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Encyclopedia of Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Italo Calvino
- Biography of Charles V
- Biography of Sara Di Vaira
- Biography of Carlo Fruttero
- Biography of William Golding
- Jeremy Irons biography
- Biography of Mariangela Melato
- Giuseppe Saragat
- Franz Schubert biography
- Victoria Silvstedt biography
- Emil Zatopek biography
Biography of Italo Calvino
October 15, 1923
September 19, 1985
Who is Italo Calvino?Italo Calvino was born on October 15, 1923 in Santiago de Las Vegas, at Havana (Cuba). His father, Mario, is an agronomist sanremese source, located in Cuba to head an agriculture experiment station and an agricultural school after twenty years in Mexico. The mother, Evelina Mameli, Sassari graduated in natural sciences and worked as an Assistant of botany at the University of Pavia.
In 1927, Calvin attended nursery school at St. George's College, also in Cuba. In the same year his brother Florian, future internationally renowned geologist, and in 1929 he attended the Waldensian schools, once the family moved permanently to Italy (Calvino is also on time, at the end of primary school, to become Balilla). In 1934 passed the exam to the Gymnasium-Lyceum "g. d. Cassini" and complete the first part of his schooling.
The first contact with the literature takes place at the age of twelve, when he happens between the first and second "Jungle Book" by Kipling. It is a love at first sight, a meteoric infatuation with exotic worlds and adventures to fantastic sensations that can give the solitary reading compelling lyrics. He enjoys reading comic magazines too, which causes him to draw cartoons and comics himself. In those years he passionate about cinema, a love that will last throughout his adolescence.
Meanwhile, war breaks out, an event that marks the end of his youth, as well as the decline of the "belle epoque" in Sanremo version. Its ideological position is uncertain, including the recovery of a local identity and a confused anarchism. Between sixteen and twenty years writing short stories, plays and poems inspired by her favorite poet Eugenio Montale for life.
It is in personal relationships and in friendship with College mate Eugenio Scalfari, instead, that we begin to grow in him specifically and political interests. Through an intense epistolary relationship with Scalfari follows the awakening clandestine anti-fascism and some sort of orientation compared to books to read: Huizinga, Montale, Vittorini, Pisacane and so on.
In 1941, obtained the baccalaureate, he enrolled at the Faculty of Agriculture of Turin University. After the death of a young fighter, asked a friend to introduce him to Pci; later, together with his brother enlisted and fought for 20 months one of the most bitter clashes between partisans and fascists. It is the view of most criticism that his choice to join the Communist Party was not personal ideologies, but from the fact that at the time was the most active and organized.
Meanwhile, parents are seized by the Germans. After the war and released in 1946 parents begins to gravitate around the Einaudi Publishing House, selling books in installments. On exhortation of Cesare Pavese and Prasanna Ferrata critic, he devoted himself to writing a novel that ends in the last days of December; is her first book, "Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno", a recognition of the world war and partisan.
Increasingly placed in at Einaudi Publishing House, Italo Calvino, she directs the press office and advertising by tightening bonds of friendship and fervent intellectual comparison with the big names of the era, present and future, as Pavese, Vittorini, Natalia Ginzburg, Delio Cantimori, Franco Venturi, Norberto Bobbio and Felice Balbo.
In 1948, however, leaves momentarily Einaudi to work as editor of the third page, with the unit. He also collaborated with the weekly Communist "Revival"; in 1949 he returned to Einaudi and leaves the collection "is the Raven", but remains unpublished novel "the white Ship" on which van Leeuwen had expressed a negative opinion.
From 1 January 1950 Calvino is hired by Einaudi as stable Editor: she directs the press office and directs the literary part of the new series "Small scientific-literary Library". Were just Vittorini, Pavese and Calvin, inter alia, to create those cover aspects that have become a style in Italian publishing.
In 1951 ends by writing a novel of realistic social system, "the Little", which is published in the journal "Workshop" in the 1957/1958; in summer, Jet writes "Il visconte dimezzato". For a collection of letters on a trip made in the Soviet Union ("travel notes of Italo Calvino") published on the Unit received the Saint-Vincent.
In 1955 he was promoted by Einaudi as keeping this qualification until June 1961; After that date becomes editorial consultant. The same year goes out on "Comparison literature", "lion" cord, the first in a series of essays, aimed at establishing their own idea of literature than the main cultural trends of the time.
The following year (1956) exit "Le fiabe italiane" consolidating, with resounding success, Italo Calvino's image as a fabulist. The 1956, however, it is very important for another significant and crucial in the writer's life: the facts about Hungary, the invasion of Communist Russia in Prague, restless cause detachment of the writer from Pci and lead progressively to forego a direct political engagement.
His creativity is always fruitful and unstoppable, so that does not count his collaborations in magazines, his writings and stories (in those years, he won the Bagutta Prize), as well as writing some songs or musical librettos for operas such as "Allez hop" colleague and friend Luciano Berio. In short, a cultural and artistic activities.
In these years writes "visconte dimezzato", "Il barone rampante", "The nonexistent Knight", "Mah".
In the late 1950s for the six-month stay in the United States, coinciding with the publication of "our ancestors trilogy", and appears on "Dummy" (other money magazine at the time), the essay "the sea of objectivity".
In 1964 is a fundamental shift in the private lives of the writer: he married a argentina and moved to Paris, while continuing to partner with. The year after his first daughter was born, John, which instills a sense of personal rebirth and energy.
