Ferdinand VII of Spain… Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra… Horatio Nelson… Andriy Shevchenko… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Encyclopedia of Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of W. H. Auden
  2. Biography of Pietro Badoglio
  3. Biography of Silvio Berlusconi
  4. Biography of Pier Luigi Bersani
  5. Brigitta Bulgari biography
  6. Biography of Caravaggio
  7. Biography of Henry d'Artois
  8. Biography of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
  9. Anita Ekberg biography
  10. Biography of Ferdinand VII of Spain
  11. Enrico Fermi biography
  12. Biography of Felice Gimondi
  13. Loretta Goggi biography
  14. Jerry Lee Lewis biography
  15. Biography of Horatio Nelson
  16. Biography of Angelo Poliziano
  17. Raf biography
  18. Biography of Andriy Shevchenko
  19. Biography of Tintoretto
  20. Biography of Lech Walesa
  21. Emile Zola biography

Biography of W. H. Auden

Witness of the century poetry
February 21, 1907
September 29, 1973

Who is W. H. Auden?

Wystan Hugh Auden was born in York (England) on February 21, 19The family belongs to the middle-class English; the young man spent his childhood in Harbonre, Birmingham. In later years he began to become interested in literature, especially of Norse mythology, besides music and psychology. Scolsatica career starts at Gresham's School, Holt, Norfolk, and in 1925 he attended the University of Oxford. At Oxford, he founded a literary society that bears his name, the "Auden Circle", a group of young writers including Christopher Isherwood, Cecil Day Lewis, Louis MacNeice, and Stephen Spender.
In his youth, influenced by Rilke-briefly and negatively-especially from Brecht and later by Karl Kraus.
In the years 1928-1929 along with Isherwood spent a year in Berlin, at the time under the Weimar Republic
The literary debut 30 years see Auden as a writer engaged, left, ironic and sarcastic debunker of bourgeois culture.
Between 1936 and 1945 is witnessing a crucial step: lives between the Spanish civil war and World War II, metabolizing all changes of literary and historical circumstances of the time. These experiences make Auden a master poised between the two halves of the century and for this reason, his literary output is now subject to new discoveries and upgraded interpretations.
In 1936 the bride Erika Mann, Thomas Mann's daughter, in order to make them get the English Passport allowing so to leave the borders of Nazi Germany; the couple will live ever together. The year following Auden took part in the Spanish civil war as a driver of medical aid.
He moved in 1939 with Christopher Isherwood in the United States: their gesture is interpreted as a moral desertion from England (and Europe) threatened by Hitler and arouses controversy reactions.
Obtained American citizenship in 1946; his fame as a writer in the meantime spreads and becomes increasingly admired in New York environment. It will exert a significant influence on also younger poets, including John Ashbery.
In recent years England Auden had known Edward m. Forster, of which he had become a close friend, and T.S. Eliot, who published his work for the first time about his magazine «Criterion». In past years the USA knows various German intellectuals and writers like Klaus Mann, Erich Heller and Hannah Arendt.
On culture of Auden, paramount will have the philosophy and social criticism (Marx and Freud at the beginning, then Kierkegaard and Simone Weil), as well as the theatre (Shakespeare, Ibsen) and musical theater (Mozart, Verdi).
With his partner Chester Kallman writes some librettos, including "the career of a libertine" by Igor Stravinsky, which is staged in 1951 at the teatro La Fenice in Venice.
Among the most important poetry books and include "another time" (1940), "the age of anxiety" (1947) and the short collection published posthumously "fog" (1974). Very important is his work as an essayist, documented mainly in the volume "The Dyer's hand" (1962).
In the years ' 50 spends six months in New York and six months in Italy, Ischia. After replacing its Italian destination Kirchstetten, the small Austrian village near Vienna. In 1967 he was awarded the United States of "National Medal for Literature".
W. h. Auden died in Vienna on September 29, 1973.
One of his most famous poems is "Funeral blues", mentioned in the movie "Dead Poets Society" (1989) by Peter Weir and "four weddings and a funeral" (1994) by Mike Newell.

Biography of Pietro Badoglio

29 March 1871
November 1, 1956

Who is Pietro Badoglio?

Pietro Badoglio was born on 29 March 1871 in Grazzano Monferrato (who has taken the name of Grazzano Badoglio) from a farmer family: his mother, Antoinette Pittarelli, is a wealthy bourgeois, while his father, Mario, was a landowner of modest conditions. After he joined the Military Academy of Turin, 16 November 1890 he was appointed second lieutenant of artillery, and two years later he was promoted to Lieutenant. Moving to Florence at 19° from the countryside, Tuscany until the beginning of 1896, when ships in Eritrea along with General Baldissera.
The star of the episode on Adigrat organized to release the major siege Prestinari, once hostilities with Ethiopia remains in Adi Caieh, in garrison, Plateau for two years. Back in Italy in 1898, the school stands for the tenacity and intelligence that characterize his studies. Five years later he was promoted to captain and transferred to Capua, at 12°. After commanding the Corps of Bari, take part in the war of Libya, decorated for bravery with the merit of having organized the sortie of Ain Zara.
Once repatriated, passes command of Division 4 with the beginning of the first world war. The sector is dominated by monte Sabotino, completely bare and fortified by the Austrians, therefore, considered impregnable. Pietro Badoglio's intuition is to resort to the espugnarlo parallel: after months and months of work on the excavation and reinforcement of the trenches, the Brigade commanded by him conquering mount on 6 August 19Meanwhile, he appointed Major General for war, assumed command of the Brigade, Wedge, and then of the II Corps, a few days before the start of the battle on the river Isonzo.
His men conquered Mount Kuk, hitherto considered practically impregnable. In spite of the promotion to Lieutenant General, Badoglio on 24 October 1917 must deal with the defeat of Caporetto by Austrians and Germans. Badoglio's main error is to neglect the right flank, meaning the right bank of the River, in the area located between Kobarid and the Austrian bridgehead in Tolmin. It is a few kilometres long line that represents the border of the area attributed to Carr and his Corps and the area that it is up to his Badoglio and Corps. Although events seem to indicate the Director of the Austrian attack along that line, Badoglio leaves undefended right bank, making Castle most men of Naples and the Mountain Division And so, Italian troops complicit in rain and fog, do not realize that the Germans are moving and sottovalle, within four hours will arrive safely at Caporetto, having climbed the shore, catching by surprise the IV Corps of Carr.
Now, despite this grave strategic mistake, strength of Supreme Command together with the garden, General Pietro Badoglio turns into Diaz's alter ego, encouraging negotiations to get the Armistice signed on 4 November 19After the war, he became a Senator, and then Commissioner of the Government for the Venezia Giulia.
After a mission in the River occupied by Gabriele D'Annunzio, back to Rome and leave the job of Chief of staff to enter the army Council. Posted by Benito Mussolini as Ambassador to Brazil in 1923, back after two years and was promoted to marshal of Italy. Remains at home, though, even for a short time, since in January 1929 is called to rule Libya. During his tenure, the country is at peace, and is put in place a program of public works.
The African experience lasts four years: in 1933 Badoglio returned to Italy, and then leave it again two years later, when ships as Supreme Commander in Eritrea. After the triumph of 5 May 1936 in Addis Ababa, he returns to his homeland, where he was welcomed among awards and honors, including the title of Duke of Addis Abeba. Keeping the post of Chief of staff even when the Leader chooses to support Germany in the war, is considered the first scapegoat painful and unexpected defeats suffered by Italy in Greece and North Africa.
Resigned the resignation also seen accusations of incompetence from different parts (including environments fascists), Badoglio in 1943 is approached by Orlando, Bonomi and other anti-fascists, expressing its readiness to become President of the Council concluding the war. He, therefore, becomes Prime Minister on 25 July 1943, and from that moment manages the Armistice. Once abandoned Rome, moved to Brindisi, new capital, together with the King, will remain Chairman of the Board until Rome will not be freed. In fact, the 8 June 1944 gives his Office in Ivanoe Bonomi, who had already served more than twenty years earlier.
In the early summer of 1944 he retires to Campania, in Cava de ' Tirreni, while his son Mario Badoglio, deported to Germany, lies in the concentration camps of Dachau. In 1946 the former military loses the Senator, according to a decision of the High Court of Justice: a ruling that nevertheless is canceled two years later by the Supreme Court, which reinstates the Marshal in parliamentary functions. That same year, however, his name is inserted by the Ethiopian Government in a list of ten war criminals submitted to the United Nations, found guilty of having bombed Red Cross hospitals and gas used during the campaign of 1935 and 19Badoglio's name, however, is no longer present when the Italian Commission of inquiry begins its work.
The former Chairman of the Board, then, falls in Grazzano, which causes his birthplace to become a nursery school for children in the country. Pietro Badoglio dies in his native country on November 1 1956 due to an asthma attack.

Biography of Silvio Berlusconi

The protagonist of Italy, in good times and bad
September 29, 1936

Who is Silvio Berlusconi?

