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José de San Martín Matorras… James Clerk Maxwell… Karl Popper… Alexander Fleming… Biographies Multiposts

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  1. Biography of José de San Martín Matorras
  2. Biography of James Clerk Maxwell
  3. Biography of Karl Popper
  4. Alexander Fleming biography

Biography of José de San Martín Matorras

(1778/02/25 - 1850/08/17)

José de San Martín Matorras
Latin American independence leader
"If there is the enemy greater there is victory in defeat when man overcomes himself."
José De San Martín
He was born February 25, 1778 in the town of Yapeyú, situated on the banks of the mighty River Uruguay, which depended on the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.
Son of John of San Martin, born in Spain, and was Lieutenant Governor of the Department. His mother, Gregoria Matorras, also Spanish, was the niece of a conqueror of the Chaco. He was the youngest of five brothers: María Elena (1771), Manuel Tadeo (1772) and Juan Fermín (1774), born in the Real Calera de las Vacas, jurisdiction of the parish of Las Víboras, and Justo Rufino (1776), born in Yapeyú as his brother José Francisco. Between 1781 and 1784, the family resided in Buenos Aires.
When he was 16 years old he travels to Spain since his father was stationed there. He entered the Seminario de Nobles of Madrid and in 1789 began his military career in the regiment of Murcia. He participated in the campaign of Africa fighting in Melilla and Oran. In 1797 he was promoted to second lieutenant for his actions against the French in the Pyrenees.
Cadiz is linked with the American group that conspired for the independence of Spanish America. To return to your country at the age of thirty-three, was recognized him the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and the triumvirate charged him with the creation of a squad, who then was the famous Regiment of grenadiers on horseback.
He created a secret society that called the Logia Lautaro to: "work with system and plan the American independence and happiness". Its leading members, in addition to San Martín were: Alvear, Juan Martín de Pueyrredón , Zapiola, Bernardo Monteagudo.
On September 12, 1812 he married Maria of the Remedios de Escalada, that belonged to a distinguished family. In October of that same year, arrives the news of the victory of the army of Belgrano in Tucumán, and occurs in Buenos Aires a motion prepared by the lodge in order to impose their candidates in the triumvirate.
Refers to the Second triumvirate consisting of: Juan José Paso, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña , and Antonio Álvarez Jonte. The first decisions of the triumvirate is the strengthen the army and send an expedition to put site to Montevideo, occupied by the realistic. In January 1813 José Rondeau narrow site of Montevideo while in Buenos Aires, Sunday, January 31, meets the General Constituent Assembly, known in history with the name of the year 13 Assembly.
Are decided reforms such as: the name of the King of Spain disappears from public documents; the Assembly is declared sovereign; removed the coats of arms and titles of nobility; Approve the colors of the flag of Belgrano, the coat of arms and the anthem; removed the Inquisition.
The triumvirate ordered San Martín protection of the shores of the Paraná before the landing of the royalists. In the first charge, the horse of St. Martin was knocked down locking leg of the Colonel. Granadero Baigorria transfers with a spear to a Spanish soldier who was trying to hurt San Martin. Juan Bautista Cabral soldier cast foot to land and raised the horse, allowing his boss to merge, then was mortally wounded. A few hours of combat, already knowing the result, uttered the famous words: "I die happy! We have beaten the enemy! "." The victory had been obtained in a few minutes. The royalists escaped down the ravine abandoning its weapons, cannons, and banners.
Shortly after the triumph of the General Belgrano against the royalists in the battle of Saltawas known. Appointed Chief of the army of the North, supported his plan to liberate Chile and use the Pacific Highway to get to Peru, the realistic power base. It was Governor of the and organized the Army of the Andes, which crossed the mountains in a deal that allowed him to give a victorious battle at the cost of Chacabuco (1817). It then occupied the capital, where refused the post of Supreme director of Chile. In 1818 he beat the royalists in Maipú, consolidating freedom of Chile.
The Government of Buenos Aires called it to participate with his army in the civil war which was kindled in the Argentine Coast, but chose to disobey this order and in 1820 landed with an expedition on the coast of the Peru. After almost a year of tactical movement occupied Lima and on July 28, 1821 proclaimed the independence of the Peru, whose Government took charge of guard.
His interview with Bolívar, which addressed the situation of America held in Guayaquil in July 18He then returned to Lima, where he declined the command.
Retired to private life, he returned to Buenos Aires, and in 1824 he embarked for Europe. He returned in the year 1829, but he refused to disembark for not taking part in civil strife that break to his country. Back in Europe, José de San Martín settled definitively in the French port city of Boulogne-sur-Mer, where he died on August 17, 18

Biography of James Clerk Maxwell

(1831-06-13 - 05/11/1879)

