Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Anaximenes
- Biography of Karol Wojtyla - John Paul II
- Biography of Marco Polo
- Biography of Alessandro Volta
Biography of Anaximenes
(Unknown - Unknown)Anaximenes
Born 585 BC in Miletus (Ionia), Asia minor.
He was a disciple of Anaximander. He distinguished himself above all as a meteorologist and astronomer, and philosopher.
Objected to Anaximander and such from Miletus in the determination of the first principle, that Anaximenes considered to be air. He said that the air is the primary element that everything else can be reduced. He explained how solid objects are formed from the air, which introduced the notions of condensation and rarefaction. He believed that the air heats up and becomes fire when it rarefies, cools and becomes solid when the condense. The importance of Anaximenes lies not in their cosmology but as he attempts to discover the nature of reality.
He wrote a work in prose that has entitled later Peri Physeos (on nature), and which has been lost.
Anaximenes died 524 BC
Biography of Karol Wojtyla - John Paul II
(1920/05/18 - 2005/04/02)John Paul II
He was born on May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, southern Poland.
Son of Karol Wojtyla, a soldier of the army Austro-Hungarian, deeply religious and Emilia Kaczorowsky, of Lithuanian origin. His mother died when he was 9 years old and four years later his older brother dies.
Young his interest focuses on the study of the classics and a meeting with Cardinal Sapieha, takes you to consider to pursue the priesthood. In 1938 he moved with his father to Krakow, where enrollment in the University Jaghellonica in Polish Philology.
On 1 September 1939, Hitler troops occupied Poland closed all universities and with other young organized a clandestine University where to study philosophy, languages and literature. To avoid deportation to Germany, you are looking for work as a laborer in a stone quarry. He helped Jewish families so that they could escape from the persecution of the regime National Socialist. When he was 21 years old died his father and embarks on the path of preparation for the priesthood. In the year 1942 entered the theological Department of the University Jaguelloniana. During these years he had to live hidden, along with other seminarians, who were welcomed by the Cardinal of Krakow. They were in this situation until January 18, 1945, when the Germans left the city.
On November 1, 1946, feast of all saints, 26 years old, was ordained a priest in the Greater Seminary of Cracow, celebrating his first mass in the crypt of San Leonardo in the Wawel Cathedral. He was sent to Rome where he obtained Bachelor's degree in theology at the Angelicum Pontifical University PhD student is also in philosophy. Professor of ethics at the Catholic University in Dublin and at the State University of Krakow, in 1948 he returned to Kraków where he was appointed vicar of the parish of Niegowic, and teaches courses in religion in the schools. A year later he was transferred to the parish of San Florián, taking charge of the pastoral University of Krakow. In 1951 is dedicated to the teaching of ethics and Moral theology at the Catholic University of Lublin performing also in the Faculty of theology of the State University of Krakow.
On September 23, 1958 was consecrated Bishop auxiliary of the administrator Apostolic of Krakow, Archbishop Baziak, becoming the youngest member of the Polish episcopate. You will have an active participation in the Second Vatican Council, where he participated actively, especially in the committees responsible for developing the dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium and the conciliar Constitution Gaudium et Spes. On January 13, 1964, because of the death of Archbishop Baziak, occupies the seat of Krakow as a holder. In 1966 Pope Paul VI makes Krakow Archdiocese. In May 1967, at the age of 47, is appointed Cardinal by Pope Pablo VI. Against the authorities, he opened a church in Nowa Huta, a Communist city. In 1975 attends the 3rd Symposium of bishops European, which is entrusted the introductory address: "the Bishop as server of the faith". That same year he directed the spiritual exercises for Pablo VI and the Vatican Curia.
In 1978 death Pablo VI was elected new Pope Cardinal Albino Luciani 65-year-old who took the name John Paul I. The new Pope died a month after his appointment, and on October 15, 1978 Karol Wojtyla is elected as the successor of St. Peter, breaking with the tradition of more than 400 years of Italian Popes. Pontiff, elected on October 16, 1978, chose the same names which his predecessor had taken: John Paul.