Silvio Berlusconi was born in Milan on September 29, 19After graduating in law, he began his teaching profession entrepreneur in the construction industry. From 1969 to 1979 is responsible for the design and construction of "Milano 2", the satellite city on the outskirts of Milan, followed by the creation of "Milano" 3 and the shopping centre "Il Girasole".
In 1980 he devoted himself to television production. Transform the cable tv in Milan 2 in a national television Channel: 5, before an alternative to national television network RAI and Publitalia, the advertising agency. These activities belong to Fininvest holding company, founded in 19The success of Channel 5 also pushed him to buy An Italy tv networks (Rusconi in 1982) and Retequattro (from Mondadori in 1984) who becomes a national network.
In the 1985 divorce from Carla Dall'Oglio and formalises the relationship with Veronica Lario (Miriam Bartolini), actress, married again in 1990 and with whom he had three children.
In the year 1985 a magistrate orders the obscuring of its tv: the mechanism devised by Berlusconi to have a national programming-the so-called interconnection to cassettazione or send via videotapes transmitted during the same hours from local broadcasters-is judged illegal. To her aid intervenes Bettino Craxi, then Prime Minister, who with two decrees in fact authorizes private television broadcasts nationwide. the new legislation implicitly reinforces the duopoly RAI-Fininvest. In the same period Berlusconi becomes owner of the weekly TV Sorrisi e Canzoni.
Since 1986 he has been Chairman of Milan A.C. football team, which under his management will know Golden periods (the historical cycle of Arrigo Sacchi, but also prestigious achievements with Fabio Capello and Carlo Ancelotti) getting many headlines both nationally and internationally.
In 1989 begins the so-called "Segrate war" that sees Berlusconi on one side and Carlo De Benedetti, Caracciolo and Scalfari apart. Eventually the Mondadori Group is divided: the production of books and the weekly Panorama pass to Berlusconi while the express and other local papers go to De Benedetti-Campbell.
Meanwhile, with the law on publishing and Mammi TV (1990) Berlusconi is forced to cede the newspaper (founded and directed for a few years by Indro Montanelli) of which he was owner since ' Entrusts him with his brother Paolo Berlusconi. At the same time that grows under the editorial profile, the Fininvest group develops a strong presence in insurance and the sale of financial products with the company Mediolanum and Italy Program. This means that at the beginning of the years ' 90 the Fininvest becoming the second Italian private group with over 40 thousand employees.
At the beginning of the years ' 90 it collapses the traditional system of parties. The elections for mayor of Rome in November 1993 Berlusconi declares-general amazement-that will vote for the party of Gianfranco Fini. The "clearance" of the votes right msi is the first step for the construction of the pole of freedoms.
In January 1994 Silvio Berlusconi announces his entry into politics: he resigned from all positions held in the Fininvest group and founded Forza Italy party from nowhere in just three months will exceed 20 percent of the vote in the general elections; allied with the National Alliance Party of Gianfranco Fini, the Northern League of Umberto Bossi and the Ccd of Pierferdinando Casini and Clemente Mastella.
The Government was established among a thousand polemics. Also from Europe, there is no shortage of criticism. The Polo goes on, but in July the first stop: try to push through a decree to exit from Tangentopoli, enters with the clean hands Pool (Antonio Di Pietro is now one of the national symbol of the renewal of the political world) and is forced to reverse. The same goes for pension reform drawn from Treasury Minister Lamberto Dini (which will move away from passing through deployment of the olive tree). Demonstrations and Union opposition to not treat the subject in the Finance Act. But the final blow the undergoes in Naples: while Berlusconi presides over the Conference against organised crime the Knight receives a notice of corruption from Milan. It's a slap that ago live cry conspiracy of judges. Time and manner of the initiative do not convince even traditional opponents: Berlusconi is later acquitted of the charges, but the reputational damage will be huge. The budget approved in December 1994 the League takes away confidence in the Government. Eight months after Berlusconi was forced to resign as President of the Council of Ministers.
1996 policies Force Italy presents itself without end: the winner is Romano Prodi, leader of the olive tree. Berlusconi leads the opposition and participates in the work of the bicameral Committee for reforms chaired by Massimo D'Alema that attempt-unsuccessfully-to carry out institutional reforms and constitutional ones that are so necessary to the country.
1999 European elections Forza Italy nearly 30 per cent of the votes winning Regionals: the consequences of this success will see Massimo D'Alema resign from the post of premier. In the European Power Italy field joined the EPP: Silvio Berlusconi becomes one of the leaders.
At the 2001 general election, Berlusconi retrieves the relationship with Umberto Bossi's Northern League, open to the Republicans and consolidates the relationship with Gianfranco Fini. The result is positive: the House of freedoms won with 45.4 percent in the House and the Senate 42.In terms of seats means 368 seats in the Chamber (the majority of 315) and 177 in the Senate (the majority is 158). Berlusconi rose to the Presidency of the Council and strength Italy becomes the first Italian party with 29.4 percent of the vote.
The second Berlusconi Government is the longest in the history of the Italian Republic when it comes to the European elections in 20Made the necessary sums the results of individual political forces to Italy Force results are encouraging but also the deployment of olives although the only United in the olive tree list collects more than 31% of the vote, will not reach the goal.
In April 2005, after the negative results of Freedom House with the regional elections, Berlusconi has dissolved the Executive presenting a new team of Ministers.
Subsequent elections (April 2006) halved the Italian voters that have decreed the victory of the center-left. The Prodi Government remains in Office for only two years. 2008 general election Berlusconi presents himself as the leader of the PdL (people of freedom), which combines Strength and Italy National Alliance, along with smaller groups of Christian Democrat and liberal orientation. The election results decreed as the first Italian party PdL: in May of 2008 kicks off the 4th Berlusconi Government. With the Congress of March 29, 2009, in Rome, is then sanctioned the official birth of the PdL.
He published several volumes of talks which collect his political thought, including "The Italy I have in mind" (2000), "Speeches for democracy" (2001), "the power of a dream" (2004).
Berlusconi's entrepreneurial skills are undeniable, as well as its diplomatic skills which, like they've got to recognize his political antagonists, Italy has often gotten deserved prominence internationally image. In fact, with his descent into the field Berlusconi has assumed a great responsibility to all Italians, and analysing the contemporary history of the country, in good times and bad, Berlusconi has been one of the authors who wrote the most important pages.
After a large number of dependent processes, in 2013 is sentenced (after three instances). Behind counts 4 positions such as President of the Council of Ministers, Minister of Foreign Affairs, health and finance. At his shoulders to leave his party's transformation from Italy to Force the people of freedom, and the new return to Italy Force (2013). The Parliament at the end of November of the same year in favour of his decline as a Senator. Berlusconi will have to serve the sentence: his presence on the political scene, despite no longer eligible, will continue to be important.

Biography of Pier Luigi Bersani

Expose yourself to the left
September 29, 1951

Who is Pier Luigi Bersani?

Pier Luigi Bersani was born on September 29, 1951 in Bettola, a mountain village of the Valley of Nure in the province of Piacenza. His is a family of craftsmen. His father Giuseppe was a mechanic and gas station attendant.
After attending high school in Piacenza, Bersani enrolled at the University of Bologna where he graduated in philosophy, with a thesis on St. Gregory the great.
Married to Daniela since 1980, has two daughters Elisa and Margherita. After a brief stint as a teacher, he devoted himself entirely to the administrative and political activities. He was elected member of the Regional Council of Emilia-Romagna. He will become President on July 6, 1993.
Re-elected to the Presidency in April 1995, will step down in May 1996 when industry Minister will be appointed by Prime Minister Romano Prodi.
From December 23, 1999 to June 2001 Pierluigi Bersani holds the post of Minister of transport. At the 2001 general election, he was elected Deputy for the first time in College 30 Fidenza – Salsomaggiore.
Along with Vincenzo Visco, fonda Nens (new economy new company). After the Congress of the Ds to Bpa Palas in Pesaro in November 2001, Pier Luigi Bersani is a member of the National Secretariat and was appointed head of the party's budget.
In 2004 he was elected an MEP in the North-West constituency. In 2005 after the Congress of Rome succeeds Bruno Trentin driving Ds project Commission with the task of coordinating the guidelines of the electoral program of the Democrats of the left ahead of the general elections.
Following the Union victory in May 2006, is the Minister Bersani of economic development. Among the protagonists of the birth of the Democratic Party since November 2007, is coordinating the National Democratic Party.
After the resignation of Walter Veltroni from the Pd in February 2009, Pier Luigi Bersani is listed as one of the possible successors. The reins of the Democratic Party are taken in hand by Dario Franceschini (Deputy Secretary); Bersani is a candidate to become Secretary of the Democratic Party ahead of primaries that are held in the fall of 20He is to be elected as the new party leader.
At the end of 2012, a year of activity of the Government, the party has to have consensus at national level record (over 30%): you are holding primary elections and candidates are five, including Matteo Renzi and Nichi Vendola. Bersani won the runoff with Renzi: emiliano will candidate for Prime Minister following parliamentary elections.
After the elections of 2013 who see the Pd of a small winner compared to measure Pdl and 5 Star Movement, Pier Luigi Bersani is tasked with forming a Government: after the first attempts at mediation with the political forces that are empty, the Government is having to elect the new President of the Republic; the Pd combines a real political disaster (burning in hectic and convulsive applications from Franco Marini and Romano Prodi) that events lead to announce Bersani resigned from the party.

Brigitta Bulgari biography

Cat's eyes
September 29, 1982

Who is Brigitta Bulgari?

Brigitta Bulgari is the pseudonym of Brigitta Cochise-also known as Brigitta Bui Kocsis or Brigitte Buy. Born in Budapest (Hungary) on September 29, 1982, the mother is Hungarian and her father is Swedish.
Although his career the site mostly in the film hard, is also a model and woman show.
In 2004 Brigitta Bulgari was elected Playmate of the year for the Hungarian edition of Playboy; in the same year is "Penthouse pet" month of may for the u.s. edition of Penthouse magazine.
In Italy he made his walk to clamor unveiled in the middle of the football field of Piacenza's Garilli Stadium, during the football match of serie B Piacenza-Catanzaro, on live TV. He participated in the tv shows "the mole" and "the Martian Chronicles", for Mediaset.
In 2005 and in 2006 he posed for Maxim magazine calendar.
In 2007 she has been involved in case Vallettopoli. It seems that his photographs with the motorcycle champion Marco Melandri were subject to blackmail by Fabrizio Corona, but the pilot of Ravenna has recorded the phone call sending intimidating the extortion attempt.

Biography of Caravaggio

UNA vita violenta
September 29 1571
18 July 1610

Who is Caravaggio?

