Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia… Bette Davis… Le Corbusier… Louis-Philippe of France… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Encyclopedia of Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia
  2. Biography of Bette Davis
  3. Biography of Ivan Graziani
  4. Biography of Le Corbusier
  5. Biography of Carole Lombard
  6. Biography of Louis-Philippe of France
  7. Biography of Matteo Ricci
  8. Biography of Amalia Rodrigues
  9. Biography of Anwar al-Sadat
  10. Elisabeth Shue biography
  11. Biography of Alfred Tennyson
  12. George Westinghouse biography

Biography of Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia

Responsibility and vocations
May 24 1751
6 October 1819

Who is Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia?

Charles Emmanuel was born in Turin on 24 may 1751, the eldest son of Victor Amadeus III and Maria Antonietta of Spain. On 21 September 1775 he married Maria Clotilde, sister of Louis XVI.
Very truly,-as, indeed, even his wife--in the years immediately before the accession retires to a convent. Happens to Vittorio Amedeo III in 1796, at a time when the liberal principles of the French revolution have invested all of Europe, including that of his Kingdom, and Napoleon's troops are rampant in Italy.
His father had been forced to cede to France a part of Piedmont. Meanwhile, the unrest of the Jacobins, encouraged by the French in order to weaken the authority of the King, are growing, as well as the rivalry with the democratic Government. The resulting conflict, in June 1798, is a pretext for French military intervention there ends but installs their own troops in the Citadel of Turin. He becomes essentially a prisoner of the French who force him, for example, to implement reforms that abolished feudal rights and privileges. But it is only the prelude to the invasion of its mainland States: on 7 December of the same year cannot avoid yielding the entire Piedmont to the French and to retreat in Sardinia, after being in Parma and Florence.
So describes its departure Count Luigi Cibrario, historian and statesman, in his book "origin and progress of the monarchy of Savoy": "At 10 p.m. the December 9 1798, King Charles with his family. Thirty cars, accompanied by lackey, escorted by Dragoons, who carried in hand torches to wind, but moved in country Tantico symbol of nationality. After entering France's troops, in which is incorporated the Piedmont ".
Piedmont, instead of being declared a Republic, as Paris had hinted, is then incorporated by France. After the destruction of Napoleon's fleet, at the hands of Admiral Nelson, in the spring of 1799, the French are driven back from Italy, but to the King of Sardinia doesn't change anything because the Austrians, hatching expansionist in Piedmont, not agree upon his return.
The many humiliations suffered by France, the death sentence of brothers-in-law Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, the news of Napoleon's risen to Console and become, de facto, military dictator but, above all, the loss of his beloved Maria Clotilde in March of 1802, deprive of all energy causing it, three months later, the abdication in favour of his brother Victor Emmanuel.
Since then embraces entirely faith-that had always accompanied-by being the Jesuit friar and exercising its role in the Church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale in Rome. Here Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia 6 October 1819, dies, 68 years old, and his Church is buried.
That of Carlo Emanuele is a singular story, because it is about a man woefully inadequate to roles of political responsibility-much to let his wife handle it--and instead, attracted by mysticism, by silence, reflection and prayer. And the more warlike as these two aspects are contradicting the timing of his brief and ill-fated reign.

Biography of Bette Davis

The eyes of the drama and his art
April 5, 1908
October 6, 1989

Who is Bette Davis?

Woman with a strong personality, with a strong character and resolute, Bette Davis was one of the most famous and popular Hollywood actresses of his time; He brought to the screen often ambiguous and haughty woman figure, psychologically treacherous and controversial. With great charm, with a decidedly unconventional beauty, which did not respond to the canons then in vogue, Bette Davis had a physique, a face from irregular features, and two bulging eyes. But his look is ambiguous, its sophistication, and his remarkable dramatic temperament, they could attract more good legs.
Ruth Elizabeth Davis was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, USA, on April 5, 19Anglo-Welsh ancestry on his father's side, French from mother's side, the actress after her parents divorced spent his childhood with his mother. After studying dance with Martha Grahm, and after graduating from Cushing Academy "," Bette decide to pursue acting but is rejected to clicks to get to "Eva LeGallienne's Manhattan Civic Repertory".
Then chooses to subscribe to "John Murray Anderson's Dramatic School where he attended drama classes along with an equally young Katharine Hepburn.
In 1929 her Broadway debut in the show Bette Davis "Broken Dishes"; the following year he won an award as best young actress of the year and immediately leaves for Los Angeles, with a gig at Universal, who will leave in 1932 for Warner Brothers.
The first notable films is "The man who played God (1932) by John g. Adolfi. But the real success came when in 1934 Warner surrendering momentarily to RKO, to play the role of Mildred in "of human bondage" (Of Human Bondage, 1934) by John Cromwell, films that makes her a star. This will be the first of many interpretations of the icy and treacherous women, which makes Bette Davis to demonstrate a wizardry, and that will make her acclaim from both audiences and critics.
In 1936 he won his first Oscar with "Paura d'amare" (Dangerous, 1935) by Alfred e. Green. Strong success, Bette Davis begins to reject conventional roles that the study proposes, and to demand from manufacturers of scripts to its dramatic potential. Thus, in 1936, unsatisfied by shoddy proposals for Warner, he left for England, where he signed a contract for two films, for the sum of £ 20,000.
Studio le sues, and she is forced to return to Hollywood.
In 1939 received his second Oscar for "Jezebel" (Jezebel, 1938) by William Wyler, the film that represents the response from Warner Bros in "gone with the wind" (Gone with the wind, 1939) by Victor Fleming, starring Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh, the massive blockbuster of Mgm (based on the novel by Margaret Mitchell) released in theaters shortly before , in which Bette Davis would have to interpret the protagonist.
In the years ' 40, except in rare cases (such as in "the little foxes", The Little Foxes, 1941, by William Wyler, and "now, Voyager," Now, Voyager, 1942, Irving Rapper), the actress plays a series of rather mediocre, utterly unworthy of its invaluable interpretive talent.
In 1950 returns to prominence when, after leaving Warner for 20th Century Fox, plays the difficult and troubled fictional has-been Margo Channing in "all about Eve" (All About Eve) by Joseph l. Mankiewicz, for which he received his eighth Oscar nomination. In this masterpiece of Hollywood cinema, that Lampoons with sarcasm and bitterness on the world of theatre, her acting is now painful now jeering, but still veiled by the deep feeling that distinguished.
In the years ' 50 the actress back to participate in some movies, almost all of them poor, which cause it to seek refuge for a short time in theater. The movie career is resurrected again in 1962, thanks to the extraordinary and poignant portrayal of former child prodigy "Baby" Jane Hudson in the drama "what ever happened to Baby Jane?" (What ever happened to Baby Jane?) by Robert Aldrich, starring opposite of rival and enemy ever Joan Crawford, in a truly exceptional interpretative duel.
Starting from the mid ' 60 Bette Davis, thanks to the enormous success of her performance in the film Aldrich (which had earned him a new nomination) will live an authentic life. In 1965, again directed by Aldrich, plays the role of troubled Charlotte in "Floor ... floor, sweet Charlotte" (Hush ... Hush, Sweet Charlotte, 1965), involving film halfway between the drama and horror.
Starting in the mid-70 's l'attrice is active in especially on tv, as well as some tv-movie inspired by the novels of Agatha Christie.
In recent years, Bette Davis has to cope with poor health, but reacts brilliantly, so that in 1987 back on the big screen to play the blind sister of Lillian Gish role in touching "the whales of August" (The whales of August) by Lindsay Anderson, which gives extraordinary skill test again.
Bette Davis dies sometime after, on October 6, 1989, in a Paris hospital at the age of 81 years, killed by an incurable disease.
A few days earlier had accepted the award which the jury of the Festival of San Sebastian had conferred for his splendid career.

