreign capital in the exploitation of the mineral resources of the country; the mining industry, the textile and others underwent a major expansion; built railroads and telegraph lines; and foreign trade increased. On the other hand, foreign investors sold much of the wealth of the country, almost all the former grounds communal (Ejido) Indians passed into the hands of a small group of landowners, and spread poverty and illiteracy. The manifestations of social unrest were harshly repressed until the revolution of 1911, led by Francisco i. Madero. He was forced to resign and leave the country.
On July 2, 1915, at the age of 84 Porfirio Díaz died in Paris. His remains rest in the cemetery of Montparnasse in that city.

Biography of Emiliano Zapata

(1879/08/08 - 10/04/1919)
Emiliano Zapata Salazar
Revolutionary leader and reformer Mexican Ed

He was born on August 8, 1879 in Anenecuilco, Morelos State (Mexico).
It was the ninth of ten children of Gabriel Zapata and Cleofas Salazar Gertrudis, small landowners, natural Nahua and Spanish descent. His paternal grandfather participated in the catch of Cuernavaca in the war against Maximilian.
To its poverty, the Zapata family diversified its activities directing them to small livestock. Thus the animals allowed them autonomy of the neighbouring sugar hacienda.
Zapata continued education primary school of the village receiving an education limited his teacher, Emilio Vara. At age 16 lost his mother and 11 months later, his father. The heritage he inherited was reduced, but enough to not have to be used as a pawn in some of the rich estates surrounding Anenecuilco. From an early age, he warned the great injustices being committed against those who worked the land. Years before the outbreak of the revolution, worked in one of the haciendas of Ignacio's Tower, son-in-law of Porfirio Díaz. Zapata was the only one who trusted to care for their horses.
In 1902 he helped people from the town of Yautepec (Morelos) that had problems with the landowner Paul Escandon, accompanying them to the City of Mexico to demand justice is done to them. In 1906 he attended a meeting of peasants in Cuautla, to discuss the way to defend against the landowners neighbors the lands of the village. In retaliation, in 1908 he was forced to join the ninth Regiment of Cuernavaca, form of punishment, which was known as cam, and which was common during the porfirian.
In September 1909 he was elected Chairman of the Board of defence lands of Anenecuilco. He gathered an army of laborers, most of them natives of Morelos, and with "land and freedom" as a battle cry became part in 1910 the Mexican Revolution , Francisco i. Madero, who sought to put an end to the regime of Porfirio Díaz. Zapata started his guerrillas in March 1911, they took Jojutla, Chinameca, and laid siege to Cuautla , which was defended by the porfiristas. He later took Cuernavaca. The triumph of the Madero, Zapata refused to lay down their weapons since still not had returned land to indigenous people. Meanwhile farmers began campaigning against Zapata, treating him as a villain.
He stopped trusting Madero, who began to serve as President in 1911, and pleaded against on November 25, 1911, by formulating its own program of land reform (known as the Plan de Ayala), through which thought redistributing land among the peasants. The first distribution of land of Zapata was in Ixmiquilpan, Puebla, on April 30, 1912. In February 1913, Victoriano Huerta is a coup d'etat against Madero and takes the Presidency by sending stop to this, who later he was murdered. During the presidencies of the dictator Victoriano Huerta (1913-1914) and the Constitutionalist President Venustiano Carranza (1914-1920), continued with their movements against the Government, extending its power throughout the South of Mexico. By then it was known as the Caudillo of the South, and was in League with Francisco Villa.
Along with Pancho Villa, who had accepted the Plan de Ayala, he entered the city of Mexico in 1914. A year later he moved to Morelos, where he continued to defend their positions against the troops constitutionalists. Zapata during this time created the first Agricultural committees, established the Agricultural credit in addition that inaugurated the Caja Rural loan in Morelos. Then, in October 1915, the Government of the Convention enacted the Agrarian law. After taking the capital of the Republic by the constitutionalists, Carranza commissioned the campaign in the South against Zapata at the general Pablo González, who on 2 may 1916 occupied Cuernavaca. Next to Luis Patiño, they forged a plan to trick Zapata that Colonel Jesús Guajardo did not recognize the Government of Carranza.
Once gained his confidence, on April 10, 1919 he was killed in an ambush organized by Jesús Guajardo, in the hacienda de Chinameca, Morelos. 17. the corpse of Zapata was exposed to the public on a case in the police inspection. The action caused a strong condemnation of public opinion and much of the constitutionalists sectors. On July 16, 1920, Guajardo was captured in Monterrey and was executed the next day. July 2 rebelled in La Laguna region against the provisional President Adolfo de la Huerta, reason by which it was executed, and not by Zapata's death.
According to the historian Edgar Zapata, great-grandson of the general, the Caudillo of the South maintained sentimental relations with 28 women, which had 30 children, however only 10 came to adulthood. After his death, many of their children were hidden to avoid reprisals from the Government.

Biography of Tales of Mileto

(Unknown - Unknown)
Tales of Mileto
Greek philosopher

Born in the 624 a.C.en Miletus Greek city in Ionia (today Turkey), first year of the 35th Olympiad.
Related to Anaximander, his disciple, and with Anaximenes, disciple of Anaximander, naming the three as the Ionian school or "of Miletus". It is the first of the seven sages of Greece, recognised for his practical wisdom.
Already in his time were recognized by their knowledge of astronomy after predicting the solar eclipse that took place on 28 May 585 BC Diogenes Laércio said that "was the first that I find one tropical to another career, and the first that by comparing the magnitude of the Sun with the Moon, stated to be seven hundred twenty times lower than that" ", and write some", which was the inventor of the seasons of the year and assigned to three hundred sixty-five days. It seems that it was the introducer of the geometry in Greece.
You realize that managed to measure the height of the pyramids by their shadow, providing it with ours when this is equal to the body, such that is, waited for that shadow of a person would have the same length as the height of the body of the same person, stating that the length of the shadow of the pyramid would be equal to the height of this.
He argued that the principle of all things is water, it all comes from. He believed that the Earth was a flat circular disc floating on water (the universal sea).
Tired of the mockery of his fellow citizens since they said that it was rare that being so wise not be equally rich. It is enriched speculating on oil knowing that I was going to have a good harvest of olives, lease took all the presses she could find, to monopolize the market, and then rented them to the price which he put and became rich in a single year. After this he sold presses and lands and returned to his studies at the same time eliminating the chances that was object.
He left no writings; and from what we know, it comes from what counts on the metaphysics of Aristotle.
Such of Mileto died 543 BC as it looked a few gymnastic LVIII Olympiad games, as recorded by Diogenes Laércio.

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