Michelangelo Merisi, known as Caravaggio (name taken from the country which gave Lombard birth) was born on 29 September 1571 by an architect in the service of the Marquis of Caravaggio, Francesco Sforza.
The painter came from a wealthy family and fairly estimated. Its vocation must be manifested very early, because already in 1584 he joined as a trainee in the workshop of the painter Simone Peterzano Bergamo, pupil of Titian.
It is a period in which makes use of some patrons, including the Sforza and the Colonna, or such as the Cardinal Del Monte, who is staying in his palace and commissioned still lifes.
In 1592 the restless painter decided to move to Rome, where he was welcomed among the servants of Pandolfo Pucci, a local noble.
Still not autonomous is forced to work rather known to artists as Antiveduto Grammatica, Lorenzo Siciliano or Giuseppe Cesari, known as the Cavalier d'arpino, painter of flowers, still lifes or religious topics.
In recent years "was attacked by a serious disease that, finding it was without money needed to go to Spedal of consolation" (B): is the period in which he painted famous portraits in the mirror and "sick Bacchus" (now in the Galleria Borghese).
The turning point in Caravaggio's career is marked by the purchase of "cheaters" by cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte: after this incident, he moved to Palazzo Madama, Cardinal's residence, where he remained until 1600.
The Cardinal's admiration is shared by an important neighbour, marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani, resident in the family Palace just a few steps from Palazzo Madama. In addition to Garcia are among the clients of Caravaggio important families such as the Barberini, Borghese, the coast, the highest and Mattei.
But episodes of the artist's life during these early years the Romans remain obscure and unsettling. In 1597 he was asked to paint some paintings for the Contarelli Chapel in San Luigi dei Francesi ("vocation and martyrdom of St. Matthew, St. Matthew and the Angel") that make it famous and disputed. Of the latter work must provide a new version, since it was found to be grossly disrespectful. Since then and until 1606, Caravaggio's history is studded with grim and violent events that overlap. On the one hand produces several important works that emphasize the fruitfulness and creative power: just as an example, between 1600 and 1601 he painted the "crucifixion of St. Peter" and "the conversion of St. Paul"; In 1604 the "Madonna dei pellegrini or Loreto", in 1605 the "death of the Virgin", rejected by men of Santa Maria della Scala and purchased from the Duke of Mantua, on the advice of the young Rubens.
In the same year marked by this creative explosion, starting in 1603, succeed one another without interruption to the police complaints, fights, processes: in 1605 and Caravaggio took refuge in Genoa, having injured a Court Registrar. In may 1606, a duel ends tragically with the death of his opponent (but he still hurt), murder that forces him to flee, first to Palestrina and then in southern Italy. Then begins a life as a fugitive, alternating successes and misfortunes. In 1607 he went to Naples, where he painted for churches and convents masterpieces such as "the flagellation of Christ" and the "seven acts of mercy".
But his wanderings do not stop and indeed carry it, we in Malta until 16The portrait of Grand Master Alof de Wignacourt him other orders, particularly the great "night" of "beheading of Saint John the Baptist", preserved in the Cathedral of Valletta.
Caravaggio is welcomed into the order of Knights, but news from Rome, about the reasons for his exile, provoke an investigation and then yet another escape.
In the autumn he went to Sicily. where, moving from one city to another leaves many examples of his genius: "burial of St. Lucy," performed in Syracuse for the Church; the "raising of Lazarus" and "adoration of the shepherds" now on display at the Museum in Messina and a "Nativity", preserved in the Oratory of San Lorenzo in Palermo (from recent studies it seems that the latter was created in Rome in 1600).
Returning to Naples in October 1609, is mugged and seriously injured. At the same time his protectors Romans strive to get grace. Recovering embarks in July 1610 for the Papal States. Arrested by mistake at the border of Porto Ercole and released two days later, he wanders along the beaches to the vain search of the boat that had carried him there. Struck by fever, Michelangelo Merisi shuts on 18 July 1610 at an Inn, in solitude, a few days before it was announced the approval of the application.
Better to put the personality of Caravaggio, in the end a summary profile of Gianni Parker: "romance has done nothing but [based on biographies of the period. N.d.r.] create a myth that in the 20th century, as happens in many other cases, was in trouble. Even today the general public know little faithful version Caravaggio generated in those years. The result is a "damned" artist, Bohemian, without any consideration of the context. Caravaggio is a violent one, but can't remember which at the same time live events like figures such as Cavalier d'arpino, Torquato Tasso, Giambattista Marino, Ignatius of Loyola and many others; the alleged homosexual tendencies of Merisi is not considered a marginal factor in his personality as an artist (some even represent the way of interpretation for many of his youthful paintings), as in certain cases of Leonardo or Michelangelo Buonarroti. However, atheism and ignorance in religious matters the most far from true: the artist is simply tied to the pauperism of Federico Borromeo with all that this implies; Caravaggio never deals with a religious theme without having in mind the iconographic sources or, denoting him as a culture of sacred texts as well as the media. "
Analysis of some works by Caravaggio
Basket of fruit (1596)
David and Goliath (1597-1598)
Judith and Holofernes (1597-1600)
Raising of Lazarus (1609)

Biography of Henry d'Artois

The King missed
29 September 1820
October 24 1883

Who is Henry d Artois?

Henri Dieudonné d'Artois, Comte de Chambord was born in Paris on 29 September 1820, seven months after the death of his father Charles-Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, King Charles X's grandson and heir to the throne of France, murdered on 14 July 1820 for his extreme royalist. His mother Caroline of Bourbon in Naples is thus already a widow when she gives birth, but must soon see that this child has fully inherited his father's political passion and hatred for the revolution and for constitutionalism. And will his political ideas that will exclude him from succession to the throne, despite Charles X abdicated in his favor, and that they will instead proclaim his cousin, the Duke of Orléans, Louis-Philippe of the cadet branch of the Bourbon, King of the French.
According to a legalistic argument and legitimist Enrico has held the title of King of France from 2 August 1830, Charles X's abdication, August 9 1830, never recognized, however, by official records. We are in 1830 and he, even at an early age, while remaining claimant to the throne as Henry V is forced to flee from France.
He took refuge in Austria, on 7 November 1846 he married Maria Theresa of Austria Este, three years older, daughter of Duke Francis IV of Modena and Maria Beatrice of Savoy, but the couple remain childless. He spent the years beginning with a substantial 1830 political inactivity until the fall of Napoleon III in 1870, readily stands to actual pretender to the throne.
Declaring war on Prussia, by the French Emperor, turned out to be a reckless act: 19 July 1870 on, the war ends the next September 2 with the defeat of France and his surrender to William I.
Head of the legitimist movement, Enrico launches various proclamations from the French in which advocates a constitutional monarchy and finds favor that Parliament now has a majority of the monarchy. But his radicalism, once again, he will bar the way: the delegation of MEPs who meets him in the castle of Frohsdorf, Austria, which he bought in 1851, in fact, declares that it has no intention to become the "King of the revolution", which has opposed, rejecting the Tricolor flag, resulting in the failure of his own attempt at the Bourbon Restoration.
So air flow for the accession to the throne, the French Parliament decided to wait for his death to appoint King Louis-Philippe Albert d ' Orléans, nephew of Louis-Philippe I. The latter, however, can be only pretender to the throne as Philip VII since the death of Henry, the new Parliament will establish the French Republic.
Henry V in Lanzenkirchen shuts, in Austria, on 24 August 1883, at the age of 63 years. With his death extinguishes the eldest branch of the Bourbons of France.

Biography of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra

Dreams of Knights
September 29 1547
23 April 1616

Who is Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra?

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was born on 29 September 1547 to Alcalá de Henares, Spain. Comes from a family of modest conditions; the father is a "poor surgeon" who plays the profession without having neither a degree nor a great social prestige. The Cervantes family must often change the city because of the dramatic financial situation in which, because of the continuing his father's debts.
With his family, Miguel stays in various cities such as Cordoba, Valladolid, Seville and Madrid. For the young cannot attend regular school buildings, for which he studied at religious institutes managed by the Jesuits in Córdoba and Seville, and then enroll in the College "El Estudio" of Madrid, headed by Juan López de Hoyos.
Soon he began to write his first verses, showing that you have a great humanistic culture and a great creative talent. In 1569 is wanted by Spanish police for having wounded during a brawl, which broke out in the city, Antonio Sigura. In Spain has sentenced in absentia and cut his right hand, so decided to leave his native land by taking refuge in Italy.
In Italy stay in the Duchy of Atri, Abruzzo, entering the service of Cardinal Giulio Acquaviva as courtier. Two years after his escape in Italian territory, decides to leave aboard the galley Marquesa, part of the naval fleet of the Holy League against the Turkish enemy.
The fleet brings an important victory in the naval battle of Lepanto in 1571 on October During the fighting is wounded in the chest and the left hand, which loses the use because of poor medical care, army surgeons. After spending much time at the hospital in Messina, taking part in many military expeditions in the Mediterranean. During periods of suspension of hostilities, stay in Naples.
During the short periods spent in Bell city, law texts of Italian Latin writers, humanists, showing a great interest in classical literature. In 1575 he decides to leave Naples to leave his homeland, Spain. The goal of this journey, through a series of letters of recommendation, is to make sure the guide of a ferry company. Thus manages to get command of Galea del Sol, which is attacked by pirates in the same year. Cervantes is taken prisoner and, only after a ransom paid by the Trinitarians (religious order founded by St. John of Matha), is released on 24 September 1580.
In this period he realized one of his works, titled "El amante liberal," dedicated to his friend Antonio Veneziano, Italian poet known during the years of exile. After the period of imprisonment back in Spain where he is forced to live in very difficult economic conditions and where must endure various humiliations.
After Catalina de Salazar y Palacios, joins in with her wedding in 15During this period, the couple settled in Esquivias, near Toledo. During these years he published the novel "Galatea" and, after a brief unhappy marriage only lasted two years, divorced from his wife.
Later she moved to Andalusia, where shall ensure commissions for the invincible Spanish Armada and where the profession of tax earner.
Shortly after he was arrested in the city of Seville because of administrative offences that allegedly committed, but in a short time is released into the wild. Back to Valladolid, where he lives with his sisters and daughter Isabella, born from one of his love affairs.
In 1605, after the discovery of the corpse of the Knight Gaspard de Ezpeleta near his home, is a suspect in the murder. In this circumstance is stop by the Spanish police, but there is no overwhelming evidence against him was immediately acquitted of the charges.
In the same year the Spanish writer realizes his best known novel, "El hingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha", divided into two parts which tells the story of the Spanish Alonso hidalgo Quijiano, Avid man romances. In an imaginary world, these pretends to be a wandering knight, don Quixote, which together with the farmer Sancho Panza part for countless adventures in order to repair the wrongs and defend the weak.
Don Quixote feels the need to dedicate his adventurer the Lady Dulcinea del Toboso, which actually is a simple peasant woman Aldonza Lorenzo, Spanish. Don Quixote, however, lives in a period of history that Spain is not the adventurer, so its businesses will be few.
With his imagination, so Don Quixote pretends that the flocks of sheep are armies to challenge, that the windmills are equipped with giant arms running and finally that the puppets are nothing else than demons.
With the Miguel de Cervantes ' literary work achieved great success in the Spain of the time as well as other countries. He devoted himself to the creation of comedies as "El cerco de Numancia" and "El Trato de Argel". Also in these years ends of composing prose "El viaje del Parnaso", written during youth but published in 1614 with an entry called "add-on to Parnassus".
His literary output is rich and the following year ends his play "Ocho ocho y entremesas comedy", regarded as one of his best works. The following year he produces one of his last works, "Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda", to be published in 1617 after his death.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra died in Madrid on 23 April 1616 on the same day that dies the artist and playwright William Shakespeare.

Anita Ekberg biography

Captured Northern beauty
September 29, 1931
January 11, 2015

Who is Anita Ekberg?