In the meantime, comes the book "Cosmicomics," followed in 1967 with "zero", in which he reveals his youthful passion for astronomical and cosmological theories.
At the same time, Calvin developed a strong interest in issues related to semiotics and deconstruction of text, so that it arrives to take much in developing intellectual processes of his novels, as happens for example in that game of mirrors that is "If on a winter's night a traveler".
Amazing incline, steady the whole work of Calvin, still represents the most authentic rope of the writer. In many of his works, in fact, he breaks a rule of life (and much of the literature) that takes on the one hand, the other reality fiction. Calvin, on the other hand, often mixes the two floors, making extraordinary things happen and often impossible within a realistic, without missing a beat or the one nor to the other side. One of its features is the ability to maintain with respect to the subject matter, a lightweight approach, retained by the humor, smussandone most disturbing aspects with an attitude almost serene wisdom.
"Elegance", "lightness", "measure", "clarity", "rationality" are concepts that more usually used to define the work of Italo Calvino; in fact, they identify real aspects of the personality of the writer though, at the same time, are likely to underestimate others, equally present and decisive.
In the 1970s, are also rich in contributions, written but also prizes, which collect in quantity. Rejects the Viareggio Prize for "t zero" but takes two years after award Asti, Antonio Feltrinelli Prize and of the accademia dei Lincei and of the city of Nice, Malik and others. In this period a very important commitment is represented also by Einaudi necklace "Centopagine", in which they are published, in addition to European classics dearest to him (Stevenson, Conrad, Stendhal, Hoffmann, Balzac and Tolstoy), several minor Italian writers between ' 800 and ' 900.
Meanwhile, the villa was completed at Roccamare Castiglione della Pescaia, where Calvin spends every summer. On the level of commitment of writing began writing in 1974 in "Corriere della sera" stories, trip reports and articles about political and social reality of the country; the collaboration lasted until 19He also wrote for the radio series "impossible interviews" Montezuma "dialogues" and "Neanderthal man". In 1976 lectures in many universities of the United States, while travelling in Mexico and Japan give ideas to some articles, which are then incorporated into "collections". Receives in Vienna "Staatpreis".
He moved to Rome in 1980 in piazza Campo Marzio to the Pantheon. Collects in the volume "over" the writings of "discourses of literature and society" the most significant part of its operations from 1955 onwards saggistici. In 1981 he received the Légion d'honneur. The vast collection of care written by Queneau "signs, numbers and letters".
In 1982 at La Scala in Milan is represented "the real story", co-written with noted composer Luciano Berio. This year is also the musical action "Duo", the first nucleus of the future Un re in ascolto ", composed in collaboration with Berio.
In 1983 he was appointed for a month "directeur d ' ètudes" at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes. In January, lecturing on "Science et chez Galilèe metaphore" and reads in English at New York University the Conference "World written and unwritten world". In 1985, having been asked to give a series of lectures in the United States (in the prestigious Harvard University), prepares the now world-famous "Lezioni Americane", which however remain unfinished, and will be published only posthumously in 1988.
During the 1984 crisis Einaudi's business decides to go to the Garzanti which appear "Sandy" Collection "Cosmicomics, old and new". Does Argentina and travel to Sevilla where he participated in a Conference on fantastic literature. In 1985 "La canzone del polistirene" of Queneau and during the summer working on a cycle of six conferences. On September 6 is caught by stroke in Castiglione della Pescaia.
Admitted to hospital Santa Maria della Scala in Siena, Italo Calvino died on September 19, 1985, at the age of 61 years, suffering from a cerebral hemorrhage.
Bibliography by Italo Calvino
Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno (1947)
The sons armchairs (1948)
Ultimo viene il corvo (1949)
Travel journals in the USSR by Italo Calvino (1951)
Il visconte dimezzato (1952)
The Argentine Ant (1952)
The entry into war (1954)
The bench. Opera in one Act (1956)
Italian fairy tales, collected by popular tradition over the last hundred years and transcribed by speaking various dialects from (1956)
Il barone rampante (1957)
Little young (1957; in "workshop")
I racconti (1958)
The great calm in the Antilles (1957)
The nonexistent Knight (1959)
Our ancestors (The nonexistent Knight; Il visconte dimezzato; Il barone rampante) (1960)
The day of a scrutineer (1963)
Marcovaldo, ovvero Le stagioni in città (1963)
The cloud of smog and The Argentine Ant (1965)
T zero (1967)
The memory of the world and other stories (1968) cosmicomics
Orlando furioso by Ludovico Ariosto, narrated by Italo Calvino with a choice of poem (1970)
Gli amori difficili (1970)
Invisible cities (1972)
The castle of crossed destinies (1973)
If on a winter's night a traveler (1979)
UN re in ascolto (1986)
Biography of Charles V
February 24, 1500
September 19, 1558
Who is Charles V?He was born in Ghent, in Flanders, in 1500, and died in San Jerónimo de Yuste in 15Carlo was descended from some of the most illustrious of the European nobility: in fact, he was the son of Philip of Habsburg, the fair (therefore grandson of Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg) and Joan called the mad (daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile).