Since the beginning of his pontificate, he made 95 pastoral journeys outside Italy, and 141 of this country; Its main documents include: 13 encyclicals, 13 Apostolic exhortations, 11 Apostolic constitutions and 41 Apostolic letters. The Pope has also published two books: "Crossing the threshold of hope" (October 1994) and "gift and mystery: on the fiftieth anniversary of my priestly ordination" (November 1996). John Paul II has presided over 131 ceremonies for beatification - that proclaimed blesseds 1282 - and 43 canonizations, with a total of 456 santos. He has held 8 sessions, during which it has named 201 Cardinals. He has also chaired 6 plenary assemblies of the College of Cardinals. Since 1978, presided over 15 assemblies of the Synod of bishops: ordinary 6 (1980, 1983, 1987, 1990, 1994, 2001), 1 extraordinary general (1985), and 8 special (1980, 1991, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998  and 1999). No other Pope has been found with as many people as Juan Pablo II: figures, more than 16 million pilgrims participated in the more than 1000 general audiences that are held on Wednesdays. That number does not include other special audiences and religious ceremonies [more than 8 millions of pilgrims during the Great Jubilee of the year 2000] and the millions of faithful that the Pope has been found during the pastoral visits in Italy and in the rest of the world. You must also remember the many personalities of Government that has interviewed during 38 official visits and 650 hearings or meetings with heads of State and 212 audiences and meetings with Prime Ministers. The Polish Pope, the Pope has been successively by Karol Wojtila, Maria Pope, renewing the social doctrine of the Church Pope, the Pope of young people, the Pope of forgiveness and peace.
On May 13, 1981 in Vatican square, the Turk Ali Agca fired two shots which were killed. John Paul II always maintained he was saved by the intervention of the Virgin. That day celebrating the Virgin of Fatima. According to the Pontiff a hand shot - that of the Turkish - and another, the Virgin, deflected shot that grazed him vital parts, without damaging them. 'Agostino Gemelli', where underwent surgery was transferred to the Roman policlinico and she was 55 centimeters of bowel removed. On June 20, 1981, 17 days after having been discharged, returned to the 'Gemelli' to be treated an infection of cytomegalovirus, for operation. On July 12, 1992 he was involved of a tumor in the colon in the 'Gemelli'. The operation lasted four hours and a benign tumor the size of an orange was removed. At the same time the gallbladder was removed him and detected gallstones. On 11 November 1993, during a hearing, he fell and there was a dislocation of his right shoulder with the glenoid fracture. That same day it was operated at the Gemelli. In 1994 broke the femur in his right leg to slip as he left his private Vatican apartment bathtub. For the fifth time he returned to the hospital, where was implanted a titanium prosthesis to replace him the head of the femur, forcing him to walk for several months, leaning on a cane. In the month of March 1996 a febrile attributed to a digestive disorder forced him to bedrest for a week. In less than three months he suffered other two intestinal disorders. On 8 October 1996 it returned to be entered in the 'Gemelli' to undergo appendicitis prior to the removal of adhesions loco-regionales. In June 1999 during his eighth trip to Poland fell in the Nunciature in Warsaw, opening a wound in the forehead that forced three points of suture is applied. In March 2002 he was diagnosed with arthritis in his right knee, which forced him to give up chairing some rites of the Holy week and was unable to walk the stations of the cross along the Colosseum in Rome. Anyway, he took the cross in the last two seasons. Until the middle of October 2003, when he celebrated the 25th anniversary of pontificate I read the beginning and final speeches, but that date - when he beatified mother Teresa of Calcutta and held its ninth session - already do not read paragraph texts.
John Paul II underwent a tracheotomy on February 24, 20He returned to his stays at the Vatican on March 13, but his health deteriorated and appeared very tired in the events of Easter week, where could just to say a Word to the faithful. The last John Paul II's public appearance was on March 30, 2005, when he looked out the window of his Chambers to bless the faithful. That day the people who gathered in St. Peter's square in Rome could see the Pope badly damaged. He tried to speak, but he did not. On the afternoon of March 31, 2005, an infection in the urinary tract, was diagnosed him after which took place "a septic shock with cardiovascular collapse". Despite the gravity of the situation, Juan Paul II asked not be taken to the Gemelli hospital and stay in his quarters in the Vatican.
He died at 21:37 local time on April 2, 20The cause of death was a septic shock ( sepsis) and a I irreversible cardiocirculatory collapse.
At 10 o'clock in the morning of May 1, 2011 began the ceremony of her beatification. His successor on the throne of St. Peter, Benedict XVI, presided over the events at the entrance of the Basilica, with the top brass of the Catholic hierarchy and numerous foreign authorities. "John Paul II, Pope, from now on later to be called blessed and that your party in places and according to the rules established by law, every year on October 22 can be held." With these words pronounced in latin Benedict elevated to the altars to his immediate predecessor.
The blessed San Juan XXIII and San Juan Pablo II were inscribed in the book of the Saints. The father Francisco presided over the ceremony of canonization of two of his predecessors. The Pope proclaimed Saints to his two great predecessors of the 20th century, which, from that moment, called San Juan Pablo II and San Juan XXIII. They were 10:15 in the morning of the divine mercy Sunday, April 27, 20
Biography of Marco Polo
(1254/09/15 - 1324/01/08)Marco Polo
Italian traveller and writer
He was born September 15, 1254 Venice, Republic of Venice.