Kerstin Anita Marianne Ekberg was born in Malmö, Sweden, on 29 September 19His very large family, seven brothers and sisters, contributes to the formation of his independent spirit and combative. He began working as a model and early in 1950 won the title of Miss Sweden.
The victory of the national beauty title allows the participation in the Miss Universe contest. Anita Ekberg moved thus in United States where not won, but thanks to wealthy Director (as well as Aviator and mogul) Howard Hughes, gets a contract with RKO, but will not participate in any film project. How will reveal later, Hughes is not very interested in her acting skills: the man makes a marriage proposal, which she refuses.
To increase his chances of working in film, Anita studied acting and diction and learn to ride a horse in the Hollywood Hills. Her beauty and her particular voice to begin working with Universal. Her film debut takes place in 1953 with the film "Abbott and Costello Go to Mars" by Charles Lamont, where playing the part of a Venusian guard. In this first trial follows a participation in the film "the Golden Sword" (1953) by Nathan Juran also featuring Rock Hudson. The two films and her mysterious attitude the worth the nickname of "The Iceberg", which actually began as a pun on his surname. Despite the nickname, Anita Ekberg was noted by attracting the sympathy of many well-known personalities of American stardom, including Tyrone Power, Errol Flynn, Frank Sinatra and Gary Cooper.
The actress understands having to play skillfully with his irrepressible femininity, and decides to appear naked on the pages of Playboy, organising fake accidents at the same time, like that of the dress suddenly opened in the lobby of the Berkeley Hotel in London. Even his marriage in 1956 with the English actor Anthony Steel, from which divorced after just two years, helps to increase the press attention around his character.
Anita Ekberg is thus able to get a starring role in the film "artists and models" next to the couple Jerry Lewis and Dean Martin, and in "Hollywood or death" by Frank Tashlin, a role which won a Golden Globe Award as best actress. The turning point came in 1956 with a participation in the movie "war and peace" by King Vidor.
The beautiful Swedish arrives in Italy in 1959 to turn with Guido Brignone "Nel segno di Roma" and the following year the role of Silvia in "La dolce vita" by Federico Fellini. With Fellini began a long and happy working collaboration which participate in three other films: "Boccaccio ' 70 (1962)" the clown "(1970) and" the interview "(1987). But the scene of "La dolce vita" when Anita takes a bath in the Trevi Fountain remains probably the strongest symbol, almost legendary, attached to his acting career.
In 1963 he returned to Hollywood to turn a number of films, including "call me Bwana" by Bob Hope. In the same year he married for the second time: the new husband is the actor Rik Van Nutter. The marriage lasts about eight years: the two divorced in 1975.
In the second half of the 1960s, Anita Ekberg moves his residence in Italy and works mainly in European productions as: "excuse me, are you for or against" (1966), alongside Alberto Sordi and "woman times seven (1967) by Vittorio De Sica, in which she starred alongside Shirley MacLaine.
After his second divorce, her private life continues to be quite eventful: for about three years living a secret love affair with Gianni Agnelli, and is also attributed a relationship with filmmaker Dino Risi, which she denied.
From the 1970s onwards participates in a series of B-movie as "Casa d'appuntamento" with Barbara Bouchet, the thriller "Suor Omicidi (1978) by Giulio Berruti, and the spaghetti western" ride for vengeance "(1972) by Richard Harrison.
In the 1990s also participates in the film "Doll" by Bigas Luna acting in the role of the mother of Valeria Marini, and the film "red dwarf" (1998) by Yvan Lemoine, in which he plays a mature opera singer. His last appearance was the participation in the television drama "Il bello delle donne" (2005).
The same year she left for the United States in 1950, Anita no longer lived in Sweden; for years he lived in a villa outside Rome. He welcomed, however, often at his home Swedish journalists and took part in a popular Swedish radio programme telling of his life. In the last years of his life told us they would be returned to Sweden only after his death.
Anita Ekberg went to 83 years the January 11, 2015: from the time he was hospitalized in the clinic San Raffaele in Rocca di Papa.

Biography of Ferdinand VII of Spain

A rebellious son
14 October 1784
29 September 1833

Who is Ferdinand VII of Spain?

Ferdinand of Bourbon, Prince of Asturias, was born in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 14 1784 by King Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Parma. In 1802 he married Maria Antonietta of Bourbon, daughter of King Ferdinand I of the two Sicilies and Maria Carolina of Habsburg-Lorraine. The marriage lasts just four years because, in 1806, his wife dies of tuberculosis (although for some that death remains mysterious).
Widowed, her father is working, at the suggestion of Prime Minister Godoy, to take as his second wife Maria Luisa of Bourbon, but he is opposed to the father's will as it has already carried out secret negotiations to marry a niece of Napoleon Bonaparte. The affair is discovered by Godoy who accuses him of treason and sent to trial: it should be mentioned that between Ferdinand and the Prime Minister that, among other things, his mother's lover, is never good blood course, and this event further exacerbates the animosity that already houses the young towards their parents. The process, for the events that follow, will not ever end.
Being Godoy hated by the population for its excessive power, Ferdinand took advantage and contrasting it to encourage the uprising at Aranjuez in 1808, which gets the abdication of Charles IV in his favor. The invasion of Spain by French troops under Murat, which follows the request for help sent by the ruler deposed Napoleon, determines his arrest, returning the throne to Charles IV and the latter's abdication in favor of Napoleon, who put his brother Joseph on the throne.
Ferdinand remains stuck at Valencay, in France, in the lounge obliged but treated very well. Will return to Spain in 1814, with the abdication of Napoleon, taking the Crown. Restores for repealing absolutism, among his first acts, the Liberal Constitution of Cadiz of 1812 and the Parliament (Cortes), and reintroducing the Inquisition that Joseph Bonaparte abolished.
As for his parents, does not allow them to return home, leaving them in exile, at the Roman Pope. In 1816 married a niece, Princess Maria Isabella, daughter of the King of Portugal John VI and Charlotte Joaquina of Spain, but also died prematurely in December 18Less than a year later goes on for the third time in wedding, this time with Maria Josepha, daughter of Prince Maximilian of Saxony and Caroline of Bourbon-Parma: spend ten years and Maria Giuseppa lets widower again.
Six months after taking the fourth and last wife, Maria Cristina, daughter of King Francis I of the two Sicilies and Maria Isabella of Spain. Resurface, meanwhile, never placate internal stresses, which riesplodono with the Spanish army, prepared to go to quell the uprisings of the colonies of America, refuses to start and proclaims the Constitution again: is the 1820 and the King is forced to swear on the new Charter, ensuring the convening of the Cortes and the abolition of the Inquisition.
The revolt comes thanks to the military that Masonic Patriots in previous years remained vigilant and events such as: the attempt to occupy Pamplona, in 1814, by the General Mina, La Coruna's uprising of 1815, the conspiracy of the triangle of 1816, aimed at the assassination of King, the insurrectionary outbreaks in Catalonia and Valencia in 1817 were clear signs warning of what happens in 1820.
The resurgence of constitutional monarchies alarming resurgence in Europe of the Holy Covenant that decide to intervene militarily: the command of the Duke of Angoulême, on 23 September 1823 the Alliance army enters victorious at Cadiz by releasing the King, who had been imprisoned, and ending the Liberal triennium. Reinsediatosi, Fernando VII resumed with renewed fervour absolutist power.
Having no male offspring, promulgated a "pragmatic sanction", which abolished the Salic law-which excludes women from dynastic successions-to leave the throne to his daughter Isabella so denies his brother don Carlos the exercise of the right of inheritance, creating the conditions for civil war between Carlists "" and "" that will explode Chauhan after his death.
After a long illness, King Ferdinand VII of Spain died in Madrid on 29 September 1833, only 49 years.

Enrico Fermi biography

Physical conflicts
September 29, 1901
November 29, 1954

Who is Enrico Fermi?

Enrico Fermi was born on September 29, 1901 in Rome, the son of Albert, Transport Ministry official and Ida De Gattis, teacher. Up to 3 years of age and resides in the countryside under the close supervision of a nurse, in six years begins secular elementary school regularly (important as never received religious education, leading and supporting then agnosticism which accompanied him throughout his life).
Deeply saddened by the untimely death of his brother Julius, greater than one year, with whom he tied especially, throws all his despair in the books, channeling anger positively for the loss, much to end the liceo ginnasio "Umberto" with a year earlier, having time to focus on in-depth studies of mathematics and physics texts purchased by him or just browsed at the flea market of Campo de ' Fiori.
A colleague of his father, Adolfo Amidei, engineer having guy at heart, suggests not to enroll at the University of Rome, but at Pisa University, in particular at the scuola Normale, presenting the annual competition is held: to access the topic "distinctive sound" he is faced with extreme skill, allowing him to finish first in the ranking.
He started in 1918 attending in Pisa, lasting four years: graduates 7 July 1922, showing uncommon linguistic knowledge (in addition to Latin and Greek, know English, French and German), allowing him to leave shortly after to Gottigen, at the school of Max Born, to improve knowledge of quantum physics; in 1925, with few regrets, he moved to Leiden, in Holland, where he met Albert Einstein.
Rome gets first the Chair of theoretical physics, created for him by Prof. Corbino, Director of the Institute of physics, which at one time made up a study group called "i ragazzi di Via Panisperna" (the Institute), composed of R., Segré, Amaldi, Ettore Majorana, Trabacchi and Pontecorvo.
The main arguments concern spectroscopy studies, obtaining excellent results, but almost all members of this group feel increasingly attracted by nuclear physics, increasingly moving abroad to study in the laboratory. Still focuses on the study of the atomic nucleus, leading to formulate the theory of beta decay, in which the emission of a photon is given by the transition of a neutron into a Proton with the creation of an electron and a neutrino.
This theory, which was introduced at the end of 1933, is now confirmed by the discovery of radioactivity by Curie and Joliot-curie, exposed in early 19Based on this discovery, Fermi formulates a new idea: use neutrons as bullets to avoid the Coulomb repulsion for producing artificial radioactivity. After several unsuccessful attempts, they get positive results for the species tested 60 37, discovering that in the event of subsequent impacts, the neutrons produced by bumps slowed have much higher effectiveness in the generation of waste.
Between 1935 and 1937 the Group separates again to different teaching assignments, in Rome there are only still and Amaldi: the year after Enrico Fermi was awarded the Nobel Prize, but this is the only note of happy year. Majorana disappears in more or less mysterious circumstances and because of the racial laws enacted by the fascist regime, the body is forced to emigrate, as his wife Laura is Jewish.
Still accepts a professorship at Columbia University, while his friend Segrè discovered being fired in Rome, accepted the Chair of physics at Berkeley. After arriving at Columbia, began to focus on the initial experiments of Hahn and Strassman nuclear fission, and with the help of Dunning and Booth and plans a close-up for the construction of the first nuclear pile, which is the first device where produce in a controlled chain reaction. Enrico Fermi sees the completion of its efforts on 2 December 1942, with the entry into operation of the first nuclear power station in Chicago; nuclear energy becomes a source of life, but at the same time an instrument of war: adheres to the Manhattan project to create the first nuclear device.
After the war he devoted himself to the study of elementary particles and particle accelerators, focusing primarily on pions and its interactions with protons. During his stay in Italy in the summer of 1954, begin to manifest the first dramatic symptoms of stomach cancer: this disease, then almost unknown, quickly weakens him to death on 29 November of that year in Chicago, in the United States.

Biography of Felice Gimondi

A hard nut to crack for the Cannibal
September 29, 1942

Who is Felice Gimondi?