In 1516, after the death of Ferdinand the Catholic, Charles (who, upon his father's death in 1506, had inherited the Netherlands), became King of the unified Kingdom of Spain now, that, on the one hand, with the possession of the Kingdom of Naples, Sicily, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands, already occupied a central position in the Mediterranean; on the other hand, with the recent conquests on the shores of the American continent, projected towards the oceans, contending the Portuguese Dominion of new lands.
When in Spain, failed, however, to obtain the consent of the Cortes which convened, claimed their independence, denying him the credits required. In 1519, when Maximilian of Habsburg died, he went to Germany to put his candidacy to the Imperial Crown, leaving as Regent in Castile Adriano of Utrecht. For the revolt broke out, known as the comunero revolt; Charles, returned in 1522, re-established the order showing clemente toward the rebels and by merely executing main leaders, but was this the first sign of the contradictions between regional interests and European policy that plagued all his realm.
Meanwhile, in 1519, despite the opposition of the King of France Francis I, Charles, buying voters thanks to the loan of a large sum of money granted to him by German bankers of the Fugger and Welser Augusta, had failed to be crowned in Aachen, Emperor Charles V: his power stretched, now, on an immense territory, which, in addition to the Empire, included the Burgundian possessions , dynastic Habsburg possessions and the Spanish Crown, with the American colonies, for which you could actually say that hers was "an Empire over which the sun never set" (according to his own words).
Francis I, King of France, who had asked unsuccessfully candidacy, reacted to the territorial encirclement that it was found by Charles V with the war. In 1521 he descended in Italy, claiming the Duchy of Milan, already won by Louis XII, and starting a fight that, through four phases, ended only in 1544, with the Treaty of Crépy, with whom peace was reached on the basis of the "status quo".
Faced with problems raised by the reform, the position of Charles was very cautious for fear of offending the German princes. At the diet of Worms (1521), Luther, who had not recanted, was set free and was not persecuted even after the announcement. At the diet of Speyer (1526) was established the legitimacy of Lutheran until the subsequent Council decisions; and when, at the second diet of Speyer (1529), Charles, who had reconciled with the Pope, attempted to resolve the issue by force, Protestant reactions (Schmalkaldic League and Augusta's protest, 1530) did return to a position of reconciliation.
There was meanwhile more and more serious problem: the Turkish in 1534 Khair ad-Din Barbarossa,, removed the Berber King Tunis Mulay Hassan, it served as a base for raids of his pirates. Carlo organized an expedition which was attended by all European States, with the exception of Venice. Tunis was returned to Mulay Hassan and the pirates suffered a heavy defeat.
In 1545 it was open the Council of Trent and Carlo had been convinced that it was now possible to solve the problem with Protestant force. An alliance with Maurice de Saxe, led a campaign on the Danube, in which Paul III took part with men and equipment and that ended with the victory of Muhlberg (1547), in which the army was destroyed and many Protestant leaders were taken prisoner. But the situation quickly capsized, and Charles was forced to sign the Treaty of Passau (1552), with which the Protestant princes were freed prisoners and was restored in Germany freedom of worship. Tired of long struggles, in 1556 he abdicated in favour of his son Philip II and his brother Ferdinand, among which divided the vast domains.
Biography of Sara Di Vaira
Who is Sara Di Vaira?Sara Di Vaira was born on 19 September 1979 in Cecina, Livorno. Appassionatasi to the dance since she was a little girl after seeing on television Heather Parisi and Lorella Cuccarini, makes the dance a real job, winning among others the Slovenia Open and Spanish Open.
Starting from 2006 (the year when he finished second in the Italian Championship 10 dances behind Domenico Cannizzaro, and third in the European Championships 10 dances and World Championships) for three consecutive years won the regional title.
In 2009 comes third in the Italian Championship and second in the World Cup; He joined the cast of "dancing with the stars" program hosted by Milly Carlucci broadcast on Raiuno.
In the first edition in which paired with actor Maurizio Aiello: the two are eliminated in the semifinals. the following year, paired with the actor Ronn Moss (Ridge of "Beautiful"), comes second.
After missing the 2011 edition in 2012 teamed up with former player Marco Delvecchio, with which comes second in the standings.
With Delvecchio, for another, Sara Di Vaira embarks on a romantic relationship. In 2013, the dancer is paired in the Volleyball competition Luigi Mastrangelo.
Biography of Carlo Fruttero
January 15, 2012
Who is Carlo Fruttero?The writer Carlo Fruttero was born in Turin on September 19, 1926.
He served for many years as a translator before meeting in 1952 Franco Lucentini and build with him a writing team for a great critical acclaim and sales.
The acronym Fruttero & Lucentini, the two signed contributions, translations and novels, especially crime drama that have been very successful and the public.
Always with Lucentini, also worked on science fiction, heading from 1961 to 1986 Urania Necklace (Knopf). In 2007 he received the Premio alla carriera Light.
Carlo Fruttero dies at Castiglione della Pescaia on January 15, 2012.
Biography of William Golding
September 19, 1911
June 19, 1993
Who is William Golding?William Gerald Golding was born on September 19, 1911 in Newquay, Cornwall (United Kingdom). He started his studies at Marlborough school, where his father Alec's science teacher. From 1930 he studied natural sciences at Oxford; After two years switched to the study of literature and philosophy.
In the autumn of 1934 William Golding published his first collection of poems entitled "poems".
He then worked for two years as a teacher in a Waldorf School in Streatham, South London area; back in Oxford in 1937 where he completed his studies. He then moved to Salisbury to teach in an elementary school; There he meets Ann Brookfield who married the following year.