Biography of Ivan Graziani

Genuine tenderness
October 6, 1945
January 1, 1997

Who is Ivan Graziani?

Passed away in 1997, fans wait for him the usual wave of "revaluation" who regularly tap artists of little or no value considered when they were alive, perhaps in favor of more mediocre Fiddlers. Yet the abruzzese (but mother sarda) Ivan Graziani, born in Teramo on October 6, 1945, has drawn a series of cantabile and expressive tenderness of great unforgettable songs (see the series of titles dedicated to women's names).
It is likely that, as in all things, even in this case a fate some malevolent took the proverbial zampino. After having chewed music since childhood--particularly the rock-Ivan Graziani founded in the years ' 60 the group ' Anonima sound ", after graduating from graphic arts took more out of duty than out of conviction. With the group participates in the Cantagiro of 1967 with the song "go ahead", finishing last; the boys however are based the following year with "my love is your love", which gets a good placement in the section. Ivan finally manages to record with his band, five 45 rpm of mediocre success. But being able to enter the world of professional music opens the doors to many collaborations.
In 1974 finally starts a career as solo singer-songwriter with the LP "La città che io vorrei", and two years later are his guitars on the album by Lucio Battisti "La batteria, il contrabbasso, etc." And it is precisely the great the first Baptists to believe in him. Also in 1976 he released a recording released by the record company Numero Uno, duo property Mogol-Battisti: "Ballade 4 seasons". Unfortunately sales are well below expectations.
The following year Garza tried again and the sweet song "Lugano goodbye" is the first hit in the audience, who launches the album "Wolves". It's his first real gratification, with nearly ten thousand copies sold.
In 1978 another new album, "Lazy", that of consecration: "Mona Lisa", "lazy" and "Pauline" are real catchy, constantly re-proposed by the radios of the period. These were the years in which the tender Ivan Graziani is shipshape, the years in which the audience follows him with that fidelity then diminished in the following decade. In 1979 "Agnes" becomes a hit, while in 1980 "Florence (sad song)" makes the musical star of the moment Ivan Graziani. Initiator for him are wasted. He was called to compose the soundtrack of "the great ROAR" and in 1981, in addition to producing "sine, cosine and", appears in the film "Italian boys".
Arrived in top, hence begins its slow downward parabola. His later works, "Ivan Graziani" and "nine," are undoubtedly valuable album, but oddly they don't get the consent hoped. Starts a phase a bit obscure and unproductive: the mediocre "Piknic" of 1986 it was clear evidence (you can save only the rock of "Single" and the classic "not you Rosanna"), although a few years after the singer-songwriter seems to resurrect fortified and still full of ideas, as evidenced by the beautiful "Ivangarage". The public, however, seems to have just abandoned.
Kids discover it with "Damn Slanderers" in Sanremo Festival in 1994, that Ivan had already competed in 1985 with "Franca ti amo": sales of the disks remain on figures not exciting. It must be said that Garza was an artist who has never tried the popularity at any cost, nor did he ever "polluted" his artistic work embracing logic blatantly commercial. As a songwriter he always remained attached to his poetry, usa to tell the reality in the province. A subject that is perhaps not very impressive but definitely real and genuine.
The day January 1, 1997 songwriter, not yet three year old, went off at his home in Sydney suffering from an incurable disease.
In 1988 he released a novel-diary, "Chieti", the tale of a month, from 19 November to 19 December 1971, spent by the military hospital, during their military service.

Biography of Le Corbusier

On a human scale
6 October 1887
August 27, 1965

Who is Le Corbusier?

Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (who later would assume his paternal ancestors, remembering the name of Le Corbusier), was born on 6 October 1887 in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, where he studied at the art school, moving then, on the advice of his teacher Charles The Esplattenier, towards architecture (but, as well as an architect, he was also an urban planner, painter, sculptor and writer). His true homeland is still considered the France, its main theatre of each critical task and project.
At the age of fourteen, he enrolled in the art school of his home town and when he turned eighteen made his permanent home. From 1906 to 1914 travels to many countries of Europe, staying mainly in Vienna, where it comes in contact with the Vienna secession, and in Berlin, where, in the study by Peter Beherens knows Gropius and Mies Van der Rohe. Visiting the main cities of Italy earns a large sketch book of architecture of the past with a margin of each drawing annotations and notes on materials, colors, shapes. This captures a cultural background that has its roots in the past and to highlight his passion for architecture, although he has never accomplished regular studies in this area.
Only around 1920 really began working as an architect. During his apprenticeship he worked in Berlin and then Paris, where he will have the opportunity to deepen inter alia his interest in modern painting.
Initially he worked in the studio of Auguste Perret (until 1922), then with Pierre Jeanneret opened his legendary architecture firm in Paris, located in the Rue de Sèvres to During the same period, together with a. Ozenfant and Dermèe, the magazine "avant-garde. The Esprite noveau ". Almost immediately opposed by the academicians for his alleged revolutionary style, is subsequently recognized worldwide, leaving an indelible and profound in architectural and urban modern concepts. The fundamental problem that arises with architect has two aspects: on the one hand to organize the urban space, so that the city can easily accommodate the broad masses of workers of every social level, linked to the simultaneous activities, on the other hand build buildings capable of responding to the needs of collective and individual life of those same masses.
His design system is based therefore rational systems, with simple shapes and forms, in accordance with the principles of "Functionalism". In addition, many new methods for engineering were introduced by Le Corbusier. Flat roofs with roof garden, for example, is an important contribution of architecture: it consists of a large area situated on the sand banks, with the addition of large green areas below the House. In his tireless experimentation also manages to touch the opposite sides in a variety of languages, as evidenced by the villas La Roche-Jeanneret and Savoye (1929/31)), "l'unite of abitation" of Marseilles (1947/52), the chapel of Notre-Dame-Du-Haut on the top of a hill overlooking the village of Ronchamp (1950/54), the convent of the Dominicans Tourette, La Maison De l'homme in Zurich and the hospital in Venice.
In the same year exhibition, the Salon d'Automne, his plan of a city for Three million people, which will be a cornerstone for future urban studies.
The following year he published "Toward an architecture," the most important book of architecture of the first half of the last century, an explosive manifesto argues that the commitment in the renewal of architecture can replace the political revolution, can achieve social justice. In the book are three of the five points: the pilotis, the roof gardens and the Ribbon window. To these three elements will be added a few years later the free façade and the free plan. Are the famous "five points of a new architecture" applied with teorematici in one of the most important works of architectural rationalism, villa Savoye in Poissy of 1929.
In 1927 he won first prize in an international competition of ideas for the design of the Palace of the League of Nations in Geneva. The project was not, actually, ever made.
In 1925-29 his design for the Centrosoyus (Central Economic Planning Ministry) in Moscow was put in place; in 1932 was built in Paris the Swiss University Dormitory City. In 1936, Le Corbusier designed the headquarters of the Ministry of education of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro.
Urban planning projects drawn up by Le Corbusier worth highlighting to Algiers (begun in 1930), São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Barcelona (1933), Geneva, Stockholm, Antwerp and Nada (1934).
His project for a new Museum was built in Tokyo in 1929.
In those years, then, wrote an influential book about issues related to the design of the city, La Ville Radiouse, which was published in 1935.
Do not overlook its also not strictly architectural production, but more related to design. The Le Corbusier, for example, created in collaboration with p. Jeanneret and c. Perriand, exposed in 1929 at the Salon d'Automne in Paris, left puzzled visitors, due to the fact that they seemed to want to enhance a concept above all other considerations: to be the concrete expression of their own function. What is a seat, if not an object that performs its task by accepting the human body into a semi-erect posture? The designer focuses its action on the concept of profit and needs to be used. Around the simplest structure, that of a metal tube elected to object's primary support, we organize the basic components of each type of sitting: it does containment cage or support system. These pieces of furniture were conceived as the right tools to live properly spaces built for the modern man: even today, fits seamlessly into the everyday habitat, and this is mainly due to the belief of The Crbusier to express in the concreteness of the utility, the new value proposed by the combination of form and function. In this way the object, stripped of ornament, recovers its irreducible inner beauty, expressing its nature in harmony of the new shape is simple and essential.
In 1944 he returned to the atelier in Paris, and in 1946 he moved to New York where his genius innovator was finally recognized.
Died in August 1965 in Roquebrune on the French Riviera.
The five points expressed in "towards an architecture":
The Pilotis. Solve a problem scientifically means first of all distinguish its elements. In a building can undoubtedly separate load-bearing parts and not. Instead of the primitive Foundation, upon which rested walls, reinforced concrete allows using point and foundations in place of walls pillars. The pilotis raise the House above the ground, the spaces are subtracted to soil moisture and have light and air. The area occupied by the building remains to the garden that passes under the House, the garden is also above the House, on the roof.
The roof garden. The flat roof requires first a logical residential purposes use: roof-terrace, roof-garden. The concrete requires a protection from sudden changes of temperature, to ensure a longer life. The roof-terrace caters to this demand by adopting a special measure of protection: sand covered with thick slabs of concrete, staggered joints seeded with grass. The effect and regulating mass, root and sand filter the water slowly. The roof gardens become opulent: flowers, trees and shrubs, lawn. In General for a city roof gardens mean redemption of all surfaces.
The Plan Libre. The load-bearing walls, starting from the ground, overlap forming the ground floor and the other floors, up to the roof: the plant is slave. The system of pillars door slabs, the partitions are places to taste as needed and no plan is bound to another. There are no more load-bearing walls but only solid membranes, it follows the absolute freedom of plant configuration, which allows a great economy of built volume and a rigorous use of every square centimetre, which offset the higher costs of a building made of reinforced concrete.
La Fenetre En Longeur. The pillars forming, with the floors, empty rectangles in front, through which light and air come abundantly. The window runs from one pillar to another, and then a window length. Thus spaces are lit evenly from wall to wall. Concrete revolutionizes the history window. The window can run from one edge to the other. The reinforced concrete offers for the first time with the length the possibility of maximum illumination.
5.La free façade. As they reported the plans than the pillars the entire façade moves other than the structure. It therefore loses the quality bearings, and Windows can be extended in length as desired, without direct relation to the compartments. Thus the facade gets a free configuration.

Biography of Carole Lombard

A tomboy in a skirt
October 6, 1908
January 16, 1942

Who is Carole Lombard?