Felice Gimondi was born in Sedrina, Bergamo, on 29 September 19It was a great cyclist, as well as Italian sports official. As a professional has inflamed, along with rival Eddy Merckx, and tours Europe tours starting from 1965 to 1979, the closing year of his career. It is also one of five riders to have won the Triple Crown, corresponding to the three big tournaments in Europe: Tour de France, tour of Italy and Spanish Vuelta. He won the historic racing Paris-Roubaix, Milan-Sanremo, the tour of Lombardy, as well as three world medals, namely bronze in 1970 in Leicester, silver in 1971 in Mendrisio and gold in 1973 at Montjuic.
Tactical cyclist, although less technically minded explosive rival historian Merckx, Gimondi could always read the races in the right way, by finding the appropriate time to launch the attack during the crucial stages of the competitions. The journalist Gianni Brera, who described a long-term business, you need the two best-known cyclist nicknames lombardo: Felix de worlds and red cloud.
The small, happy is the son of Moses, a postman who lives and works in Bike: he who learns the art of pedalling, because cycling is first of all a necessity. Anyway, the future champion is approaching quite late to the sport. Is around eighteen that Felice Gimondi starts to run for the U.S. company Sedrianese, which features even as an amateur. In the latter category, however, already you can see the seeds of his talent, especially when in 1964 won his first competition, a sort of mini Tour de France made especially for amateur cyclists: the Tour de l'Avenir.
In 1965 becomes cyclist team Salvarani, as gregarious employed by Vittorio Adorni. Immediately takes part in the "Grand Boucle", as it is nicknamed by fans favourite competition: the Tour De France. It happens then that his captain, Adorni, withdraws, and the young rider bergamasco wins the yellow Jersey, his first experience on the Tour and, especially, among professionals: is a historic achievement. During competition Gimondi resists attack by Raymond Puolidor on Mont Ventoux and wins the time trial from Versailles, which finally closes the accounts and delivery, for the first and only time in his career, the French tournament.
These were the years when not yet appear at the top of his forces the spectre of Flemish cyclist Eddy Merckx, with which to reckon the runner. The year after the Tour, in 1966, Gimondi won the historic Paris-Roubaix, conquered with a bold escape, then repeat the Paris-Brussels, the other is much beloved by fans. In the latter race, happy in a sprint finish just ahead of rival Eddy Merckx. In the same year, finally, Gimondi also toast to the Giro di Lombardia, confirming the best cyclist of the year.
Great climber, more methodical and more wary than the Belgian rival, which since 1967 began to impose his March of victory, the great event with the tour of Italy be ready, winning the overall. The decisive penultimate stage, that of Madonna del Ghisallo, where gives a pomp Gimondi its technical characteristics: waiting in the Group and the first strike and calculated, the hips of the opponent in trouble. The old Jacques Anquetil must capitulate, and bergamasco has been awarded the pink jersey.
In 1968 takes the Vuelta in Spain, but in the tour of Italy is to give way to Merckx, which outperforms all in the three decisive stages of the tour, including one at Tre Cime di Lavaredo. Gimondi ended the year with an Italian champion's Jersey and with the sixth place in the world.
The following year, the duel is always renewed to Italian tour, but this time Gimondi takes Merckx only after disqualification for doping of the Belgian, who won the following year. A curiosity: the 1969 Giro d'Italia of Italy, lombardo, recognizing that it has won primarily because of the misfortunes of his rival at the time of the ceremony, refusing to wear the pink jersey.
The World Championship in Mendrisio of 1971 saw the usual two opposites, with victory once again. Gimondi arrives second and somebody, especially among his detractors, he begins to nickname him "the eternal second".
An important year is undoubtedly the 1973, marking one more defeat in Italy to Gimondi which then decides to change the team, by choosing the Bianchi-Campagnolo. It is, perhaps, an important choice, if only because of the imminent Monjuich world, in Barcelona. In the peloton, on the Hill, Gimondi takes the Belgian fast Freddy Maertens and Merckx as usual.
Amazing is, in this race, the answer I give the Italian the "Cannibal", one of the many nicknames of the Belgian cyclist when he stands up on the pedals to the 11th round one of his furious attacks.
The year after then, conquered the world, comes the first and only win in a competition which for years saw him defeated, the legendary Milan-Sanremo. While not exactly his specialty, the cyclist bergamasco manages to disconnect all sprinters at about 25 km from the finish.
These are his final years of activity, in which there is a strong Belgian rival's supremacy but that between 1976 and 1978, allow it to take off a few more satisfaction. In fact, the 1976 big Sedrina cyclist won his third success in the tour of Italy, to then go and take his second Paris-Brussels. In 1978 his last professional race, the Giro dell'Emilia. His last appearance as an athlete dates back a year later, in the "six days".
Felice Gimondi can boast in its extraordinary history, well cycling races won 141.
80 years later, he began a career as a valid Executive, leading him in 1988 to the post of coach of Gewiss.
At his many singers have dedicated their songs, as Enrico Ruggeri with "Gimondi and the Cannibal", and the band Elio e le Storie Tese with "happy".

Loretta Goggi biography

September 29, 1950

Who is Loretta Goggi?

Loretta Goggi was born on 29 September 1950 in Rome to a family originally from Circello. Fascinated with music and singing since childhood, she was noticed by Silvio Gigli and in 1959 he took part and won with Nilla Pizzi "Disco magic", Dino Verde radio contest presented by Corrado Mantoni. In the same year she made her debut as an actress in television drama "on trial", directed by Anton Giulio Majano, before affecting a song written by Nico Fidenco for the Italian version of "blood to the head", a French film.
In the 1960s, Loretta Goggi joins several serials of the era: in 1962 it was the turn of "an American tragedy", while in 1963 Majano, tap in "crime and punishment", even "Robinson and Jessica must not die", by Vittorio Brignole, "Demetrius Pianelli", by Sandro Bolchi; in 1964, then, here's "Les Miserables", Bolchi, and "La cittadella", Majano; in 1965, finally, space to "Vita di Dante", by Vittorio Cottafavi, and "Scaramouche" and "Mark Twain speaks tonight," Daniele d'anza.
After playing with Santo Versace and Arturo upside "once upon a time fairy tale, written for kids directed by Beppe Recchia, starting from the mid-1960s, Loretta Goggi is also dedicated to dubbing, providing vocals for actresses like Silvia Dionisio, Ornella Muti, Kim Darby, Katharine Ross, Agostina Belli and Mita doctors but also the Canary Tweety in the famous cartoon Cat Sylvester of Warner Bros.
In 1968 his plays one of the most famous roles in scripted Majano "La freccia nera", based on the book by Robert Louis Stevenson, where has the opportunity to play alongside Aldo Reggiani and Arnoldo Foà. While he graduated from Liceo Linguistico Internazionale di Roma, thanks to several scholarships, Loretta approaches to soap operas and even a disc jockey at Radio Vaticana.
In 1970, in the variety presented by Quartetto Cetra "the Joker", begins to unfold even as impersonator; soon after leads with Renzo Arbore "summer show", where together with his sister Daniela Gardiner performs in "boomerang Ball". After having joined Giancarlo Giannini in the scripted "and Majano stars look down", is a partner of Pippo Baudo in radio program "voice" and hunting in Sunday television variety show "The Golden arrow".
Next to Fenty leads "11" Theatre, before joining as a singer-in the summer of 1971-"Un disco per l'estate" with the song "I'm living without you": a few months later, won the World Popular Song Festival in Tokyo. Later, Baby wants her back with him to conduct "Canzonissima" in the season 1972/73: it is on this occasion that is appreciated for its imitation of Ornella Vanoni, Patty Pravo, Mina and many other women in the show. Thanks to "Canzonissima" Loretta Goggi launches the catchphrase "hands", and won his first gold record thanks to "come away with me (Taratapunzi-e)" written by Dino green, Marcello Marchesi, Pippo Baudo and Enrico Simonetti.
After a stop in England for a show with Sammy Davis Jr, the showgirl back in Roman Italy and presents with Alighiero Noschese "Formula two" Saturday night variety in which she sings the theme song "drop everything". In 1974 gave life to his first solo show in the famous local live, in Versilia, while two years later with Massimo Ranieri is the protagonist of the musical variety "from the first moment I saw you," in which she played, among others, the songs "don't tell" and "matta".
In the second half of the 1970s, while the single "still in love" is distributed in the Usa, Spain, Germany and Greece, Loretta leads with sister Daniela and with Pippo Franco the variety "The reversal", directed by Antonello Falqui, which at the Montreux Festival in Switzerland won the "Silver Rose Award" as the best European television program.
After having finished on the cover of "Playboy", with a photo shoot by Roberto Rocchi, presents the first edition of "fantastic", alongside Heather Parisi and Beppe Grillo, proving an outstanding success thanks to the closing theme, "Saturday night air". During the filming of the show, he met Gianni Brezza, choreographer and dancer, who became his companion for the rest of his life. Loretta plays, with Gianni, the fotoromanzo "love on the high seas", the Bolero rotogravure; then, in 1981, he took part as a competitor at the Sanremo Festival coming in second place with the song "Maledetta primavera".
In the same year passes by Raiuno on Canale 5, where he presents the show "Hello Goggi", in which "album comes out my next love". The protagonist in the musical theatre "they're playing our song", alongside Gigi Proietti, in 1982 leads by Rete4 "variety", together with Luciano Salce and Paolo Panelli, airing Sundays on primetime. Back in Rai, presents "Loretta Goggi in quiz", which in 1984 won Telegatto for best quiz.
Two years later, becomes the first woman to present the solo Festival di Sanremo. Face the State tv, hostess of "the beauty of live" and "Canzonissime", a show dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of the disc. Winner of the Telegatto as best female tv personality thanks to the early evening yesterday, "Goggi and tomorrow", in the late 1980s has the meridiana "Via Teulada 66"; in 1989 was nominated best female character to Oscar Tv.
In 1991 Loretta goes to Telemontecarlo where presents "birthday party", variety in late evening. Back then in Rai: driving of "Il canzoniere delle feste", on BBC two; in the second half of the 1990s, she starred with Johnny Dorelli, both at teatro (in the show "Bobbi knows everything") and television (in the sit-com 5 channel "two to three"). Always to Mediaset, alongside Mike Bongiorno to "Viva Napoli", musical program by ReteIn the 2000s, clears her appearances on television, preferring Theater: in 2004/2005 the scene "much ADO (no relation) to nowhere", directed by Lina Wertmuller. The voice of the animated film "Monsters & co.", in 2011 suffers a serious mourning the death of Gianni Brezza.
He returned to television in 2012 as the Raiuno program sworn "which show"; at the same time, back on a film set for Fausto Brizzi's comedy "crazy me", alongside Francesco Mandelli.

Jerry Lee Lewis biography

The genius and recklessness
September 29, 1935

Who is Jerry Lee Lewis?