The couple then moved to Wiltshire, where Golding began teaching at Bishop Wordsworth's School.
Golding later enlisted in the Royal Navy during the first part of the war he served at sea and a research centre in Buckinghamshire. In 1943 he took part in the escort of ships in u.s. shipyards built minesweepers and directed in England; actively participates in the British naval support during the invasion of Normandy and the invasion of Walcheren.
Leaving the Navy in September 1945 to return to devote himself to teaching. In 1946 the family moved back to Salisbury.
He began to write a novel in 1952 entitled "Strangers from Within"; After this, job forwards the book to various publishers but only getting negative feedback. The novel was published in 1954 under the title "Lord of the flies".
This novel was followed by the publication of two more books and some plays. In 1958 Alec's father dies and two years later also the mother. William Golding gives up teaching in 1962 to devote himself entirely to writing.
In the following years he published several novels since 1968 indictment some problems in writing, so much so that since 1971 and begins to keep a diary about his physical difficulties.
In 1983 get great recognition: he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature "for his novels which, with the insight of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in today's world".
Five years later, in 1988, is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
Sir William Golding died on June 19, 1993 due to a heart attack, after a few months before he was removed a melanoma from his face.
1954-Lord of the flies (The Lord of the Flies)
1956-Black Lightning (Pincher Martin)
1958-The Brass Butterfly
1965-The Hot Gates
1967-the pyramid (The Pyramid)
1971-The Scorpion God
1979-darkness visible (Darkness Visible)
1980-rites of passage (Rites of Passage)
1982-A Moving Target
1984-men of paper (The Paper Men)
1987-becalmed (Close Quarters)
1989-Fire below decks (Fire Down Below)
1995-double entry (The double tongue)
Jeremy Irons biography
September 19, 1948
Who is Jeremy Irons?Jeremy John Irons, or only Jeremy Irons, as is well known, was born in Cowes, on the Isle of White (United Kingdom) on 19 September 19Is an important actor, often called to Hollywood to play alongside so many great American actors films of enormous importance. With the film "Von Bulow" won the Academy Award for best actor. His voice, also called in many great documentaries National Geographic signed processing, is considered among the best in international cinema.
His family belongs to the lower middle class. He is the son of Paul Dugan Irons, who is an accountant by trade, and his mother is a housewife, Barbara Anne Sharpe, native to Ireland.
The young Jeremy, who loves music even before cinema, graduating in 1965 at Sherborne School in Dorset. Here initially is being done as a drummer in the band "Four Pillars of Wisdom", however discovers and begins to appreciate more than the music, which fails to Excel, the art of acting. Soon then he joined the Old Vic Theatre School in Bristol.
The stage of the great school welcomes its performance over and over again and Jeremy Irons has been performing for more than two years Old, as it is called by most Theatre in Bristol.
In 1972 he moved to London and he was noticed by some agents of the show, which I appreciate in the difficult role of John the Baptist, in the musical Godspell, which very successfully gets around that time in the capital of the United Kingdom. In his early twenties and very promising, the rampant Irons takes part in numerous programs and movies for British television, becoming bones and remaining economically, without resorting to overtime work not really exciting.
Since the mid-80 's in theatre with the Royal Shakespeare Company, making her Broadway and won the Tony Award as best actor, thanks to the masterful performance in "the real thing" by Tom Stoppard, along with Glenn Close.
In the meantime, comes the blockbuster, already in 19Is this the year of his debut at the cinema with "the French lieutenant's woman", by Karel Reisz, where is alongside none other than actress Meryl Streep. The performance of the young Jeremy Irons is very popular, a real surprise, and is awarded with merit a Bafta Award for best actor.
To follow in a series of very successful films, strong physical appearance too, which makes him acquire roles increasingly able to exalt it in everyway. Is in the cast of "Mission", for example, filmed in 1986, where she plays the part of father Gabriel, directed by Roland Joffé. But there is also his performance in the movie "dead ringers", 1988, of the great David Cronenberg, where she plays the part of twin gynecologists. Without removing "Von Bulow", very important film of 1990, based on a true story and dramatic story, which gives him merit an Oscar.
The following year, Steven Soderbergh wants him in "Kafka", playing none other than the great Prague author Franz Kafka. In 1992 we see in "damage", by Louis Malle, based on the novel by Josephine Hart. The next year he finds Meryl Streep in "the House of the spirits", taken from the novel by Isabel Allende.
After "m. Butterfly" by David Cronenberg, finds himself in the role of Professor struggling with the young and attractive "Lolita", a remake of author signed Adrian Lyne, in theaters in 1997.
Since the late 90 's and throughout 2000, States in a variety of roles, changing from time to time form and giving more and more proof of his immense strength, as well as an overwhelming charisma. Movies like "the man in the iron mask", 1998, "Callas Forever", 2002, directed by Franco Zeffirelli, but also "Casanova", "Eragon" and the crazy "Inland Empire-Empire of the mind", by David Lynch, are some of the most interesting work that Jeremy Irons is facing.
To significantly increase its success is its own voice, rich timbre and strong, which opens the doors of various jobs, making it one of the most sought-after audio book ever. An essay of his quality is given by its dubbing a Scar, the character of Disney's "the Lion King", in addition to its many artistic experiences.
