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Herbert Spencer… Oscar Wilde… Rafael Sanzio de Urbino… Ferdinand VII of Spain… Biographies Multiposts

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Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Herbert Spencer
  2. Biography of Oscar Wilde
  3. Biography of Rafael Sanzio de Urbino
  4. Biography of Ferdinand VII of Spain

Biography of Herbert Spencer

(1820-04-27 - 1903/12/08)

Herbert Spencer
English social theorist
He was born on April 27, 1820 in Derby.
Of self-taught formation.
His work social statistics, stressing the importance of freedom and the importance of science was published in the year 1851.
Along with Charles Darwin was responsible for the dissemination and acceptance of the theory of evolution.
On Principles of Psychology (1855) he says that organic matter has its origin in a unified State and that individual characteristics are developed gradually by evolution. It created a philosophical system based on his theory of evolution that would encompass and integrate all existing areas of knowledge.
In 1860 he published a system of synthetic philosophy. The first installment, entitled first principles was published in 1862; then appeared principles of biology (2 volumes, 1864-1867), principles of Sociology (3 volumes, 1876-1896) and principles of ethics (2 volumes, 1892-1893). In scientific, political, and speculative essays (3 volumes, 1891), studying the overall impact of the theory of evolution on scientific and philosophical thought.
Its scientific orientation led him to observe the social phenomena of scientific way. For him philosophy is a synthesis of scientific principles that come to replace the medieval theological explanations.
Herbert Spencer died on December 8, 1903 in Brighton.

Biography of Oscar Wilde

(16/10/1854 - 1900/11/30)

Oscar Wilde
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde
Novelist, poet, literary critic and Irish playwright
He was born on October 16, 1854, in Dublin.
It was the second of the three sons of William Wilde and Jane Wilde.
Her mother, under the pseudonym "Speranza" wrote poetry for the movement Young Ireland in 1848 as an Irish nationalist. In his youth he participated in literary gatherings that her mother organized.
His father was a famous surgeon Irish specializing in oto-ophthalmologic and was knighted in 1864 for his work as Assistant Commissioner of the censuses of Ireland; He also wrote books on Irish Archaeology and peasant folklore.
By his father, he was a descendant of the Dutch Colonel, Wilde, who accompanied King William to Ireland on the invasion of 16His father also had three children before his marriage, to those who acknowledged paternity becoming in charge of their education.
Until he was nine, he was educated at home, where a French and a German governess in their languages, also had Greek and Italian knowledge. He then attended the Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. He studied at Trinity College in Dublin.
As a student at the University of Oxford, he excelled in the study of the classics and wrote poetry; his long poem Ravenna won the prestigious Newdigate Prize in 1878.
Disciple of Walter Pater and very influenced by the painter Whistler, in 1891 published a series of essays (intentions) which gave rise to be considered one of the foremost representatives of aestheticism, whose most dazzling and exquisite aspects made clear both in his work as in your life. Wilde always was an eccentric character, wearing long hair and wore velvet breeches. His room was full of art objects and decorative elements, such as sunflowers, peacock feathers and Chinese porcelain. Their attitudes and manners were repeatedly ridiculed in Punch satirical publication and the comic opera of Gilbert & Sullivan, patience.
His first book was poems (1881), and his first play, Vera, or the nihilists (1882). After the publication of his book of poems he toured America where 140 lectured in only nine months. He directed The Woman s World, Journal of strong feministtendency, and gave the press a text in open defense of socialism (The Soul of Man under Socialism). Among his early works are two collections of fantasy stories, written for children, the happy Prince (1888) and the House of pomegranates (1892), and a collection of short stories, lord Arthur Saville's crime (1891). His only novel, the picture of Dorian Gray (1891), is a melodramatic story of moral decay, noted for its brilliant, epigrammatic style.
His theatrical works most interesting were the four comedies in lady Windermere's fan (1892), a woman of no importance (1893), an ideal husband (1895) and the importance of being earnest (1895), characterized by its witty dialogues. He managed to demonstrate an innate talent for theatrical effects and the farce, and applied to these works some creative methods used to use in his other works such as the paradoxes in the form of reverse saying, some of which have come to be very famous. Salomé is a serious play about obsessive passion. Written in French, the actress Sarah Bernhardtpremiered in Paris in 18Later, the German composer Richard Strauss composed an eponymous opera based on it.
He settled in London and, in 1884, married a wealthy Irish woman, Constance Lloyd, with whom he had two sons, Cyril and Vyvyan. Since then, he devoted himself exclusively to literature. Wilde wanted to make his life a true work of art, faithful to the approaches of the turn aestheticism and collecting the pre-Raphaelitefinely decadent sensitivity; Hence his commentary on André Gide: "I put all my genius in my life, and my works only I put my talent". He managed to so focus in its bizarre and provocative character, the ingenuity of their conversations and an amorality that made flag in the famous final episode of its process and imprisonment for homosexuality.
In 1895, at the peak of his career, became the central figure of the much-talked-about trial of the century. Wilde, who had maintained a close friendship with lord Alfred Douglas, was accused by his father, the Marquess of Queensberry, of sodomy. Pleaded le guilty at the trial, held in may 1895 and sentenced to two years of hard labor; He left prison ruined materially and spiritually.
He spent the rest of his life in Paris, under the false name of Sebastian Melmoth. In prison, he wrote De profundis (1895), an extensive list of repentance for his past lifestyle. Some critics have considered it an extremely revealing work; others, however, a little sincere sentimental explosion. The Ballad of Reading prison (1898), written at Berneval, France, very shortly after getting out of prison, and published anonymously in England, is one of its most powerful poems. In it he exhibits the hardness of prison life and the desperation of the prisoners. For many years, the name of Oscar Wilde endured the stigma imposed by the puritanical Victorian society. His works remain a universal validity.
Converted to Catholicism shortly before dying of meningitis on November 30, 1900 in the Hôtel d'Alsace, no. 13, rue des Beaux Arts in Paris because of an attack of meningitis.
And all men kill what you love,
hear it all over the world,
some do it with one bitter look, some with a MEW Word;
the coward with a kiss,
the brave with a sword!

