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Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Jean Paul Sartre - Jean-Paul Sartre
- Biography of Gregorio Luperon
- Biography of Ricardo Palma
- Biography of Carlos Salinas de Gortari
Biography of Jean Paul Sartre - Jean-Paul Sartre
(1905/06/21 - 1980/04/15)Jean-Paul Sartre
Philosopher, dramatist, French novelist
"Even the past can be modified: the historians do not stop to prove it"
He was born on June 21, 1905 in Paris.
Son of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of naval, and Anne-Marie Schweitzer, sister of Albert Schweitzer, theologian, philosopher, musicologist and German medical missionary. His father died when he was few months and spent his childhood under the tutelage of his grandparents.
He studied at the Lycée Henri IV, at the Ecole Normale Supérieure, at the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) and at the French Institute in Berlin (Germany). He is Professor of philosophy at several high schools from 1929 until the beginning of World War II, when he joined the army.
It adopted its basic principle that existence precedes essence in his first novel, nausea, 19The Germans made him prisoner during one year (1940-1941) and when he was released he gave classes in Neuilly and some time later in Paris. He participated in the French resistance. German, unfamiliar authorities of its secret activities, allowed the representation of his play anti-authoritarian flies (1943) and the publication of his most famous philosophical work being and nothing (1943). In 1945, he left teaching and created together with Simone de Beauvoir among others, political and literary magazine Les temps modernes, which was editor in Chief.
Considered independent Socialist active after 1947, critic with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and United States in the years of the cold war. In most of his writings from the 1950s are political matters, including complaints about the violent and repressive attitude of the French army in Algeria. In 1964 he was awarded the prize Nobel of literature, which refused.
Having started from the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl, Jean Paul Sartre form is definitely with Martin Heidegger, that then-undisputed authority of German Existentialism. However, the readings of Hegel and Marx led him to a position that initially it would dampen in Existentialism is a humanism, first work in which already mark their differences with the Existentialism of Christian origin that would be represented in the figure of Karl Jaspers. Its logic led him to question a key axiom for his theory: "given that the universe cannot be measured or determined, us, man, has the possibility of choosing a path which is absolutely responsible for. "And given the loneliness and helplessness with which is chosen this individual road can be, and often happens, turned on a daunting project, but at the same time is releasing all determining coercion". He said that the existence precedes essence, hell is other and man is a useless passion. His theory of existential psychoanalysis claimed the responsibility of all individuals to make their own decisions and the recognition of an absolute freedom of choice was the necessary condition of authentic human existence.
In his latest philosophical work, Critique de raison dialectique (critique of dialectical reason, 1960), leaves the emphasis placed in the Existentialist freedom by Marxist social determinism. He argued that the influence of modern society on the individual is so great that produces the Serialization, interpreted as a loss of identity. He criticized the Soviet military intervention in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968). He is considered one of the spiritual fathers of the French may He tried to found a political party and despite its critical support for Stalinism always defended vigorously the freedom and individual responsibility. His last years find it whereas Maoism as more revolutionary within the global spectrum. This earned him quite a few insults as he punched you Lucien Goldmann of being "a talmudist lost in Maoism".
His works include the novels Nausea (1938) and unfinished narrative series the ways of freedom, including the age of reason (1945), the postponement (1945) and death in the soul (1949); a biography of the French writer Jean Genet, Saint Genet, comedian and martyr (1952); plays behind closed doors (1944), the respectful prostitute (1946) and the kidnappers of Altona (1959); his autobiography, the words (1964) and a biography of the French author Gustave Flaubert, the idiot in the family (1971-1972) among many other titles.
Jean-Paul Sartre died on April 15, 1980 in Paris.
Biography of Gregorio Luperon
(1839/09/08 - 1897/05/21)Gregorio Luperon
Military and Dominican politician
He was born on September 8, 1839 in Puerto Plata. Son of Nicolasa Luperón and Pedro Castellano.
He studied at a school in his town and with 12 years went on to work on a farm of Jamao Pedro Eduardo Dubocq property.