For many years living a private life away from the spotlight, usually at his home in Oxfordshire. Married to Irish actress Sinéad Cusack, his second wife after brief spell with Julie Hallam (to the movies with him in the famous "Io ballo da sola" by Bernardo Bertolucci, dated 1996), had with her two sons, Samuel and Maximilian, photographer and actor respectively.
Also in 2008, the British actor also faces on television, in the series popular among young people and not only. "The Colour of Magic" and "Appaloosa" they see among the protagonists, along with Ed Harris, Viggo Mortensen and Renee Zellweger.
In 2009 she took part in the film "the Pink Panther 2" starring Steve Martin, Jean Reno. In 2011 is the Spaniard Rodrigo Borgia later Pope Alexander VI, in the miniseries "The Borgias", filmed by Neil Jordan.
Biography of Mariangela Melato
September 19, 1941
January 11, 2013
Who is Mariangela Melato?Mariangela Melato was born in Milan on September 19, 19Theatre-level first successes and arrive in 1968 with the "Orlando furioso", by Luca Ronconi. The confirmation of his assertion comes a few years later with "Alleluia" brava gente "(1971), musical comedy by Garinei and Giovannini.
Deals with interpretations and characters of great effort by reciting in the plays of Euripides ' "Medea" (1986), "Fedra" (1987), "clothe the naked" by Pirandello (1990), "the taming of the Shrew" by William Shakespeare (1992).
In the cinema, in his long career, Mariangela Melato can alternate so fine dramatic roles with other more classic Italian comedy related. He worked with several great directors; his films include "the working class goes to heaven" (1971, by Elio Petri); "Todo modo" (1976, by Elio Petri, inspired by the homonymous novel by Leonardo Sciascia); "What's your sign?" (1975, by Sergio Corbucci, with Paolo Villaggio, Adriano Celentano, Renato Pozzetto, Alberto Sordi); "Dear Michael" (1976, directed by Mario Monicelli); "Lost and found" (1979) and "secret Secret" (1985), by Giuseppe Bertolucci; "Forget Venice" (1979) and "the good soldier" (1982), by Franco Brusati; "Il pap'occhio (1980, by Renzo Arbore); "My son, infinitamente caro (1985, Valentino Orsini); "Mimì metallurgico ferito nell'onore (1972)," Film d'amore e d'anarchia (1973) and "Travolti da un insolito destino nell'azzurro mare d'agosto" (1974), by Lina Wertmüller (in films of Italian Director is to remember the bravery of the couple Mariangela Melato and Giancarlo Giannini); "Casotto" (1977) and "Fuck" (1988), by Sergio Citti; "Help me to dream" (1980) by Pupi Avati. Among the international productions include his portrayal of Khala in General great "Flash Gordon" (1980).
Since the 90 's, his resume includes several television dramas including "scandal" (1990), "Una vita in gioco" (1991), "Two times twenty years" (1995), "the lawyer of women" (1997).
The commitment of Mariangela Melato continues over the years with "mourning becomes Electra" (1996); "La dame de Chez Maxim" (1998); "Phaedra (1999);" Love in the mirror "and" mother courage "(2002); "The Visionary" (2004); "Who's afraid of Virginia Woolf?" (2005).
At the same time for cinema plays "La fine è nota (1993, by Cristina Comencini); "Dirty laundry" (1999, directed by Mario Monicelli); "Un uomo perbene" (1999, by Maurizio Zaccaro).
In the years 2000, working in the movies "probably" (2001, by Giuseppe Bertolucci); "L'amore ritorna" (2004, directed by Sergio Rubini); "Come away with me" (2005, by Carlo Ventura). For tv: "Rebecca" (2008, directed by Riccardo Milani).
Mariangela Melato died in a clinic in Rome at the age of 71 years, on January 11, 2013 due to pancreatic cancer.
September 19, 1898
June 11, 1988
Who is Giuseppe Saragat?Giuseppe Saragat was born on September 19, 1898 in Turin. The family of Sardinian origin is of Catalan ancestry. As the newborn sympathizer adheres to the Socialist Party. Since young, reformist positions is the same current historians of national socialism fathers including Filippo Turati, Claudio Treves, Andrea Modigliani, Fontanesi and Ludovico d'Aragona.
A volunteer in World War I, first as a soldier and then as an officer was decorated with the Croix de guerre.
In 1922 he joined the Socialist Unity Party, and then three years later walks into his direction.
The rise of fascism and dictatorship mussolinian see almost thirty Saragat stand in opposition of the new regime and take the path of exile: before the Austria and then France where he will meet and work with all the leading exponents of antifascism in exile: Giorgio Amendola to Pietro Nenni. It is in this climate and in the light of many matches that come from Spain, where it is in civil war, which ripens a profound distaste for Soviet Communism and all its "offshoot" Western. On the other hand begins to embrace the North European social democratic son of II International.
The location was very farsighted anti-Soviet saragattiana and confirmed in the last decade of the twentieth century, by the same historical events, but not as far-reaching was the uncritical acceptance of secondointernazionaliste positions that had been overwhelmed by the first world war and the long post-war period he had seen, partly because of the weakness of the left strongly split between Leninist and social-democratic reformists maximalists, Genesis and the creation in Europe of the fascist and Nazi dictatorships.