Carole Lombard was the Queen of "screwball comedy" the years ' 30, meaning that kind of comedy between farce and sentimental movie, with many ideas. The actress has been distinguished by a solar and intriguing at the same time, beauty and innate and bubbling verve. His real name is Alice Jane Peters: born on October 6, 1908 in Fort Wayne, Indiana, debuts in film only twelve, when she was discovered by chance by Director Allan Dwan, surprised by his vivacity, which the fa star in the film "A perfect murder" (A Perfect Crime) of 1921.
Subsequently appears in many films of the silent period, until in 1927 was chosen to be one of the Mack Sennett "bathing beauties", nicknamed "The King of Comedy," big talent scout and author of much comic cinema. It is also thanks to him that Carole Lombard develops a flair for comedy.
In the early 30 's young and seductive actress is signed by Paramount, for which he plays a series of discreet sentimental film. Its priceless comedic flair is highlighted when in 1934 is directed by Howard Hawks, the sparkling comedy "twentieth century" (Twentieth Century), opposite John Barrymore, named after a luxury train on which they travel two ex-spouses are able to make all kinds of things. Here thanks to its glamour and vibrant battibecca delicious irony with the main character, proving to possess considerable verve and aplomb.
Since then will be a succession of successes: in 1936 Carole Lombard receives an Oscar nomination for his easygoing portrayal in "my man Godfrey" (My Man Godfrey) of Gregory La Cava, a satirical comedy about America in the great depression, featuring alongside shrewd actor William Powell, her first husband from 1931 to 1933.
The following year is the mock terminally ill in satire to the media, "Nothing serious" (Nothing Sacred), directed by William a. Wellman.
In real life Carole Lombard is a real tomboy: by language
sometimes pushed loves to hang out and proves that worldly celebrations
effervescent entertainer. But he also manages to be elegant and
sophisticated, without ever losing its unmistakable and sometimes biting
sense of humor.
In the second half of the years ' 30 Carole Lombard begins a passionate romance with star Clark Gable, whom he married in 19The two will live on a ranch that will rapidly become a love nest where to find refuge between takes and the other, passing time to hunt and to take long rides.
In 1941 the actress is directed by the "master of the thrill", Alfred Hitchcock, who engages skillfully with the brilliant, in the comedy "Mr. and Mrs. Smith" (Mr. and Mrs. Smith), in which a happy married couple suddenly comes to know that their marriage is no longer valid.
The following year he was engaged in sweeping as bitter comedy directed by the great Ernst Lubitsch, entitled: "we want to live!" (To Be or Not to Be), fierce satire on Nazism and the war, in which Carole Lombard plays brilliantly theatrical actress with a strong personality. In early 1942, when even America is involved in World War II, the actress goes in his native country to sell war bonds. After a few days, eager to reach as soon as her loving husband, decides to return home by plane.
It's the January 16, 1942 when the airplane on which traveling crashes on Table Rock Mountain, near Las Vegas, killing all its passengers. The early age of thirty-three years Carole Lombard gave farewell to the world, leaving the memory of an artist with great charm and talent, but mostly sweet woman, ironic and deeply generous.

Biography of Louis-Philippe of France

The Bourgeois King of the French
6 October 1773
26 August 1850

Who is Louis-Philippe of France?

Louis Philippe, Duke of Valois and then of Chartres, was born in Paris on 6 October 1773, the eldest son of Louis Philippe Joseph d ' Orléans, known as Philippe "Egalité", and Luisa Maria of Bourbon-Penthièvre. At the age of seventeen he joined the Jacobin Club, sharing his father's positions in favor of the revolution. Two years after fighting in the army of the North under the command of brave General Charles François du Périer Dumouriez, who decides to follow, said even when the senior officer marries a counter-revolutionary orientation. Together they repair in Austria, while in France all his possessions were confiscated.
During the exile he moved first to Switzerland, then the United States and then in Sicily, where bride, in 1809, Maria Amalia, daughter of King Ferdinand IV; a wedding as it reconciles with the main branch of the Bourbons. In 1814 he returned to Paris, enthusiastically welcomed by the Liberal Party that, after 1824, looks to him as an alternative to shaky Bourbon Government restored by Charles x. Meanwhile are made all the confiscated property, as well as large sums in compensation.
The revolution of July 1830 Charles X and induces insurgent leaders lays, including La Fayette, has laid on him the choice of the new monarch to its liberal sympathies and because you want to avoid, for reasons of international equilibrium, the birth of a Republic. That's how the 7 August Louis-Philippe d'Orleans is proclaimed King of the French Parliament, and took the name of Philip I.
The definition of "King of the Frenchmen" and not "France" is important because it aims to highlight how the logic of power have changed: the new Constitution, for example, is not granted by the sovereign, but approved by Parliament, that is, from the French people.
Ascended the throne adopts a conservative policy, distancing himself from the revolution and allying with the "big bourgeoisie" gearing of bankers and industrialists which earned him the nickname of "bourgeois King", and won him the hate of all other parties involved, by the Republicans to Liberals, Socialists and Communists until constitutional bonapartists. But he also has a series of bombings, the most striking of which remains that of 28 July 1835, during a military parade, at the hands of the revolutionary corso Giuseppe Marco Fieschi. The bomber, a man of genius, has devised a rudimentary machine gun that instead of firing multiple shots from the same barrel, shoots one from each of the 28 reeds that comes with it. A deadly weapon that is used in the bombing and dropping tons of people, eighteen of them killed.
Louis Philippe emerges unharmed; among the fallen instead include the General Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier, Duke of Treviso and Marshal of France under Napoleon i. immediately captured, the Fieschi is condemned to death and guillotined on February 19, 1936.
The failures in foreign policy and the internal turmoil of the working classes that his Minister Guizot can't handle the insurrection of 23 November 1848 and its ineffective abdication in favor of his nephew Louis Philippe, Comte de Paris, which will be pretender to the throne as Louis Philippe II, but also of Philip VII.
While he is quick to leave Paris for repair in England, the French Parliament proclaims the Republic. Two years later, on 26 August 1850, Louis-Philippe I goes to Claremont House, England, at the age of 77 years.

Biography of Matteo Ricci

Reports from the East
6 October 1552
11 December 1610

Who is Matthew Ricci?

