Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Ferdinand de Saussure
- Biography of Mary Stuart – Mary I of Scotland
- Biography of Honoré de Balzac
- Biography of Ignacio Manuel Altamirano
Biography of Ferdinand de Saussure
(1857-11-26 - 1913/02/22)Ferdinand de Saussure
He was born on November 26, 1857 in Geneva.
He studied sciences at the University of Geneva before resuming his linguistic studies in Leipzig in 1876.
His most important work was the mémoire (about the Proto-Indo-European vowel system), printed in 1879.
He worked in Philology and two years after publishing his thesis or mémoire was Professor of Sanskrit and comparative grammar at the University of Geneva.
Recognized by the Cours de Linguistique Générale (General Linguistics course, 1916) written from his preparatory notes for classes.
Ferdinand de Saussure was the real revolution in theoretical linguistics with the publication, which made his disciples Bally, Frei and Sechehaye, of his work as a reaction to the neogramaticos.
Out that the right to speak, the language, is structured in a complete system of signs, the language, which is present in each one of the realizations of the speakers, speech.
The system of signs which is the language should be considered within a general science, semiology, which covers all the theory of signs. He designed the linguistic sign as the unit of the language that has two sides, the signifier, i.e. sounds and forms of the words, and the meaning, what those sounds and words mean inside and only within the system that is the language. With him is based the phonology, which others will develop later.
Ferdinand de Saussure died in Geneva, Switzerland, on 22 February 1913.
Biography of Mary Stuart – Mary I of Scotland
(1542/12/07 - 1587/02/08)Maria I Stuart
Queen of Scotland
He was born on December 7, 1542 at Linlithgow.
Daughter of James V, King of Scotland, and his second wife, Mary of Lorraine.
María Estuardo became Queen before a week of life.
He spent his childhood in France, and in 1558 married the Dauphin, who acceded to the French throne with the name of Francis II in 1559, but died the following year.
In the year 1561 he returned to his country. Despite being Catholic, the Government accepted Protestant who found upon arrival. His Chief Ministers was his half-brother James Stuart, who conferred the title of Earl of Moray.
He married his cousin, the Scottish Catholic noble lord Darnleyin 15Marriage sparked the Protestant fears and was the start of an insurrection, headed by Moray and a family of Scottish nobility, which had hoped to have the support of all the Protestant party. However, their hopes were not fulfilled and the Queen, personally taking charge of the situation, quickly suppressed the revolt. I still enjoyed his triumph when they began to appear the rift with Darnley. She had given him the title of King, but he demanded the rights of the Crown of life and which, when the Queen died childless, the rights pass to his heirs. Prior to the rebellion of Moray, the Secretary and counselor Maria had been David Riccio, Catholic and favorite of the Court. For his part, the King was sure that Riccio was an obstacle to get their projects with respect to the Crown. Convinced of this, he formed a pact with Moray, Patrick Ruthven, James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, and other leaders of the Protestant party. The result of this conspiracy resulted in the murder of Rizzio in 1566.
Early in 1567, the House in which Darnley topped up a disease, erupted in an explosion of gunpowder; the instigator was probably James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, who, since the rebellion of Moray, and even more since the murder of Rizzio, had become a favourite of the Queen. They found strangled Darnley, very close to the place where the explosion occurred. Maria was aware of the plot. Proof of this are letters and sonnets incriminating, supposedly written by the own Mary to Bothwell, found at the end of that year in a silver jewel box. Bothwell was born in a fake Court and acquitted; shortly thereafter, he divorced his wife and married Mary according to the Protestant rite.
Again, there was a clash between Maria and the Scottish nobles. He managed to gather an army to fight against them and although it equal in number to the Confederate Army, was clearly inferior in discipline. 15 June 1567 Maria and his men were defeated at Carberry Hill , and it was forced to abandon to Bothwell and to surrender to the Confederate Knights. On July 24, he abdicated in favour of his son, who, five days later, was crowned in Stirling with the name of James VI.
The 2 may 1568, María Estuardo was able to escape his Island prison of Lochleven and within a few days he managed to assemble an army of 6,000 men. On 12 May were again defeated by the Regent Moray at Langsidenear Glasgow. Four days later, despite pleas from her best friends, Maria crossed the Solway estuary and sought refuge at the Court of Elizabeth I, Queen of England, thus becoming a prisoner of the lifetime of this.