After the fall of Mussolini Giuseppe Saragat returned to Italy and, with Pietro Nenni and Lelio Basso, reunites all socialist currents giving rise to the Socialist Party of proletarian Unity (Psiup) in which, as in all socialist tradition, both will co-exist for reformist instances, both maximalists without finding, and that's part of the tradition of Italian socialism, a point of synthesis and of agreement.
In the second Government led by Ivanoe Bonomi, demolaburista Saragat is Minister without portfolio.
In the elections for the constituent Assembly, with the Socialists are more than 20% of the votes, the second largest party behind the Italian Christian Democrats and Communists for a few votes of the Pci Palmiro Togliatti. As the second political force in Italy, the party of sol's future Presidency of the constituent Assembly, and meanwhile entered Nenni, in Government led by Christian Democrat Alcide De Gasperi (Dc) indicates Giuseppe Saragat as socialist candidate to fill this position and the reformist leader is elected by the convergence of all anti-fascist parties (Dc, Pci, Psiup, Pri, Pd, Udn , Pli) which formed the national unity Governments.
But it is precisely in these months that the nth and incurable rupture between the two sections of the Italian Socialists: on one side and "popular" Pietro Nenni strives for close cooperation with the Communists (up to hypothesize a unification of the two parties of the left) and a neutralist choice internationally across the cultured and refined Giuseppe Saragat , inspired by the Scandinavian models, strongly opposes to this hypothesis.
Fractures in the House, following the worst socialist tradition, is always incurable and in January 1947 Giuseppe Saragat abandons the Psiup with men loyal to him and gives birth to a moderate and reformist socialist party (which will be for years the only Italian representative of the reborn Socialist International), the Italian workers ' Socialist Party (Psli). This party a few years later, with the unification with the small patrol by members of the Unified Socialist Party (Psu) of former Minister Giuseppe Romita, will assume the name of Italian Democratic Socialist Party (Psdi) referred Giuseppe Saragat will be sole leader.
The Social Democratic Party will take over soon very moderate positions and Atlanticist in contrast with all other socialist parties, Social Democrats and labour in Europe. Out of 115 Socialist deputies elected in 1946 ben 52 they leave with Saragat which, while failing to ever win the heart of the "base" will bring Socialist in its orbit trade unionists, journalists and intellectuals who will return to the Psi just in the second half of the years ' 60: in this phase of the late 40 's the Socialist movement was in a unique and paradoxical situation whereby Nenni and the Psi had the votes and militants Saragat and Psdi, the ruling class and middle managers.
Simultaneously to the assumption of the leadership of the new political creature, Saragat abandons the Montecitorio guide whose presidency is elected the Communist Umberto Terracini that honor will keep in baptism, together with the provisional head of State Enrico De Nicola, the Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi (Dc) and Minister of Justice Giuseppe Grassi (Pli), our Republican Constitution.
In the spring of 1947 De Gasperi he travels in the Usa and to return Communists and Socialists oust the Government launching a quadripartite Government compound, as well as centrist by Dc, by Republicans of Pacciardi (Pri), the Liberals by Einaudi (Pli) and the Social Democrats of Saragat (Psli) who will take the Vice Presidency of the Council of Ministers.
Is the moderate breakthrough in Italian politics that will be confirmed by polls on April 18, 1948 when the Christian Democrats will defeat hard with 48.8% of the vote, the popular democratic front, the left-wing United list composed by Nenni, by the Psi and the Pci by some former members of the Partito d'Azione, that will stop such a poor 32% of the vote. In this electoral competition Giuseppe Saragat will present a list of his and some former Psli party members that action had not joined the tandem Togliatti-Nenni, under the name of Socialist Unity with a superb 7% of votes: this is the highest result ever achieved by the reformist Socialists.
During the first term the saragattiani, against which you will trigger the wrath and accusations of betrayal of the working class of the Communists, are going to Governments by Dc egemonizzati, coating, like other secular forces (Pli and Pri) a supporting role in the new Government (De Gasperi 1948) Saragat will only Minister of merchant marine.
1953 elections see the four-party defeated centrist who, while retaining the majority in Parliament, not kept in the country and, more importantly, they failed to trigger the pseudomaggioritario electoral mechanism (the so-called "swindle law"). Saragat and Psdi were harshly defeated ("cynicism cynical and baro" as the same social democratic leader) and the party entered in the secondary role in political landscape and national party which was never released.
Saragat was one of the supporters of the Socialists opening of Nenni that after the events in Hungary of 1956, had abandoned the frontista option with the Communists in Togliatti. First Fanfani and Aldo Moro will then centre-left Government since the early 60 's. In the period 1966-69 will see to the reunification of the two Socialist parties, the Psu (Psi-Psdi Unified Socialist Party) with two two Co-Secretaries (Francesco De Martino and Mario Tanassi), but with poor election results (in the general elections of 1968 the Psu had many fewer votes than they had had years before 5 Psi and Psdi occurring separately).
After being Vice President of the Council of Ministers in the Governments Scelba (1954) and signs (1955), Saragat was Foreign Minister in the Government and Moro (1963, 1964) Center. In 1964, after the resignation of the President of the Republic early Antonio Segni (Dc), a broad coalition of left-wing MPs on the advice of Giorgio Amendola (Pci) and Ugo La Malfa (Pri) voted for Giuseppe Saragat as new head of State that, with the votes of the electoral college of Pci, Psi, Psdi, Pri and much of Dc (that she had seen "burn" is its official candidate Giovanni Leone) was the first Socialist to settle at Quirinale.