Mathematician, cartographer, and important religious figure of the 16th century sinologist Matteo Ricci was born in Macerata on 6 October 15He studied law for three years in Rome, but his inclinations led him to enter the society of Jesus Jesuit driven. Immediately reveals a wide range of interests ranging from astronomy to mathematics, from geography to cosmology, and studied under the guidance of the famous German scientist Christopher Clavius (Christoph Clavius), responsible for innovation in the Gregorian calendar.
His desire to engage in missionary activity induces him to leave for Goa, Portuguese base where vessels bound in India and China. He was ordained priest in India, in Kochi, where he celebrated his first mass in 1580 and after two years leaves for China. Lands so to Macau in southern China, where he started to study Chinese, convinced that a missionary may be more successful through direct knowledge of people to convert. In the first period turns even dressed as bonzo.
Along with his brother, Michele Ruggieri, gets permission to live near Canton, Shao-ch ' ng, where he remained for six years from 1583 to 15Here also becomes friends with an important Confucian scholar who manages to Captivate attention, showing some examples of technological progress reached by Westerners, including a clock and a globe.
His work of Christianization began thanks to the contact with the literati and tangerines. Matteo Ricci he printed at this time even a small catechism in Chinese. His stay, however, is not easy: together with his brother is even dragged to court because of the work of some young writers that inflamed against the population. The two were expelled and forced to return to Macau, but here regain soon allowed back into China.
Try the approach towards the largest and most important cities such as Nanjing and Beijing, also helped by its intellectual operations like publishing a Chinese-Portuguese dictionary and Latin paraphrase of the Confucian text "four books". Thanks to these important studies and sinologist Matteo Ricci is considered the first work of history. His attempts missionaries are based on the concept of enculturation: he is convinced that every missionary to call himself should capture the culture of the people from whom it operates. That's why since 1594 decides to abandon the bonze dress to catch the writer with a Chinese name. Choose for them the name Li Ma Tou reminiscent of assonance his real name. The only difference is that instead of the first syllable of his last name "re" there is "Li" given the absence of R in the Chinese alphabet.
Unable to come to Beijing for the first time in 1598, but due to the Sino-Japanese war for the possession of Korea foreigners are not well regarded. So, despite the journey to Beijing meant seven months of adventurous path, Matteo decides to return there in more propitious times. A new opportunity presents itself in 1601, but as soon as he sets foot in court the powerful eunuch Ma Tang makes him prisoner.
After six months of captivity, Matteo Ricci is saved through the intercession of his friends, and he also manages to come to the Court, are not received by the emperor. During his stay in Beijing he obtained permission to celebrate mass in public and also began the building of the first Catholic Church in the capital of the Empire.
In 1609 he founded the brotherhood of the mother of God and begins the work, but fails to see the Church completed. In fact, 11 may 1610 dies at 58 years.
Matteo Ricci is the first European to be buried in mainland China: his body rests in the garden Hal in Beijing. To him we owe a series of writings including "commentaries" and "letters" which may be considered as the first descriptions geographically accomplished China appeared in the West. During his work as a missionary converts about three thousand Chinese, although in Europe and Italy was accused by some of his confrères had not contributed to the spread of true Christianity, but a doctrine established by the Union of Christianity with Confucianism.
As has been shown, however the accusation is false, and was born perhaps from the attitude of Matteo Ricci's great respect for the culture of the people with whom he worked. The Chinese countered appreciating themselves, not only for his apostolic endeavours, but also its many treaties to disseminate the European scientific achievements including the "treatise of the four elements" (1599-1600) and the "treatise on constellations" (1601).

Biography of Amalia Rodrigues

Fate and fado
July 23, 1920
October 6, 1999

Who is Amalia Rodrigues?

Amalia Rodrigues is remembered as the greatest exponent of the genre "fado": internationally recognized as the most famous Portuguese singer ever. Born in the region of Beira Baixa (Portugal) on 23 July 19His BirthDate remains uncertain and mysterious, because Amalia usually celebrate his birthday not the twenty-three, but on July The family of the future singer and actress, is poor and very numerous: it has two brothers and four sisters. Precisely because of economic hardship, parents send her to live in Lisbon by his grandmother, Ana do Rosario Bento. But even the grandmother does not live under better conditions: it has sixteen sons and at least twice as many grandchildren.
Amalia does not receive the affection necessary to educate the joy his melancholy spirit. Soon the singing ability of small are noticed by family and friends, in front of which he performs to receive in Exchange for candy and some change. Singing mostly popular songs and tangos by Gardel who learns at the cinema. Attend school on a regular basis up to twelve years. Then the grandmother forces her to get a job.
The first use is in a candy factory, where paper candy and fruit peels. Next go, at fifteen, working at a stall on the pier in Lisbon from which dispenses fruit, wine and souvenirs to tourists. In 1940, only 20 years married amateur guitarist, whose real job is to zwemmen. It actually is a shotgun wedding, because you are pregnant.
The man initially did not want to learn and Amalia is so desperate to attempt suicide with rat poison. The marriage lasts just three years. That child will never come to light, nor later on his life will be welcomed by any birth. You will find however loving stability alongside a Brazilian industrialist, Cèsar Séabra, whom he married after fifteen years of common life in 1961.
In 1938 Amalia Rodrigues enter a contest whose winner would be crowned as new Queen of Portuguese Fado. Don't win the contest, but her voice stands out: enters into one of the greatest Fado houses of that era: O retiro da Sevra ".
From this moment begins her career as a singer, who finds himself dividing the stage with leading Portuguese fado singers and musicians, including Armando Augusto Ferreira, Jaime Santos, José Marque. Unfortunately he finds himself at the same time having to struggle against the opposition of his family, convinced that that world is made exclusively of destruction and decay. Only his brother Felipe and the dependable aunt Idalina, that will always be close in times of difficulty, support his choice.
Amalia meanwhile also manages to establish a working relationship with an impresario, José de Melo, but, given the great success of his shows, keeps her initially to record fearing that this would result in a smaller audience at live gigs. Recorded first album only in 1945, obtaining from now the collaboration of great guitarists and songwriters including poets: Linhares Barbosa and Amadeu do Vale. Fado became his reason for living and with this music is venting his tormented soul, restless and melancholy. She says that it is fado singing through her and not the other way around.
The first real concert dates back to 1945 in Rio de Janeiro, at the Casino of Copacabana. To help make it even more popular is the movie of Henri Verneuil "Les amants du Tage". The success of the film opens the doors to the Olympia Theatre consecrating it internationally. After retiring from the stage, but thinks marriage two years later returns with a customized disk created for her by Alain Oulman. His career also abroad: in Spain, in Brazil, in the United States and in Italy, where it draws some songs of the popular tradition of the country, including the Calabrian "Vitti na crozza" and making "tarantella", as well as two duets with Roberto Murolo to the tune of "Dicintincello vuje" and "my heart sings".
In the mid-1970s, following the "Carnation Revolution" is going through a period of decline for identification with the dictatorship of Salazar, unwanted and unsought by you. During this period intensified foreign tours until it turns out to be suffering from cancer.
The new Portuguese Government rehabilitates Socialist figure of Amalia Rodrigues, but now she has retired to private life at his home in Rua s. Bento in Lisbon. Here he died on 6 October 1999, at the age of 79 years.
a great vocal exponent of the genre known as fado and internationally recognized as the voice of Portugal