Born in Ferryday, Louisiana, September 29, 1935, Jerry Lee Lewis is one of the most turbulent and wild children of rock 'n' roll. Mixing rhythm & blues and Boogie-Woogie coined a very personal style that would have made the history of rock 'n' roll. Unlike many of his contemporaries he was accompanied at the piano playing with extraordinary speed and fury such that they seem possessed. His music was hypnotic, demonic. His lyrics were continuous provocations to the sense of public decency. During his performances was unaware of the social mores overindulging at that rebellious energy libidinosa that rock'n ' roll sent him like no other white musician before. This had earned him the nickname "killer." It was a white "black" for his savage attitude but mostly for his playing possessed, pounding. It was the symbol of rock 'n' roll wilder and hellish.
Jerry Lee grew up in a strongly conservative Christian environment. At the age of three years remains the only male heir of the family after the death of his elder brother, caused by a drunk driver. At 8 years old his parents give the first piano and at 15 she performed as a professional for a local radio station.
Legend has it that he and Jimmy Swaggart, a preacher from small cousin had heard a rhythm & blues group from a local. It seems that Jimmy Swaggart had said "this is the Devil's music! We gotta go! ". But Jerry was paralyzed, unable to move. That this story is true or not does not matter because a few years later he would become "the pianist".
Despite the strict religious upbringing which had been imparted Jerry Lee Lewis chooses an outrageously profane life made of alcohol, women and drugs.
In 1956 he went to Memphis where his music has in Sam Phillips (the producer who had discovered Elvis) was impressed.
In 1957 Lewis is top of the League with 45 rpm record "Whole lotta shakin ' goin ' on", selling a million copies and becomes a star in just two months. Soon produces its greatest successes (including the immortal "Great balls of fire") that try to contend with Elvis Presley as the "King of rock".
With those pieces Lewis gave a decisive imprint to introducing rock 'n' roll musical and gestural forms of blacks in white playing: in those times had never seen a white musician playing that way.
His live shows significantly increase his fame. During the concerts she sings, shouts, jumps, really percussive sounds, exuding sensuality, anarchy and often ends the burning piano concerts. His unconventional attitude puts soon targeted by moralists.
Its success is big but extremely short. In fact not even a year after dares defy conventions again by marrying his 13-year-old cousin Myra Gale, while divorce from second wife was not yet final. The scandal initially has no particular emotional effects on Jerry Lee: breaking the rules was part of his ego. But when he arrives in England to promote his music, the moralistic English press appropriates marriage story portraying him as a monster steal children. They destroy it. His career declines rapidly. Is practically forced to leave rock 'n' roll. After some years of absence returns to the scene as a country singer (while not forgetting the Boogie-Woogie): a modest success. Disks that are not public very successful but Jerry Lee never abandons the music scene continuing to give concerts and attending a musical show.
His unfortunate career is nothing compared to his private life: Jerry Lee marries well 7 times. The longest of her marriages is that with Myra Gale lasting 13 years. In 1962 the young son drowns in pool in just 3 years. The other son dies in a car accident in 19 years. In the 1970s Jerry Lee was arrested several times for drugs and drunkenness, and accidentally shoots his bassist. The fifth wife dies drowned and 25-year-old's new wife is found dead of an overdose just three months after the wedding. In 1981 is rushed to complications due to an ulcer and is given for dead: a few months later will give one of his most memorable concerts.
In 2012 back to talk about himself for his seventh wedding: the news is that his new bride is her cousin's Judith Brown, Rusty Brown's ex-wife, Myra Gale's brother.

Biography of Horatio Nelson

Victories and courage
29 September 1758
21 October 1805

Who is Horatio Nelson?

Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England. It is the sixth child of a large family: has ten brothers. The father is the Reverend Edmund Nelson, the mother is the great-grandson of Sir Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of the British Parliament.
Unfortunately the little Horatio loses when mother has only nine. He attended the schools of up to twelve years before enlisting in the Royal Navy. His military career began in 1771, when he embarks as seaman and helmsman on a ship commanded by his maternal uncle: Captain Maurice Suckling. Shortly after he was appointed midshipman and officially starts his career. During this time, ironically, to suffer from seasickness, which despite his great success as an Admiral, will haunt him for life.
His career is held on 14 February 1797 when contrary orders his captain, shows his penchant for bold action and danger closes in fact switching to Spanish fleet and attacked two enemy ships, becoming the main culprit of the English victory at the battle of Cape St. Vincent.
In April of the same year Nelson was appointed Commodore, a position that has the same responsibilities as an Admiral. While participating in the battle for the conquest of Tenerife, was hit in the right arm: strike results in the breakdown of the humerus. Medical practices, still not very evolved in these situations require amputation of the limb in order to prevent problems of gangrene. Nelson so you see her right arm amputated and is unable to serve until December of that year. He himself jokingly ends to define her stump: "my fin".
The incident will not stop the rise of Horatio Nelson who continues to lead his ships with courage and resourcefulness. On 1 August 1798 is responsible for a great victory over the French: the battle of the Nile, also known as the battle of Aboukir Bay. The victory by Nelson puts an end to Napoleon's ambitions, intent on making war on Britain for possession of the Indies. Soundly defeated, Napoleon was forced to flee to France to avoid capture by the English fleet.
Thanks to the victory, Nelson was appointed Baron of the Nile. the title did not meet: a hoped for something more. Despite being explained that, not being Commander in Chief, couldn't get no higher than the title of Baron, Nelson, now and in the future, it will always be accompanied by the feeling that his deeds are not receiving proper recognition by the British Government. He thinks that this behavior is due to his humble birth and her lack of political ties.
Not content, in each case, to rest on the laurels, Nelson gets thrown into a new business: protect the Neapolitan Royal family by the French invasion. In Naples he falls in love with Emma Hamilton, the young wife of the English Ambassador, who soon becomes his lover. The two live openly together and their relationship is born a child, Horatia.
In 1799 he took part in the reconquest of Naples after the Republican period, and was created Duke of Bronte by King. Some problems related to his professional conduct in Naples determine their return to England, where the Admiralty for driving him away from Emma also ends to send it back into the sea. Problems arise because he is accused of having allowed the murder of prisoners of war to the Neapolitan royalists. This episode, which some justify even with a head injury suffered during the battle of the Nile, is perhaps due to his hatred for the Jacobins and its deployment in favour of monarchists. The fact is that the episode n will remain an area of shadow in his career and a stain on its reputation.
In 1801 he took part in the battle of Copenhagen, with which Britain hopes to break the Danish neutrality, Swedish and Russian. Nelson becomes the protagonist of the terrible bombing of the Danish capital. He contravenes the order to stop the bombing, then giving in an ironic way: Horatio says he didn't see the signal at the end of the bombing because he watched with the wrong eye, namely with his glass eye!
The success of the bombing allows him to become Commander-in-Chief. But the battle for which he will be forever remembered by history is the battle of Trafalgar, 18Nelson issa on his ship the famous phrase "England expects that every man will do his duty" (England expects everyone fulfill their duty) and leads the English fleet to victory. The British victory of Trafalgar closes permanently on age-old Anglo-French duel for control of the oceans: waiver to Napoleon invasion of Great Britain, which made the nation becomes absolute master of the seas, until World War I.
Unfortunately during the battle, a bullet wound to his left shoulder and Pierce the lungs, reaching even to the base of the spine. Nelson remains conscious for about four hours, then dies: is the 21 October 18Nelson still managed to attend British victory on the Napoleonic fleet.
The bullet that killed him was removed from his body and is still exhibited at Windsor Castle. The battle is called Trafalgar Square, one of London's most famous squares, where stands an imposing statue of the national hero Horatio Nelson.

Biography of Angelo Poliziano

"Prince" of the culture of ' 400
14 July 1454
29 September 1494

Who is Angelo Poliziano?

Agnolo Ambrogini (Angel) was born in Montepulciano on 14 July 1454 notary Benedetto di Nanni. Reached the age of ten his father died murdered for revenge and he, four years later, he moved to Florence, where he began calling himself by his nickname, Poliziano, Latin name of his homeland (Mons Politianus).
He studied with teachers such as Lachin, Chalcondyles, Argyropoulos and, especially, Ficino, putting early in his particular talent when, while still a student, picks up the translation from Greek into Latin the "Iliad" of Homer, left open by Carlo Marsuppini.
The exemplary work places him to the attention of Lorenzo de ' Medici who, in 1473, in his palace as private Secretary and, in 1475, entrusted him with the education of his son Piero.
In the refined and cultured home of doctors and especially in his immense library, Poliziano finds its ideal habitat and, in his spare time, he began to devote himself to literary work. Are these years epigrams and Elegies, odes in Latin and Greek, the poem "scabiem" and Sylva in the famous "start for the Joust of the magnificent Giuliano di Piero de ' Medici", opera remained unfinished after the murder of the protagonist in the Pazzi conspiracy in 1478.
The sad event-narrated by him in Latin in "Conjurationis pactianae years 1478 commentarium"-followed by the war, as well as divergences of views with Lorenzo's wife about the child's upbringing, induce Poliziano to abandon House of Medici and Florence. In Mantua, where he found hospitality at the cardinal Gonzaga, composed the "Fabula di Orfeo" and came into contact with humanists. But in 1480 is recalled to Florence by Lorenzo who, aware of having him as the "Prince of culture", offers him the Chair of Greek and Latin eloquence at the Florentine Studio.
At this stage the "Prolusiones" concerning Greek and Latin classes; critical essays on Greek and Latin Classics "Miscellanea"; the "Epistles", "" and Odae Elegies, among which the famous "Epicedio" in morte di Albiera "for the untimely death of young Florentine noblewoman Albiera degli Albizzi. The underlying theme of his works is the interpretative rigour and the attempt of penetration in classic authors; his Latin poem seems to take place in a mythical aura.
His graceful and lyrical, full of grace, His Highness, the expressive of the greatest exponents of ' humanistic poetry 4The echo of his boundless culture is such that Florence was the capital of humanism and the cradle of Italian philological school, as well as to attract in the city writers and artists from all over Europe.
Angelo Poliziano dies in Florence, on 29 July 1494, just 40 years old.
Among other works of Poliziano remembers the "Epistle to Federico d'Aragona" (1475-76), written for Lorenzo to the King of Naples and with which anticipates the vernacular literature; the manual of Epictetus (1479); the "stories of Herodian" (1487); the four Sylvae ":" Manto "(1482), Rusticus (1483)," amber "(1485) and Nutricia (1486)

Raf biography

September 29, 1959

Who is Raf?