Son and nephew of merchants Venetians who accompanied on one of his trips (1260) from Bukhoro, in Uzbekistan, to China, where they remained for some years inKaifeng, Eastern mongol emperor Kublai Jancapital, and returned to Venice in 1269.
Two years later they made their second trip to China. By land from Acre (Israel) to Hormuz, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf. Thence, northward, through Iran to the Oxus (Amu-Darya) River in central Asia. Then they ascended by the Oxus, crossed Pamir and came to Lob Nor region, in the province of Sinkiang (Xinjiang Uygur), in China, and finally crossed the Gobi desert and came to the Court of Kublai Khan, then in city Shangdu (Shang - your), China, in 1275.
They were the first Europeans who visited most of the territories who toured during his trip. He was part of the diplomatic corps of Kublai Khan, and for three years was Governor of the china's Yangzhou city (Yangchow). His father and uncle were military advisers of the emperor. They stayed in China until the year 1292, when they departed as bodyguards of a Chinese princess in a journey by sea to Iran, where they arrived through Sumatra, South of India, the Indian Ocean, and Persian Gulf. Then continued overland beyond of Tabriz, in northwestern Iran, along the eastern coast of the Black Seaand Constantinople. They finally came to their city, Venice, in 1295.
In the year 1298 was Captain of a Venetian galley in the battle between the fleets of Venice and Genoa. It was captured by the Genoese. During his imprisonment he gave to a colleague the account of his travels. In 1299 he was released and returned to Venice.
His work the travels of Marco Polo is probably the most famous and influential of all history travel book. It was the first contact with the reality of China, as well as the first news on other countries like Siam (Thailand), Japan, Java, Cochinchina (now a part of Viet Nam), Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Tibet, India and Burma.
It served as a model to develop the first reliable maps of Asia that were made in Europe, and aroused interest in the East, which culminated in the discovery of America in 1492, when it was intended to reach the far East which had been described in Columbus .
Marco Polo died January 8, 1324.
Biography of Alessandro Volta
(1745/02/18 - 1827/03/05)Alessandro Volta
Born February 18, 1745 in as, a village in the then Duchy of Milan, in the bosom of a wealthy family.
His father Filippo Volta was of noble lineage; his mother Donna Magdalena was the Inzaghi family.
Against the wishes of his parents, who wanted to study a legal career, he opted for the sciences. At the age of 18 he performed electrical experiments and maintained correspondence with European electric researchers. His first scientific work led by title "on the attractive electric fire force" in 17In 1774 he worked as Professor of physics at the Royal School of as and in the following year developed an improved version of the electrophorus of Johannes Carl Wilcke, a device that allowed transfer electricity to other objects and generate static electricity.
Between 1776 and 1777 dedicates itself to the chemistry, studying atmospheric electricity devised experiments such as the ignition of gases by an electric spark in a closed vessel. In 1778, it occupies the Chair of experimental physics of the University of Pavia, where he worked until his retirement in 18In 1779 he was appointed lecturer in the University of Pavia, where he met Luigi Galvani.
About 1800 he had developed called Volta cell, forerunner of the electric battery, which produced a steady flow of electricity. For his work in the field of electricity, Napoleon named him count in 1801 the same year that ended his famous controversy with Luigi Galvani on animal electricity. In 1780 Galvani discovered what he called «animal electricity» or «bioelectrogenesis» to check that the contact of two different metals with a frog muscle originating the emergence of electric current. Volta defended the use of animal tissue was completely unnecessary for the generation of electric power. In 1800 came the end of the dispute with its innovative photovoltaic battery, which lay the foundations for the massive use of electricity.
Unveiled worldwide their stack in a letter sent to the President of the Royal Society of London, and consisted of a series of pairs of (stacked) disks of zinc and copper (or also of silver), separated from one another by pieces of cardboard or felt impregnated with water or brine, measuring about three centimeters in diameter. These discs, to be connected in series allowed to increase the tension at will.
Power unit known as Volt was named in his honor. On May 1, 1806 he was elected as Knight of the iron Corona of the Kingdom of Lombardy. In 1809 he was appointed Senator of the Court and, in 1810, the noble title of count is given. Napoleón Bonaparte gave the gold medal to merit scientist. His works were published in five volumes in the year 1816, in Florence.
In 1794, he married a Lady of the aristocracy as, Teresa Peregrini, with whom he had three children: Giovanni Flaminio and Zanino.
Alessandro Volta spent his last years of life at his estate in Camnago, near Como, where he died on March 5, 1827.