Biography of Anwar al-Sadat

The cost of peace
December 25, 1918
October 6, 1981

Who is Anwar al-Sadat?

Muhammad Anwar El Sadat was born in Mit Abu al-Kum (Egypt) on December 25, 19Just seven years old he moved to Cairo: studies at the directing military Academy and graduated in 1938.
During World War II he was imprisoned by British troops. On July 23, 1952 participates in the coup by which the free officers (the "Free officers") of General Muhammad Neghib and Colonel Nasser, which leads to deposition from the throne of King Farouk.
Naguib rises to power but his Government lasted less than two years; is deposed and relieved from Gmal Abdel Nasser, one of his closest collaborators. With Nasser as President of the country, National Secretary of the Union covers the posts of Sadat (one-party) and President of the National Assembly. 1964-1966 Vice-President will also during Sadat and 1969-19After the sudden death of Nasser (September 28, 1970) Sadat became President.
Tightens initially through an agreement with the United States, Saudi Arabia, valuable diplomatic with Egypt along with Syria then guides in the war of Ramadan (Yom Kippur or) against Israel in 1973: the goal of Sadat's recovery of control over at least part of the Sinai Peninsula, formerly occupied by Israel during the six-day war. The surprise attack puts in serious difficulty the Israeli forces for several days. Eventually Israel will block the attack by threatening to destroy the Egyptian third army which had crossed the Suez Canal.
The November 19, 1977 Sadat was the first Arab leader who goes on an official visit to Israel; the Egyptian President considers this move as needed to overcome those economic problems resulting from many years of clashes with Israel. His visit to Jerusalem upsets the whole world (much of the Arab world remains shocked by the event): Sadat holds talks with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and a speech in the Parliament (the Knesset).
The resulting relaxation leads to an encounter in 1978, at Camp David: Sadat and Begin sign (March 26, 1979, in Washington) in the presence of us President Jimmy Carter, the "peace agreement" Pact for which they receive both the Nobel Peace Prize. In the later stages Israel will withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula, returning to Egypt the whole area in 1983.
The Camp David Accords would have been very unpopular in the Arab community, particularly among Islamic fundamentalists, they would see the abandonment of a solution based on the strength of Egypt-many Arab military power--a show of weakness. Sadat is even condemned as a traitor by the Palestinians and other Arab Governments.
With the passage of time international support to Sadat fades: to cause the loss of the supports is his authoritarian way of governing, which sees the succession of an economic crisis that increases the gap between rich and poor, and the hard hand in the repression of dissidents.
In September of 1981 Sadat hit Muslim organisations, including Coptic organizations, student, and ordering the arrest of dissident 1600, between Islamists and Communists. A month later, on October 6, 1981 during a parade in Cairo, President Muhammad Anwar al-S? d? t is murdered. death occurs at the hands of Khalid al-Islambul, Member of the group al-jihad, in front of the television and show the world the shocking images of the incident.
The successor to the leadership of the country will be Hosni Mubarak, his former Deputy.

Elisabeth Shue biography

Jewel in the drawer
October 6, 1963

Who is Elisabeth Shue?

Do you remember the stunning blonde who appeared in the film by Paul Verheoven "The hollow man", the clever antagonist and determined of crackpot scientist played by Kevin Bacon? Well, that creature is perfectly outlined and the perfect physique is called Elisabeth Shue and, although the scenes already by a considerable number of years, it is not wrong to say that maybe didn't get all the success it deserves.
Born October 6, 1963 in Wilmington (Delaware), raised in New Jersey, studied political science and graduated from Harvard. Sports and outdoors has always favored physical activity to a monotonous life cooped up in an Office.
The idea of being an actress came only when he realized the gifts that mother nature had so abundantly bestowed but, nonetheless, would surely have chosen for its future something exciting, varied, rather than the drab life of employed.
Elisabeth is just as it appears in some of his films: pretty and sweet, but also confident and willing to go way down when he puts his mind to something.
The first steps of career the protagonist in numerous commercials, television series, then discovers and enlists for one of those classic television shows that, if its not become cult, contribute at least to launch so many talents.
Dated 1984 is the transition to the big screen with "Karate Kid-to win tomorrow": this cult film, at least because of sympathy enacted by the protagonists and for having launched the fashion of martial arts.
Be able to get on the big screen is a success, that's undeniable, but despite this Elisabeth is not satisfied, always relegated how the roles of the girlfriend of the moment. He was the lover of Ralph Macchio in "Karate Kid" as it will be Tom Cruise in "Cocktail" or Michael j. Fox in back to the future part II and III.
Fortunately the great Mike Figgis offers you the opportunity to pull out the nails in the intense and dramatic "leaving Las Vegas" (alongside Nicolas Cage), and the result is an Oscar nomination and showered with accolades.
You may think you're coming or almost, however unfortunately can no longer choose the right production going into a series of films that, if one side is unfair to define the other flops, you can certainly recognize how memorable: fall into the category titles such as "the Saint", of which you spoke almost exclusively for her alleged affair with Val Kilmer (which she categorically denied) , "Palmetto" and "Deconstructing Harry."
The risk is that the starlet to become yet another Meteor to Hollywood.
A certain revival had it with the mega-production of the film "the man with no shadow", a film that focuses heavily on special effects, very impressive. All fans are therefore waiting for the next steps of the fascinating Elisabeth, praying with a heart that Hollywood notices what jewel has at home.