Raffaele Riefoli is the real name of singer Raf: Raf was born on 29 September 1959 in Santa Margherita di Savoia, Apulia. As a boy demonstrates a remarkable passion for music, taking lessons from Giovanni Battista Garner, and approaching The Friends Group, well known in the area of Bari.
Barely eighteen years Raffaele decided to move to Florence with the intent to study architecture; shortly after, however, he went to London, where he founded the Cafe Caracas, a rock/punk group that also sees the presence of Ghigo Renzulli (which later became guitarist Litfiba), which recorded a cover of "Tintarella di luna", the famous song of mine.
First successes
Meanwhile, he worked as a waiter to support himself until he met Giancarlo Bigazzi: it is the beginning of an artistic collaboration that will prove very fruitful. After returning to Florence, he recorded "Self control", which became her first musical success: his first album entirely in English and released in 1983, among the singles "Change your mind", "London Town" and "Hard", but the song "Self Control" to climb the Italian sales charts, even under a cover done by the American Laura Branigan.
After writing "the Prince", song performed by Claudia Mori who is chosen for the tv program "Hit Parade" as the closing song in the 1987 Raf is author of the words to "you can give more," the song that won the "Festival di Sanremo" with Gianni Morandi, Enrico Ruggeri and Umberto Tozzi.
His debut as a singer in Italian
With Tan, in that same year, the artist pugliese takes part in the "Eurovision Song Contest" with the song "Gente di mare", which among other things makes his debut in the Italian language. While he may be known in Europe under the name of Raff, in 1988 the singer of "Self Control" participates in "Sanremo Festival" with the song "Inevitable madness"; afterwards, the prints gives the album "waking up a year ago", whose single is "the taste of a Kiss" written by Gaetano Curreri (Stadium).
In 1989 the Raf back on the stage of the Ariston "Cosa resterà degli anni ' 80", contained in the album "What will remain ...": on this album also includes "I pretend", the song that won the Festivalbar ".
Gli anni ' 90
Become a loyal, Raf there back in 1991 with "today I don't have a God", which anticipates the release of the album "dreams ... that's all there is", within which there are also "Interminatamente", "are we alone in the vast emptiness that is there" and the Duet with Eros Ramazzotti "too".
Two years later, the Raf is the protagonist of another Duet: in fact, collaborates with the novice Laura Pausini "Mi rubi l'anima". Winner again "Festivalbar" with "the beat", which is part of the album "Cannibali", achieved great success with "Two" and "stay with me", other singles from the album.
In the summer of 1995 Raf publish "Manifesto", whose single is "you're the most beautiful of the world", to which followed "the sound", "before it's day" and "In your eyes". The following year, he married Gabriella Labate and becomes father of Bianca.
After having rearranged and reinterpreted his songs for sixteen "temporary Collection", the first collection of his career that also contains the previously unreleased "one giant leap", back in the recording studio for "proof" disc from a rock sound that is not particularly appreciated by the audience: the singles are "life, stories and thoughts of an alien", "Little girl" and "rain dance".
The years 2000
RAF refers to large, in any case, both because in 2000 becomes father again, this time by Samuel, and because in 2001 with the song "endless" gets the third success at "Festivalbar", and contributes to the excellent sales of "Hyperbole", an album that also contains the songs "Oasis", "in the silence" and "Via". The following disc is called "Ouch!", and dates back to the spring of 2004: the lead single is "In all my days".
After you have written with Domenico Liggeri autobiography "Cosa resterà ....", published by Mondadori, Raf publishes its second compilation, "Raf", which includes the bonus track "Amarse amarse or not" ("Love or not love" Spanish version) and "E penso a te", cover of the piece by Lucio Battisti. Is 2005, when Raf collaborates with Edoardo Bennato for "Every story is a game" (which sees Alex Britti guitar) and the Jetlag project "is necessary."
After a Duet with Ron in "peace", contained on disk "when you say love?", in 2006 the Raf left the record label CGD/Warner to switch to Sony-BMG, which in spring "misappropriated" Passenger public, which contains the single "Forget". In 2008 the album "Metamorphosis", with the singles "oxygen", "is never a mistake" and "dance". The following year, he released his first Cd-Dvd, "Soundview", accompanied by the previously unreleased "for all time", before entering the recording studio to record "numbers" album coming out in May 2011 and that is preceded by An unexpected "emotion".
The years 2010
In 2012 the Raf takes part in "Carpe diem", album, Duet in the chorus Entics of "what would I do, what would you do"; the following year, however, performs with Max Pezzali Sei fantastica "," disc "Max 20" of the former frontman of 8Other collaborations of this period is the one with Nathalie, for "dream of summer.
On 14 December 2014 Carlo Conti Announces, in the course of Raiuno program "L'Arena", Raf will be one of twenty contestants Big category in Sanremo 2015: on the stage of the Ariston will perform the song "like a fairy tale."

Biography of Andriy Shevchenko

Top scorers are born
September 29, 1976

Who is Andriy Shevchenko?

Andriy Shevchenko, great football player exploded internationally in the ranks of AC Milan, was born in the village of Dvirkiyshchyna near Yahotyn Kiev province. 183 cm tall, was born in 1976 and weighs 73 kg. As happens in all samples proves his talent early: at the age of nine is reported by the Dynamo Kyiv youth, who recruits in his team with exciting results, resulting often on tournament top scorer Under 14.
Andriy's first appearance in football takes place in the winter of 1993, when it passes into the ranks of the second team of Dynamo. The first matches were played on emotion, on disbelief finally became a professional, but the talented footballer does not disappoint: become the best scorer of the season with 12 goals, a result that the automatic fruit in, where Olympic national behaves very well.
With the Ukrainian champion Dynamo will win five consecutive championships and three cups of Ukraine
Inevitable then enters, shortly, in the circuit of the big international football. In the Champions League shows a Shevchenko goal average from thrill: 26 goals in 28 matches. Among his goals in European competition during that period, is to remember the hat-trick at the Nou Camp against Barcelona, the event that just points it out throughout Europe.
After winning the title of top scorer in 1998-99 championship, its rising prices rocketed and European clubs compete to aggiudicarselo.
The sports newspapers report vying teams like Manchester United, Real Madrid, Barcelona and Milan. The Italian club, with Adriano Galliani, who won the Eastern Star to a figure which is around 45 billion old lire.
The rossoneri fans, even before arriving, Shevchenko is already seen as a phenomenon able to cope with the "phenomenon" par excellence: Ronaldo.
Zaccheroni, the former Devils coach, Milan faces a guy with indisputable quality: speed, technique and sense of goals are the characteristics affecting at first sight, so that the sample, already in the first Italian Championship appearances, became the idol of the fans and an irreplaceable piece of mister schemas.
Nobody, after all, one would have expected from him a departure so meteoric. Andriy debuted in Milan in Lecce and already in that first match, he scored a goal. The first of many.
Finishes its first season in nicer (and difficult) deservedly winning the world of Gunners with 24 goals in 32 matches.
The next year starts from where it was stopped. Will the same number of goals in the first year, but will not be enough to win him the ranking top scorers for the second consecutive time.
In the past his championship goal average seemed to come down considerably but love that the fans have for him has never suffered drops in intensity.
After a successful season, the year 2004 starts great and two beautiful reserve surprises: Sheva becomes a father at the end of October and won the deserved Golden Ball in December. Always soft-spoken, polite and corrected in the field, as in life, Andriy Shevchenko demonstrated maturity and sensitivity by dedicating the victory of this prestigious European recognition to the Ukraine, where its people are living a difficult and turbulent political situation.
A few days before the start of the 2006 World Cup has officially announced the separation from Milan. His new team is Chelsea by Abramovich and Mourinho. After two lackluster seasons back in Italy in August 2008 to embrace the family.

Biography of Tintoretto

Fury and color
29 September 1518
31 May 1594

Who is Tintoretto?

Jacopo Robusti, alias Tintoretto, was born in Venice, probably on 29 September of 15Birth date not all sources agree but, desumendola from his date of death, and funeral inscription engraved therein, should not slip over the October 1518, despite some scholar has postdatata a year. However, he was one of the greatest Italian painters, a member of the Venetian school, and Renaissance last precursor of Baroque style prevalent then in the 600 's.
To the father, and to his family, Jacopo typically must first the nickname by which he is known. The name "Tintoretto" son of his father's craft: fabric Dyer. According to the latest studies, in fact, the same surname Hardy, of paternal inheritance, would in turn a nickname obtained by a war in which the father of distinguished Tintoretto: energetic Defender, according to the sources, the city of Padua. The real name, apparently, would be Comin, according at least to the demonstration of the curator of the museo del Prado in Madrid, Miguel Falomir, on the occasion of the inauguration of the exhibition on the Venetian painter, opened on 29 January 2007.
No doubt is that her father, Giovanni Battista, Robust or Comin, was a Dyer. Probably of lucchese, considered that the dye art, at least in those years, is the prerogative of Lucca and Tuscany in General. To confirm this, there would be interest on the part of the son to the Tuscan painting, Michelangelo and Raphael, who in all likelihood has observed closely, studying techniques.
On childhood and apprenticeship of young Jacopo little is known. According to the biographer, Carlo Ridolfi, Tintoretto discovers his vocation in his father's workshop, using the colors of the father to paint the walls. The robust, at this point, to encourage the vocation leads him by maestro, Titian. The great artist, however, fearing that the student can overcome it and tarnish his reputation in a short time, the fighters from the workshop. The episode dates back to 1530.
Anyway, it is dated 22 May 1539 an official document in which Tintoretto signing "master", therefore possessing a shop located in Venice, in campo San Cassian. The year after, 1540, the signature of a famous "sacred conversation", while his two ceilings with mythological paintings for the Venetian House of Pietro Aretino. In regard to these episodes, then you can estimate that the famous Venetian artist has seen grow and succeed his notoriety, or mastery, as we said, in recent years. To support this thesis, there is also the first real Commission was certain on the trace tintorettos. Vettor Pisani, noble and holder of a Bank, around 1541, on the occasion of the wedding, the young 23-year-old painter calls for the restoration of his residence in San Paterniàn: sixteen boards focused on the theme of Ovid's metamorphoses.
In 1547 he began working at the famous work "The washing of the feet", while the following year, Aretino wrote a letter, in which he thanks him for the work done at the Venetian School of San Marco. The painting in question is "the miracle of St Mark", also commissioned by the intervention of the father of his future bride, Marco Episcopi, and notable among senior officials in Venice.
During these years, the artist moved to the parish of Santa Maria Dell'Orto, beginning an intensive renovation work of internal and external works. At the same time, continues its collaboration with the Scuola di San Marco, until 1566, working on other paintings depicting the Saint, such as "save St. mark a Saracen during a shipwreck", "Theft of the body of St. mark" and "discovery of the body of St. mark". Meanwhile, in 1549 he completed one of the most important paintings of this period, "St. Roch healing the lepers", for the Church of San Rocco in Venice.
Subsequently, the property of Trinity School calls for some jobs and between 1551 and 1552, Tintoretto is running a series of paintings inspired by the stories of Genesis.
In 1552 agrees with the Prosecutor formally Giulio Contarini to paint the doors of the organ of the Venetian Church of Santa Maria del Giglio or Zobenigo. On 20 December of the following year, 1553, was a payment received from the Venetian painter for some paintings in the Ducal Palace. Around this date, the wedding painter Faustina Episcopi.
In 1555, the artist, now nicknamed "the furious", for its dramatic use of perspective, paints the famous altarpiece "The assumption" in the Jesuit church in Venice, and "Joseph and Potiphar's wife", another famous work, then bought by Diego Velasquez to Philip IV. The year after however, is the painting "Susanna and the elders".
In 1564 the painter started working for the room of the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, in Venice. These were the years in which the competition for obtaining more important commissions, is more than fierce. Titian, for example, is one of those artists who tries in every way to thwart rival Tintoretto's fame. To unravel the question, to what you read from some sources and also from the Chronicles of Vasari, the junta of the Scuola di San Rocco is planning to hold a real contest, for the assignment of the oval of St. Roch in glory. In 1564, however, "the furious" instead of presenting opera studies, like other artists, presents the work directly, with measurements and location where. With its decidedly advantageous offer is thus able to get the job you want, despite the inconveniences created among other painters. And, the 11 March of 1564, as evidenced by official sources, with 85 votes in favor and 19 against, Tintoretto was appointed member of the school and of enforcement of a cycle of paintings focused on the theme of "Passion".
Four years later, in 1568, come some of two masterpieces painted for the hotel, "Christ's descent into limbo" and "the Crucifixion". Meanwhile, completes the cycle of "San Rocco", begun in 1549, giving birth in 1567 the wonderful "San Rocco" in prison. The 1571 is the dating of a series of payments to run some jobs required by the Libreria marciana, like the famous painting "the philosophers".
In 1574 Tintoretto buy a home in fondamenta dei Mori, San Marziale, where he lived until the end of his days. At the same time, he began work on the great Hall top of the Scuola di San Rocco, and the ceiling paintings, recently completed. The plague that is eating away at on the city during those years, leads the artist to make the decision to work for free to the canvas ceiling, Central sort of vow to Saint Roch, the patron saint of plague victims. Last paintings in 1577.
In 1580 is in Mantua for the delivery of the last four paintings of the "Glories", according to the Commission received by Guglielmo Gonzaga to the Doge's Palace in the city. The year after he completed the works on the walls of the Sala Grande di San Rocco and in 1582 he began to paint, for the Sala dello Scrutinio of Palazzo Ducale, in Venice, the painting "La battaglia di Zara". At the same time, he also canvases for the ground floor Hall of the Scuola Grande di San Rocco. By 1588, completes all work for San Rocco.
In 1592, therefore, begins work to masterpieces "the last supper" and "the Jews reject the manna in the desert", both for the presbytery of San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice.
According to his death certificate, after a two-week fever Tintoretto died on 31 May 15Three days later, he was buried in the Church of the Madonna dell'Orto, Episcopi family crypt.