Leitmotif of his presidency was the strength and the will to take action for the establishment of center-left governments. The years of President Saragat were marked the beginning of terrorism and the dispute of 19In 1971 the Young Democrat Leo succeeds Giuseppe Saragat (which called for a re-election) in the Office of the President of the Italian Republic. Few other politicians (Togliatti and Spadolini) knew how to combine political activity with cultural commitment as Saragat.
The social democratic leader died in Rome on June 11, 1988: moving words were presented on the official organ of the Pci, the unit, one of its great Communist opponents, Giancarlo Pajetta, who drew a line on the controversy of almost fifty years before, stating: "today is a dead comrade!".
Franz Schubert biography
January 31, 1797
September 19, 1828
Who is Franz Schubert?Franz Peter Schubert was born on January 31, 1797 in Lichtental, a suburb of Vienna: Nussdorfer Strasse, all'insegna del Gambero rosso (Zum roten Krebsen), is today a museum.
Schubert is the fourth of five children; his father, a schoolmaster and amateur cellist, will be the first teacher of the young Franz Schubert.
The future composer studied singing, organ, piano and harmony driven by Michael Holzer, organist and choir master of Lichtental.
In 1808 Schubert became a singer in the Court and, after winning a scholarship, he managed to enter the imperialregio Vienna Stadtkonvikt making regular studies and perfecting his musical training under the guidance of the court organist Wenzel, Ruczicka and court composer Antonio Salieri.
The first compositions are quartets and date back to the years 1811-1812; are written to run in the family.
Franz Schubert in 1813 abandoned his studies to become his father's Assistant at the school where she teaches. The following year he meets Goethe's poem that will be the source of inspiration for his Lied unto death.
In 1815 Schubert writes on "Erlkönig"; at the end of 1816 there are already over 500 Lieder for voice and piano. With the support of Franz von Schober and some friends, who will finance all his life, in 1816 leaves his family and work at the school of his father.
The Group of friends and supporters are part of, among others, lawyer and ex-violinist Joseph von Spaun, the poet Johann Mayrhofer, the painters Leopold Kupelwieser and Moritz von Schwind, Anselm Hüttenbrenner, pianist Anna Frölich and Michael Vogl, the Court opera singer who will know the Songs composed by Schubert.
Franz Schubert dies prematurely, due to venereal disease (contracted during the stay at the summer residence of count Esterházy in Czechoslovakia), September 19, 1828 in Vienna, just 31 years old.
Victoria Silvstedt biography
September 19, 1974
Who is Victoria Silvstedt?Victoria Silvstedt, a difficult name for a model who once vista no longer needs any introduction. Emblem of the German woman, Victoria is born in Sweden on 19 September 1974 to Skelleftea, a village very close to the Arctic circle. Grew up in a modest family of parents, a sister, a brother and two beautiful horses, has always practiced several sports, among which especially skiing, which is a real Professor.
Given the exceptional beauty that Victoria growing has had to handle, the natural outlet of his life couldn't be that to finish on a catwalk, though to be honest the Teutonic blond did not properly the features of a model. Hanging your skis to the nail, begin to do photo shoots, dives into the world of the show and to make themselves known enrolls usual beauty contest. Not couldn't win.
Just 18 years, after having duly passed the selections for "Miss Sweden", here representing his country in "Miss World Pageant"; It was 1993.
After completing his studies he was ready to leave his village to achieve the ambitions that had been simmering for some time. The desire is to be known and admired, that bit of self-centeredness that has always accompanied. Given the circumstances, there is only a "brand" that can guarantee a launch and immediate visibility, one of the world's most famous Bunny: Playboy. Victoria generously offers his body from heart failure for some memorable shots. It's first "Miss December 1996" and "Playmate of the year 1997.
You're done and soon is not only host of numerous television shows throughout the world, but also takes part in some movies and tv series including "Melrose Place," "The independent" and "BasketBall", not to forget those shot at home, including "BodyGuards" (along with Cristian De Sica directed by Neri Parenti) and the tv series "Marshal Colombo in gondola" directed by an old Fox like Carlo screen Vanzina.
Become a celebrity in our country, his appearances in shows, parties, meetings, film etc., there are countless more. She obviously also in various tv shows, including famous remained literally breathtaking appearances to "phenomena", which put the plague crisis Piero Chiambretti, forced to sweat in the face of so much statuesque beauty. He then took part in shows such as "Fuego", "Bet" and was Guest Host in Milan for the "advertising" Gala.
Meanwhile, it is also involved in singing, recording some singles. the result? Two gold records for "Hello Hey" and "Rocksteady Love", songs that have broken mainly in Europe, having less success in Italy.
In the wake of this resounding success the beautiful Victoria does not cancel the idea of entering the homes of all Italians with a nice calendar tailored: manufactures in the beautiful location of the island (Corsica) a memorable calendar which sold tens of thousands of copies.
In 2002 he toured the comedy "Boat Trip" with Cuba Gooding Jr., Roger Moore and Horatio Sanz. In the splendid setting of Caribbean Victoria plays the captain of the Swedish national team, who is saved from a shipwreck off the coast of Mexico.
In October of the same year, in the wake of previous success, went in the splendid setting of the Sinai desert in Egypt to fulfill his new official calendar 2003.
In March 2003 she returned in Italy guest conducted by Simona Ventura: "the big night".