Biography of Alfred Tennyson

The direction of refinement
6 August 1809
6 October 1892

Who is Alfred Tennyson?

Alfred Tennyson was born on 6 August 1809 in the tiny village of Somersby, Lincolnshire (United Kingdom), where his father was parish priest and where with family-which together no less than twelve children-living until 1837.
The future poet Alfred Tennyson is a descendant of King Edward III of England and his father George Clayton Tennyson was the eldest of two brothers in his youth had been disinherited by his father-the landowner George Tennyson-in favor of his younger brother Charles, who later took the name Charles Tennyson d'eyncourt. His father George is perpetually strapped for cash and ends up becoming an alcoholic and mentally unstable.
Alfred and two of his older brothers began to write poetry in adolescence: a collection of their writings is published locally when Alfred was only 17 years old. One of these two brothers, Charles Tennyson Turner later married Louisa Sellwood, the younger sister of Alfred's future wife. The other brother is poet Frederick Tennyson.
Alfred secondary school King Edward IV in Louth and enters at Trinity College, Cambridge in 18Here joins a secret student society called "Cambridge Apostles" (the Apostles), and met Arthur Henry Hallam who becomes his best friend.
For one of his earliest writings, inspired by the city of Timbuktu, receives award in 18The following year he published his first collection of poetry, Poems Chiefly Lyrical "(Poems especially lyrical): in the book include" Claribel "and" Mariana ", two of the most famous and popular poems by Alfred Tennyson. His verses appear overly mushy at criticism, however become so popular that Tennyson is brought to the attention of some of the best-known writers of the time, including Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
His father George died in 1831: because of the mourning Alfred leave Cambridge before earning a degree. Back in the parish house where he takes care of his mother and large family. Over the summer the friend Arthur Hallam goes to live at the Tennyson: in this context, falls in love and gets engaged to the poet's sister, Emilia Tennyson.
Alfred in 1833 he published his second book of poems which includes his most famous poem "The Lady of Shalott" (the Lady of Shalott): is the story of a princess who can see the world only through the reflection of a mirror. When Lancelot arrives on horseback near the tower that is locked up, she looks at him and his destiny is fulfilled: dies after being boarded a small boat, which follows the river that bears his name written on the stern. Criticism lashes out so very hard against this work: Tennyson still write, but remains much discouraged that we have to wait over ten years to publish another written.
At the same time Hallam was hit by a cerebral hemorrhage while on vacation in Vienna: die so suddenly. Alfred Tennyson, 24, remains deeply troubled by the loss of a young man who had inspired much in the composition of his poetry. It is considered likely that the death of Hallam is also one of the causes that lead Tennyson to postpone so long its subsequent publications.
Tennyson moved with his family in the County of Essex. Because of a risky and wrong economic investment in a company of ecclesiastical furnishings in wood, they lose almost all of their savings.
In 1842, while living a modest life in London, Tennyson published two collections of poetry: the first includes works already published previously, while the second is composed almost entirely of new scripts. This time collections are now very successful. So it was also for "The Princess" (the Princess) that was published in 1847.
Alfred Tennyson reaches the pinnacle of literary career in the year 1850, when he was named "poet laureate" succeeding William Wordsworth. In the same year he wrote his masterpiece "In Memoriam A.H.H."-devoted to the late friend Hallam-Emily Sellwood bride whom he had known since his youth in the village of Shiplake. The couple will be born the sons Hallam and Lionel.
Tennyson will play the role of poet laureate until his death, writing correct and appropriate arrangements for his role however of mediocre value, such as poetry composed to accommodate Alexandra of Denmark when she arrived in England to marry the future King Edward VII.
In 1855 composed one of his most famous works "The Charge of the Light Brigade" (The charge of the light brigade), an emotional tribute to the English knights who sacrificed themselves in a heroic but ill-considered charge on 25 October 1854 during the Crimean War.
Among other writings of this period include "Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington" (Ode to the death of the Duke of Wellington) and "Ode Sung at the Opening of the International Exhibition" (Ode for the opening of the international fair).
Queen Victoria, who is an ardent admirer of the work of Masque Alfed Tennyson, in 1884 he was appointed Baron Tennyson of Aldworth (in Sussex) and Freshwater on the Isle of Wight. Thus becomes the first novelist to be elevated to the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Are there any recordings made by Thomas Edison--unfortunately of low sound quality-in which Alfred Tennyson recites firsthand some of his poems (including "The Charge of the Light Brigade").
In 1885 publish one of his most famous works, "Idylls of the King" (idylls of the King), a collection of poems entirely based on King Arthur and the theme is inspired by Breton, tales of Sir Thomas Malory previously written about the legendary King Arthur. The work is dedicated from Tennyson to Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria.
The poet goes on to write until he was eighty years old: Alfred Tennyson died on 6 October 1892 at the age of 83 years. He is buried within the Abbey of Westminster. Hallam's son succeeded him as 2nd Baron Tennyson; in 1897 will authorise the publication of a biography of his father and later became the second Governor of Australia.

George Westinghouse biography

Navigating the currents
6 October 1846
March 12, 1914

Who is George Westinghouse?