The most famous of the intrigues later to get his release and access to the throne of England was the planned by his armourbearer, Anthony Babington, who conspired to assassinate Elizabeth. The conspiracy was discovered, and Maria was brought to trial in October 15On 25 October condemned her to death, but until 1 February 1587 Isabel did not sign the order of execution, which was carried out at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire (England), February 8, 15
Biography of Honoré de Balzac
(1799/05/20 - 1850/08/18)Honoré de Balzac
He was born on 20 may 1799 in Tours (France).
He studied at the Colegio de Vendome and later law at the Sorbonne at the wish of his father between 1818 and 18Subsequently working as an intern for a notary, but gives up despite parental opposition to devote himself to writing.
Since 1821 works with Auguste Lepoitevin, enters the writers workshop hourly rate, and where under various pseudonyms, begins to write novels business. Between 1822 and 1829 he lived in absolute poverty, writing melodramatic tragic Theater and novels that barely succeeded. In 1825 it proved fortune as Publisher and printer, but was forced to leave in 1828 on the verge of bankruptcy and debt for the rest of his life.
In 1829 he wrote the novel the chouans, the first that bears his name, based on the life of Breton peasants and its role in the royalist insurrection of 1799, during the French Revolution. Tireless worker, would produce about 95 novels and numerous short stories, plays and newspaper articles in the next 20 years.
In 1832 he maintains contact through letters with Eveline Hanska, a Polish Countess who promised to marry him after the death of her husband. It died in 1841, but not married until March 1850.
In 1834 he conceived the idea of merging all his novels in a single work, the human comedy, which purported to offer a portrait of French society in all its aspects, from the revolution until his time. At first wanted to call her studies of customs of the 19th century, social correlate of what had tried Buffon in his studies on the nature. In an introduction written in 1842, he explained the philosophy of the work, which reflected some of the points of view of naturalistic writers Jean Baptiste de Lamarck and Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. The work would include 150 novels, divided into three main groups: customs, philosophical studies and analytical studies.
The best-known novels in the series include Eugénie Grandet (1833), cousin Bette (1846), the search for the absolute (1834), Pere Goriot (1834) and lost illusions (1837-1843). His numerous works include, besides those already mentioned, novels skin shagreen (1831), the lily of the Valley (1835-1836), César Birotteau (1837), splendor and misery of the courtesans (1837-1843) and the curate of Tours (1839); the Tales Libertines (1832-1837); the play Vautrin (1839); and his famous letters to the foreign, collecting the long correspondence from 1832 with Eveline Hanska.
In April 1845, he received the Legion of honour.
Honoré de Balzac died on August 18, 18He was buried in the Père Lachaise cemetery being Victor Hugo who pronounced the funeral speech.
Biography of Ignacio Manuel Altamirano
(1834-11-13 - 1893/02/13)Ignacio Manuel Altamirano
It was born on November 13, 1834 in Tixtla, Guerrero. Son of Francisco Altamirano and Gertrudis Basilio, pure Indians who took the surname of a Spanish who had baptized one of his ancestors.
He learned to speak only Spanish, later revealed as an outstanding student and won a scholarship that gave the literary Institute of Toluca for the underprivileged children who knew reading and writing. There he found Ignacio Ramírez, the necromancer, lawyer, journalist, Member of the Academia de Letrán and Deputy of the Constituent Congress. He studied at the literary Institute of Toluca, and later in the city of Mexico Letran College.
Attached to the liberal movement, his triumph was Deputy; as a Colonel he fought against Maximilian of Habsburg, experience that appeared in his novel clemency (1869). Founder of the literary journal El Renacimiento. Also author of El Zarco (episodes of Mexican life in 1861-1863).
On June 13, 1889 he was appointed Consul General of Spain, with residence in Barcelona and later in France (February 18, 1890).
Ignacio Manuel Altamirano died in San Remo, Italy, on February 13, 18In 1934, to celebrate the centenary of his birth, the Congress agreed that his ashes were transferred from the French Pantheon to the Rotunda of illustrious men.