At the age of 22, he began his opposition to the annexation. Pursued during the fight restorers and the Government of the annexation, in September 1863 took command of the troops that attacked Santiago. On 14 September of that year he was elected to the Presidency of the Republic, charge that I do not accept.
On 8 October he was appointed General in Chief of the forces in the South and in November took over the defense of the Sabaneta. On January 20, 1864 he was appointed Chief of the Dominican liberator army. He fought the General Santana in Bermejo Brook.
In 1864 he was President, due to the illness of Benigno Filomeno Rojas. In March 1865 he married Ana Luisa Tavárez and at the end of the war, he returned to his hometown. In 1866 he formed a triumvirate that ruled the country from May 1 to August 22 stop. His Government, in 1879, took seat in Puerto Plata.
He was the interim presidency after the revolution against President Cesáreo Guillermo. Ulises Heureaux supported in 1887 but he was declared against the dictatorial measures Lilis took in his Government.
Gregorio Luperón died on May 21, 1897 in his hometown of Puerto Plata.
Biography of Ricardo Palma
(1833/02/07 - 06/10/1919)Ricardo Palma
He was born on February 7, 1833 in Lima.
He studied in the school of Antonio Orengo and the Clemente Noel. Only fifteen years he was editor of a newspaper called satirical "the devil". The "El Comercio" newspaper published his first poems. In 1849 he studied in the Convictorio de San Carlos, and in 1852 Debuts "Rodil" and collaborates in the satirical sheet entitled "El Burro". Shortly afterwards he published "patriotic Crown" and "Juvenilia" (Lima, 1855).
He was exiled for two years in Chile (1861-1863) and upon his return to Peru, returned with the Annals of the Inquisition of Lima (1863), his first historical work outstanding. He published traditions, whose first series appears in 1872, thus initiating a cycle that is closed in 1910.
His works include verbs and gerunds (1877), neologisms and Americanisms (1896). In the first years of 1900 he published "lexicographical ballots", which are two thousand seven hundred voices that are needed in the dictionary. They appear in Barcelona "my latest Peruvian traditions".
Later, Ricardo Palma publishes a small autobiography, "strange" and "Appendix to my latest Peruvian traditions" before dying in Miraflores at the age of 86, on October 6, 19
Biography of Carlos Salinas de Gortari
(1948-04-03 - Unknown)Carlos Salinas de Gortari
Mexican politician, President of the Republic (1988-1994)
He was born on April 3, 1948 in the City of Mexico.
He studied primary school "Abraham Lincoln", high school No. 3 "Héroes de Chapultepec" and high school in number 1 of San Idelfonso. Degree in economics by the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 19He studied also at Harvard University (United States), where he earned a master's degree in public administration (1973), another in political economy (1978) and PhD in political economy and public administration (1978).
He was Deputy Director of the economic program of the Government, Advisor to the director, Miguel de la Madrid. He directed this presidential campaign and, once Miguel de la Madrid was President, succeeded him in the post of Secretary of economic programming and planning. Salinas was a presidential candidate in 1987 by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), won more than 50% of the votes, against allegations of fraud by the PRI.
With an ambitious program of modernization, he managed to revitalize the economy of Mexico, stimulating exports, supporting free trade with the United States and in 1991 by assuming leadership to achieve a free trade agreement between Central American countries. Set up of the National solidarity programme (PRONASOL), subject of many criticisms. In the month of December 1992, the North-American free trade agreement (FTA) was signed by Salinas, the President of the United States, George Bush, and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
It entered into force in January 19Its mandate was secured greater transparency and representativeness of the opposition parties. In January 1994, he had to deal with a rebellion of the Zapatista Army of national liberation (EZLN) in the State of Chiapas.
The PRI appointed candidate for Luis Donaldo Colosio, assassinated, in full campaign, the choice fell on Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon, who took possession of the Presidency of his country on 1 December of that year. Finished his term, Salinas left Mexico following the arrest of his brother Raul, who was accused among other crimes for the murder of Colosio. Carlos Salinas testified, in November 1996 and January 1997, at the Mexican Embassy in Dublin (Ireland).
Married to Cecilia Occeli González and father of three children: Cecilia, Emiliano and Juan Cristóbal.