George Westinghouse, Jr., American entrepreneur and engineer, known for the kind of appliances that bear his name, was born in Central Bridge New York on 6 October 18Nikola Tesla's friend and one of the main rivals of Thomas Alva Edison in the timely implementation of the American electricity system, was also active in the industrial field and telephony. In 1911 received the Congressional Medal ' for meritorious achievement in connection with the development of the alternating current system for light and power ".
In 1875, Thomas Edison is an unknown potential. Achieves some success with "multiplex Telegraph" system that allowed multiple telegraph signals to be transmitted over a single cable, but still hadn't gotten the recognition you desire. He was working on a phone line but was overtaken by Bell. Edison recovers quickly from the setback by inventing the phonograph, a new sensational discovery that nobody had thought possible and that will make him famous.
The next step of Edison, in 1878, incandescent bulb bulb would invent a improved along with an electrical distribution system to supply power to the bulbs. On September 4 1882, Edison lights up the world's first electrical power distribution system, providing 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers in Lower Manhattan, around his Pearl Street laboratory.
Louis Latimer received a patent for an improved process for the manufacture of carbon filaments in light bulbs. These improvements have allowed for a reduction of production time and an increase in quality. During his life he had worked with and for Alexander Bell, later with Hiram and Thomas Edison. Latimer was the only black member of an exclusive social group, the pioneers of Edison.
Westinghouse's interests in the distribution of gas and telephone switching logically led him to be interested in the distribution of electricity.
Westinghouse is studying the pattern of Edison, but States that it is too inefficient to be applied on a large scale. The Edison power network is based on low-voltage DC, which implies large currents and power losses. Several inventors Europeans work Meanwhile on "alternating current" (CA) and on the distribution of energy. An alternating current system allows that tensions are "enhanced" by a transformer for distribution, reducing power losses, then "decrementandole" by a transformer for home use.
A power transformer developed by Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs, French, English, is shown in operation in London in 1881 and attracts the interest of Westinghouse. The transformers are nothing new, but the Gaulard-Gibbs design was one of the first that could handle large amounts of power and current promises to be easy to produce. In 1885, Westinghouse matter a number of Gaulard-Gibbs transformers and a Siemens AC generator to begin experimenting with AC networks in Pittsburgh.
Assisted by William Stanley and Franklin Leonard Pope, Westinghouse worked to refine the transformer design and build a practical AC power network. In 1886, Westinghouse and Stanley installed the first alternating current system with variable tension at Great Barrington, Massachusetts. The network is led by 500 volt AC producing hydroelectric generator. The voltage is increased to 3000 volts for transmission and then lowers to 100 volts to power the electric lights of power. The problems of new AC system are highlighted when Mr. Pope dies electrocuted by a malfunctioning AC converter in the basement of his house. That same year, Westinghouse formed the "Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company", which then changed its name to "Westinghouse Electric Corporation" in 1889.
Thirty new AC lighting systems are installed in one year, but the pattern is limited by the lack of an effective measurement system and electric motors in CA. In 1888, Westinghouse and his engineer Oliver Shallenger develop a power meter, which plan to observe behaviors as already did with the testers for gas. The same basic meter technology is still used today.
An AC motor is more difficult, but a design is fortunately already available. The brilliant Serbian-American inventor Nikola Tesla outlines in this period the basic principles of a Polyphase electric motor.
Westinghouse holds a partnership with Tesla and is granted a patent for AC motor. Tesla conceives rotating magnetic field principle in 1882 and uses it to invent the first Brushless AC motor or induction motor in 1883.
Westinghouse takes him on as a consultant for a year and from 1888 onwards introduces Polyphase AC motor on a large scale. The work leads to the modern scheme of power-distribution of the United States: three-phase AC at 60 Hz, chosen at a rate high enough to minimize the disturbances, but low enough to reduce reactive losses, an arrangement conceived by Tesla.
The promotion of Westinghouse AC power distribution leads to a bitter confrontation with Edison and his direct current system. The battle is known as the "war of currents". Edison argues that high voltage systems are extremely dangerous; Westinghouse replied that the risks can be controlled and that the benefits are greater dangers.
In August 1890, a convict named William Kemmler becomes the first person and be executed by electrocution. Westinghouse takes the best lawyer to defend Kemmler and condemned electrocution as a form of "cruel and unusual punishment". The execution is violent and prolonged and Westinghouse protest vehemently, by deviating totally from the instrumental use of the discoveries made by him.
In 1893 the company to Westinghouse receives delivery contracts for a network in CA to power the world's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, giving the company and the technology widespread positive publicity. Westinghouse also received a contract to install the first long-range power network, with AC generators at Niagara Falls producing electricity for distribution in Buffalo, New York, 40 kilometers away.
With AC networks expanding Westinghouse turns his attention to the production of electricity. At the beginning the available generation sources are hydro where the falling water is available, and steam engines where it is not. Westinghouse believes that the existing steam engines are inefficient and starts to develop a certain category of "rotating" engine which is more elegant and efficient.
In fact, one of his first inventions is a rotary steam engine, but proved impractical. However an Irish engineer named Charles Algernon Parsons began experimenting with steam turbines in 1884, beginning with 10 horsepower. Westinghouse buys Parsons turbine rights in 1885 and begins the work in order to improve the technology of Parsons and adjust to a higher target.
Skeptics claim that the steam turbine will never be a source of energy on a large scale, but in 1898 Westinghouse presents a drive from 300 kW, replacing all the machines in his company producing hydraulic brakes. The following year, installs a 1.5 megawatt units, 1200 RPM. for the Hartford electric light company.
Westinghouse then turns his attention to the production of large steam turbines to conduct large ships. The problem is that such large turbines were more efficient at about 3000 rpm, while an efficient propeller operates at about 100 rpm; This means creating a reduction gearing; but developing a system of reduction gears to operate at high RPM and high power is not an activity without risks, even a slight misalignment may affect him the power train parts.
Westinghouse and its engineers invent so an automatic alignment that makes it practical to feed the turbines even for large vessels.
At the same time he began to work on the heat pump to provide heating and cooling supply enough can be extracted in the process believing in order for the system to become a perpetual machine; Hence overt criticism by Lord Kelvin, formulator-among other activities-the second law of thermodynamics.
Westinghouse remains in charge of the electricity sector of American industry until 1907, when a financial collapse leads to his resignation from the company Westinghouse. In 1911 is no longer active in the business and his health is in worse conditions.
George Westinghouse died on March 12, 1914, in New York City, at the age of 67 years. As a veteran of the civil war, is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, along with his wife Marguerite.
Although shrewd businessman and resolute, Westinghouse is known to history as a conscientious employer and eager to share everything with its business partners. In 1930 a memorial to Westinghouse, funded through a trust of his employees, was placed in Schenley Park in Pittsburgh.


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