Biography of Rafael Sanzio de Urbino

(1483-04-06 - 1520/04/06)

Rafael
Rafael Sanzio Urbino
Raffaello Sanzio
Italian Renaissance painter
He was born on April 6, 1483 in Urbino.
Early in its formation were next to his father, the painter Giovanni Santi. He subsequently studied with Timoteo Viti in Urbino. Rafael, named PT divine teenager Apollo and Marsyas (Louvre Museum, Paris) and the dream of the Knight (1501, National Gallery, London). In 1499, he travels to Perugia, where he was Assistant to the painter Perugino. Then look very similar to his master's works: the marriage of the Virgin (1504, Brera Gallery, Milan, work painted in Florence) and the table of the altarpiece of Città di Castello, the Virgin and the Saints Jerome, Magdalena and John the Evangelist (1503, National Gallery, London).
In 1504 he comes to Florence, where he studied Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo , and Fra Bartolommeo, appreciating their anatomical studies and dramatic poses. A change of style taking the perspective of more natural and soft. Painted several madonnas: Madonna del Granduca (1504-1505, Palazzo Pitti, Florence). He exhibits the influence of Leonardo in the expression of serenity, the triangulated composition: the beautiful gardener (1507-1508, Louvre Museum, Paris) and the Madonna of the goldfinch (1505, Uffizi Gallery, Florence). Performs The Entombment of Christ (1507, Gallery Borghese, Rome).
In 1508 he moved to Rome, required by the Pope Julius II, who commissioned the mural decoration of four small stanze in the Vatican Palace. In the Stanza della Segnatura (1509-1511) shows a ceiling the allegories of the theology, philosophy, poetry and justice. The dispute, which represents the argument of the dogma of the Trinity is located in the wall, under theology. The famous School of Athens, under philosophy, represents to Plato, Aristotle and other ancient philosophers where argue. Under the poetry is Mount Parnassus where Apollo appears surrounded by the muses and the great poets. Finally, under justice, Gregory IX and Justinian showing their codes. La Stanza d´Heliodoro (1512-1514), contains scenes depicting the triumph of the Catholic Rome over their enemies.
When he died on Julio II in 1513 happens Leo X increasing the influence of Raphael. Master Builder of the St. Peter's Basilica in 1514, and a year later directs all archaeological excavations in Rome. Painted part of the third room of the Palace of the Vatican, of the Fire in the Borgo (1514-1517). The rest is the work of his assistants. To the Fourth Chamber, the Hall of Constantine, made designs. In addition he has paintings of easel, as the Portrait of Pope Julius II (1511-1512), The Sistine Madonna (c. 1514, Gemäldegalerie, Dresden); the Transfiguration (1517-1520, Vatican).
Rafael died in Rome on April 6, 15