Biography of Lech Walesa

A history of rights and solidarity
September 29, 1943

Who is Lech Walesa?

Lech Walesa was born on 29 September 1943 in Popowo in Poland. The father is a Mason, and Lech was able to attend compulsory schooling. Begins to work as a mechanic. After two years of military service with the rank of corporal, takes as an electrician in a big company: Leny Shipyard in Gdask. In 1968 he married Danuta which will separate more. The two will have eight children.
His electrician job led him to clash with the sad situation of Polish workers. In December 1970, assists the Gdask strike during which police kills a large number of demonstrators. When the wave of protests against the Communist regime resumes force in 1976 even Walesa is actively involved, and because of his anti-government attitude is fired.
On 14 August 1980, on the occasion of the protests for the rising price of food organized by the Shipyard workers gets invited to join them as head of the Committee responsible for the management of negotiations with company management. The strike ended with a victory of workers who ask him to continue to fight with them for the sake of solidarity, since it is no longer an employee of the company.
Walesa accepts, and you put at the head of a Committee that brings together workers of different industries. The Committee puts forward some requests, such as the right to strike and the free trade unions. So is called a general strike. To quell the climate of revolt, the Government organizes a meeting with the Committee, and on 31 August 1980 is signed an agreement that establishes the right of workers to form free and independent associations. Ben ten million Poles joined the trade union movement named Solidarity which in Polish means "solidarity". The head of the movement is its elected Lech Walesa.
The Union enjoys the support of Pope John Paul II, who, in January 1981, promotes a meeting at the Vatican. Thanks to the important papal support, Solidarity experiences a moment of sudden freedom, however, does not last long. When, in fact, in October 1981, the Polish Government imposes martial law, many of the leaders were arrested, among them is even Walesa, imprisoned for about a year near the border with Russia.
Possession ends on 14 November 19In recent years receives the Nobel Peace Prize, in homage to the great job done to allow Polish workers non-violent conquest of their rights. However, fearing that his departure from Poland could lead to a form of involuntary exile, withdrawal of recognition is very important given the wife Danuta.
Released from prison, Wales asks to be reinstated as a simple electrician in company where he worked before becoming leader of Solidarnosc. His request is accepted, but works almost as if it was under house arrest until 1987.
His political activities did not stop, and in 1988 gets an important result: Government negotiates for the rehabilitation of Solidarnosc and seeds free elections for Parliament. In this way it is able to transform his organization into a sort of political party reaches majority in Parliament in 19Thanks to political clout, convinces the first parties allied with Communist to enter into a new agreement with his organization. The Pact remains secret, allowing the 1990 elections victory of Tadeusz Mazowiecki. The Poland remains Yes Communist majority, but it was the scene of a major opening to a more liberal democratic politics and economics.
The December 9, 1990 Walesa wins the election and becomes Poland's first President to be elected directly by the people. His presidency will be marked by numerous changes of that Summit will undermine them political strength, and will not allow the new re-election mandate expires in 19During his rule, however, Poland experienced a real upheaval, from the satellite nation of the Soviet Union in a democratic State with a growing production system.
Despite the defeat in the elections of 1995, Walesa continues its political activities by founding a new party which holds a minority role. His passion for politics leads him to apply again for the presidential elections in 20The number of votes he gets is so small to cause him to withdraw from politics.
Thus begins a professor and lecturer around the world, gratified by the many awards bestowed on him for his work as founder and innovator of the first Trade Union in the Soviet bloc countries.

Emile Zola biography

Experiments in natural cycles
2 April 1840
September 29, 1902

Who is Emile Zola?

Émile Zola was born in Paris on 2 April 1840 but soon moved to Aix-en-Provence, where his father, Francis, an Italian engineer, works on the construction of the Canal. The father died when Emile has only seven years and began a period of great misery. Thanks to a scholarship, he studies in a boarding school, where he meets and becomes friends with Paul Cézanne.
In 1858, at the age of eighteen, he joined his mother in Paris and try to be recognized compensation unnecessarily by the company where his father worked. Is rejected twice the maturity examination and this failure causes him to abandon his studies. For about three years, can't find a job, either living in abject poverty. They are also the years in which he began to write poems and stories starring his beloved idealized and Provence.
Finally in 1862 Zola found a job at the Hachette Publishing House, where he remained until 18This work has many literary relations and also starts the journalist, which will always sort of a second job. Writes a literary Chronicle address book for the "Event" and collaborates with: "Le Figaro", "Globe", "the wheel", the "Semaphore" of Marseilles, and the "Messager de l'Europe".
His first novel, "Therese Raquin", was published in 1867 and, taking inspiration from "The Comedy humaine" by Honoré de Balzac, begins to design a epic Romance based on the events that involve a whole family: Les Rougon-Macquart. He wrote two texts that serve as the preface to his project: "La Fortune des Rougon" (1870) and "experimental novel" (1880). With these two texts-preface defines the theme of its twenty novels: the story of a French family of the second empire; events through which promises to tell an entire era.
Emile Zola, realist novels law approaches to positivism and scientific research thanks to reading "the introduction to the study of experimental medicine" by Claude Bernard. These studies shall draw up the draft of a novel experimental themselves driven criteria of objectivity that dominate scientific research. His novels are not a slavish description of the world and the environment chosen. Remains a creator who writes always following the same guiding thread represented by the concept of inheritance: all family members are harassed by a hereditary tara which has its first representative in the insanity of the founder, his aunt Dide.
The cycle begins with: "La Fortune des Rougon (1871)" and continues with nineteen novels, including "The greasy pole" (1872), "the belly of Paris" (1874), "the conquest of Plassans" (1875), "" L'assommoir (1877), "N" (1880), "Germinal" (1885), "The human beast" (1890), "Le Docteur Pascal" (1893).
In the Centre of the literary universe include insanity, fury of the accumulation of money, the instinct to self-destruct, killing spree, the pursuit of pleasure at all costs, corruption and corruptibility.
In 1870 the French writer and marries Rougon-Macquart success allows him to reach that economic independence that dreams for a long time. The work to which he devoted himself after the Rougon-Macquart cycle, follow the same idea of cyclical novel. New novels have as the city of Rome (1895), Lourdes (1894) and Paris (1898). The protagonist lives a return to spiritualism, which will be the starting point for the next cycle of novels based on the idea of the four Gospels. Zola writes: "Fruitfulness" (1899), "work" (1900), "Truth" (1902), unfortunately the last "Justice" remains unfinished.
In 1888 he knows Rozerot, Jeanne becomes his lover and by whom he has two children. Jeanne is one of the waitresses of the wife, and when the two meet alone has 21 years, while Zola has To conquer it slimming cycling and, thanks to her, for the first time knows the joys of fatherhood. His wife Alexandrine, discovered in 1891, report him to abandon his mistress. Emile promises to do so, but then decided to live a double life that, as he himself confesses, is a source of great despair. The characteristic that unites the two women is the great devotion towards him.
After the writer's death, the two will meet. Jeanne will present his children to Alexandrine and the two children, by 1906, will bring the paternal surname.
Zola's life is turned upside down as well as Jeanne, also by the Dreyfus affair. He takes the part of Captain Dreyfus accused of high treason, but in fact the victim of a violent wave of anti-Semitism. Writes the 6 January 1898 the famous letter entitled: "J'accuse, open letter to the President of the Republic". Your letter will be the cause of the burst of a real scandal: Zola blames a series of military leaders to be the accomplices of crime being inflicted on Captain Dreyfus.
Because of its position, the last period of his life is marred by two processes and several months of exile in London, accompanied by hatred and slander against him.
Émile Zola died in Paris on 29 September 1902 due to the fumes of a heater, although, due to the Dreyfus affair, will never be dispelled the suspicion that it may have been murder.

Sources: Biografieonline.it

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