A frequent guest of Simona Ventura always in "Quelli che il calcio" continued without tiring to pose for various photographers, always sought after by magazines and tabloids.
In July 2007 film directed by Claudio Risi paired with Massimo Boldi and Anna Maria Barbera entitled "Marriage in the Bahamas". Then work for French tv TF1 to 300 betting dell'edizione transalpina de "La Roue de la Fortune". This experience shows Victoria Silvstedt in Italy to participate in the Italian Edition-"wheel of Fortune"-that after having been conducted for so many years by Mike Bongiorno, returns to Italy One led by Enrico Papi.
Emil Zatopek biography
September 19, 1922
November 21, 2000
Who is Emil Zatopek?He ran with his head bent back, elbows close to the body, a grimace of pain on her face stamped: his style was as far removed from the harmony of a beautiful athletic, but his strength and his race were those of a giant. Emil Zatopek was the man symbol of the Olympic Games in Helsinki in 1952, where a great sporting spectacle made a legendary company by winning within a week: 3 gold medals in the 5,000 meters, 10,000 meters and the marathon.
Was the July 27 when along the tree-lined streets of Helsinki, in the homeland of Paavo Nurmi, nine-time Olympic champion marathoner Finnish, ran the Marathon which saw favored English Jim Peters, world record holder. Zatopek was his debut over the distance of 42 kilometers and his race strategy was simple: follow the tactic of Peters, an expert on the subject. The British imposed a high pace in the race, Zatopek remained stubbornly glued, scheming here occasionally with him to ask if the pace was adequate. Peters did not end the race, perhaps exhausted by the frantic pace imposed by himself. Zatopek ended the race with one of his extraordinary acceleration, entering the Olympic Stadium alone, greeted by cheering crowds.
The company went around the world and gave Emil Zatopek universal popularity that earned him the nickname the human Locomotive.
On the same day that Emil won the marathon, on the platform of the Javelin wife Dana Ingrova was on opponents.
Emil Zatopek was born on September 19, 1922 in Koprivinice, Czechoslovakia, in the region of Moravia. She grew up in a large family and humble, supported by the father of METIER Shoemaker. Emil worked as a worker in a shoe factory when in a race organised by the social employer, sports fan, comes second, without any experience training. Understand that you have a predisposition and a talent for running and although it may seem late, at the age of twenty, he began cultivating it in his spare time: he runs in the evening after work or in the morning and at night, as they allow the factory shifts. Drafted during World War II, is on this occasion that he devoted himself wholly to Zatopek sport, developing training programs and intense hard, running at least four hours per day on any terrain. Maybe her secret was to add to his extraordinary physical ability, and his iron will, superhuman workloads and exhausting. His motto was "the race as a habit".
Zatopek was also a forerunner of the so-called interval-training which consists of repeated series of 400 metres by 200 metres, interrupted recovery. Sometimes in the race the same tactics applied by placing continuous changes of pace to crush opponents during the test. This method is still the basis of athletic training of Olympic athletes.
Emil Zatopek's name stands out for the first time at the European Championships in 1946 Oslo: gets the fifth place in the final of the 50Then in the same year won the 10,000 race, at interalleati in Berlin. Two years later, at the 1948 London Olympics, won gold in the 10,000 (the runner-up by nearly a minute) and silver in the 5,0Hereinafter Zatopek will always be one most feared opponents will grind results on results until 1954, remaining undefeated for seven years and 38 races. It's right in 1954 that Zatopek gets his last two world records, with a firm no less legendary than packaged games Helsinki: within 48 hours the port limit of 5,000 at 13 ' 57 "2 and that of the 10,000 at 28 ' 54" 2 (first rider ever to win the 10,000 in less than half an hour).
Melbourne Olympics 1956, now 34 and tried by a career exhausting, conclude the marathon only at sixth place.
His charisma and his will were as strong as his lungs and legs: when the Czech team landed at Helsinki in 1952 he wasn't there. Zatopek had hired a tough tussle with his Federation. The Division of the world into two large blocks by Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin in Tehran and Yalta summits, had brought Czechoslovakia within the orbit of influence of the Soviet Union. Although party, Zatopek did not approve the policy to exclude athletes from Olympic selections are suspected of anti-Communist sympathies. So when he learned that his friend and teammate Sebastian Jungwirth couldn't join the team and Crown their sporting dream, because a dissident's son, Emil, also the best Czech athlete, renounced convocation.
Federal executives made then reverse and both Zatopek who reached the Czech withdrawal Jungwirth three days late. After the pinnacle of his sporting career, both Emil and his wife became prominent figures of Czechoslovak dissidents and were among the signatories of the manifesto of Alexander Dubcek, hero of the Prague Spring (1968). After the Soviet military intervention that ended the movement, even paid his own dear Zatopek independence of thought: expelled from the ranks of the army was forced to leave the capital and was confined to the mountains of his native land. Survived by working as a clerk at a gas station and then as a miner. In the mid 70 's, Zatopek became a consultant and translator of the Ministry of sport, but it is only after 1989, with the collapse of the Communist regime, which Zatopek regained national dignity he deserved.
Character in life Merry and Jolly, always available, Emil Zatopek was permanently retired from the sports world in 1982, to live in Prague with his wife Dana, who attended until his death on November 21, 2000.
On October 22, 2002 in the gardens of the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland, was dedicated to him a commemorative bronze statue.