Biography of Ferdinand VII of Spain

(1784/10/14 - 1833/09/29)

Ferdinand VII
King of Spain (1808-1833)
He was born on October 14, 1784 in El Escorial, Madrid.
Third son of Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma.
In 1802 he married Maria Antonia of Naples, who wept in desperation to see him for the first time; his mother described Fernando as "of horrible aspect", alluding to his fatness (had to weigh more than 100 kg), his piping voice and his apathetic nature. Eventually his wife took his affection, but the Princess died in 18It was secretly in contact with Napoleon and asked her a Princess of his family wife, until the plot was discovered and resulted in the process of El Escorial (October 1807 - January 1808). Just two months later the riot of Aranjuez reached full success: Godoy was dismissed and Carlos IV abdicated in his son Fernando VII began to reign (19 March 1808), in the midst of the popular enthusiasm, since it was considered as a victim of the hated Godoy, who feared even that pretend to impersonate him on the throne.
Ferdinand VII, next to the Royal family, was attracted to Bayonne by Napoleón Bonaparte, who forced him to resign from the Spanish Crown in its favour. Napoleon appointed King of Spain to his brother Jose, who reigned until 1814 with the name of Joseph I. During the war of independence, the Council of Regency, brought cuts in Cádiz(1810) and was declared the "sole and legitimate King of the nation Spanish don Fernando VII of Bourbon", as well as null and without effect the transfer of the Crown in favour of Napoleon.
In 1814, Fernando VII returned to Spain. A group of Deputies, presented the so-called Manifesto of the Persians, where he advised him the restoration of the absolutist system and the repeal of the Constitution prepared in the Cortes de Cádiz (1812). In the first stage of his Government there was a purge of liberal and francized. Liberal pronouncements as of Rafael del Riego (1820) in Cabezas de San Juan (Sevilla) occurred in the army that forced the King to swear to the Constitution.
The Trienio Liberal or constitutional (1820-1823) was the second stage of his reign where continued reform work initiated in 1810: abolition of the privileges of class, suppression of the manors, abolition of the entailed estates, suppression of the Inquisition, the criminal code preparation and recovery of the entry into force of the Constitution of 1812.
Since 1822, this reformist policy had its response in a counter-revolution in the Court, the so-called Regency of Urgell, supported by peasant elements, and abroad, with the Holy Alliance, who defended the rights of the absolute monarchsfrom the heart of Europe. April 7, 1823 entered Spain French troops commanded by general Duke of Angoulême, the Hundred thousand sons of St. Louis, who is joined by realistic Spanish troops. Without little opposition, absolutism was restored.
The last stage of the reign of Fernando VII was again absolutist. Again abolished the Constitution and all the institutions existing in January 1820, except the Inquisition were re-established. The final years of the reign were focused on the succession issue.
The Salic law, which prevented reign women was valid since 17In 1789, the courts adopted a Pragmatic sanction which repealed it, but it was not published until 1830, when the King, on his fourth marriage, to María Cristina de Borbón, expected a successor. Soon after, born Princess Isabel. The Court then formed a group of 'pure realistic', advocating the candidacy to the throne of the brother of the King, don Carlos María Isidro de Borbón, and denied the legality of pragmatics published in 1830.
In 1832, during a serious illness of the King, courtiers Carlist convinced the Minister Francisco Tadeo Calomarde, who managed Fernando VII to sign a decree repealing of pragmatics, leaving again in force the Salic law (recovering the regulation of 1713). With the improvement of the health of the King the Government headed by Francisco Cea Bermúdez put back into effect pragmatics, with what, to the death of the King in Madrid, on September 29, 1833, was left as heir his eldest daughter Isabel (Isabel II).

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