James Clerk Maxwell
British physicist
He was born on June 13, 1831 in Edinburgh, in the bosom of a wealthy family.
In 1841, he began his studies at the Edinburgh Academy, where he showed an exceptional interest in geometry, discipline on which was his first work scientific, published when he was only fourteen years of age. He studied at the universities of Edinburgh and Cambridge. He is Professor of physics at the University of Aberdeen from 1856 to 18In 1871 was the most outstanding professor of experimental physics at Cambridge, where he supervises the construction of the Cavendish laboratory.
Expands the investigation of Michael Faraday on electromagnetic fields, demonstrating the mathematical relationship between the electric and magnetic fields. It also shows that light is composed of electromagnetic waves. His most important work is the Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (Tratado on electricity and magnetism, 1873), where, for the first time published its set of four equations that describes the nature of electromagnetic fields in terms of time and space.
James Clerk Maxwell died in Cambridge, United Kingdom, on November 5, 1879, eight years before the experimental confirmation of his electromagnetic theory.

Biography of Karl Popper

(1902/07/28 - 1994/09/17)

Karl Raimund Popper
British philosopher
He was born on July 28, 1902, in Vienna (Austria), to a Jewish family who later converted to Protestantism.
Working for some time in the child clinic of Alfred Adler. He obtained his doctorate in philosophy from the University of his native city in 19In 1929 obtained the Chair of mathematics and physics in secondary education.
Although he was not a member of the so-called School of philosophy of Vienna, he sympathized with his scientific attitude, although it criticized some of its tenets. He developed an outstanding academic career in Europe, Australia, India, Japan and the United States. From 1937 to 1945 he worked as a professor at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand, and later at the University of London.
In the logic of scientific discovery (1934), he criticized the idea that science is essentially inductive. He proposed a criteria test which he calledverisimilitude, to determine the scientific validity, and underlined the deductive nature of science. In the open society and its enemies (1945), he defended democracy and showed objections to the authoritarian implications of political theories of Plato and Karl Marx. He is the author of in search of a better world, the responsibility of living, conjectures and refutations, the myth of the common framework and the body and the mind.
In 1965 he is awarded the title of Sir. He was a visiting professor at several universities, and his works have been translated into more than twenty languages. He is considered to be one of the main philosophers of the 20th century.
Karl Popper died in London on 17 September 19

Alexander Fleming biography

(1881-08-06 - 1955/03/11)

Alexander Fleming
Bacteriologist and award British Nobel
He was born on August 6, 1881, near Darvel, Ayr (today part of Strathclyde), Scotland.
Son of Hugh Fleming (1816-1888) and Grace Stirling Mortonen (1848-1928). Hugh was father of four surviving children from his first marriage and was 59 years old at the time of his second marriage with Grace. Alexander was the seventh of eight children. His family was devoted to agriculture and animal husbandry. With 13 years, after the death of his father, March to London along with his brother John and a half-brother, both students of medicine.
Before moving to London she went to Louden Moor School, Darvel School and Kilmarnock Academy, schools in his hometown. He spent four years in a shipping company as an administrative before studying at the Polytechnic in Regent Street, Faculty of medicine, St. Mary completo Hospital of the University of London, where he graduated with honors in 1905 as a specialized surgeon, and where he worked as Professor of bacteriology from 1928 until 1948, year in which he was named Professor Emeritus.
He participated in the first world war as a captain in the Army Medical Corps, providing some innovations that were overshadowed by its other subsequent discoveries. It conducted research during the war trying to discover something like the "salvarsan", to control infections. He developed important research in the fields of bacteriology, Immunology, and chemotherapy . In 1922, he discovered lysozyme, in tears, bodily secretions antiseptic, albumin, and certain plants.
The discovery of penicillin took place accidentally in 1928 in the course of his research on influenza. Fleming noticed that mold was growing up on the plate and that around of it had formed a halo or area free of staphylococci, a fact that immediately caught his attention. It was, rightly, that that layer of mold contained a substance that inhibits the growth of bacteria. He called the active substance penicillin notatum and in 1929 published his finding in a magazine without arousing greater interest in the scientific community. For 1932, Fleming had changed his object of study and never gave the crucial step: testing the substance in mice.
Despite having discovered a substance capable of fighting bacterial infections, Fleming and his colleagues failed to isolate penicillin, the first antibacterial drug. The chemist Gerhard Domagk developed the Prontosil in 19Penicillin in its purest form produced it in 1940 Howard Walter Floreyand Ernst Boris Chain . Actually, penicillin began to be massively used in World War II, and many lives were saved thanks to her.
He was appointed sir in 19In 1945, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine with Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain British scientists for their contributions to the development of penicillin. In 1946 he received the Medal of gold of honour of the Royal College of Surgeons. In 1948 he was awarded the Grand Cross of the order of Alfonso X, el Sabio.
On December 23, 1915, he married the Irish nurse Sarah Marion McElroy. His only son, Robert Fleming, (born 1924) became a general practitioner. After the death of Sarah in 1949, Fleming married Greek Dr. Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas, on 9 April 1953.
Years before the heart attack that ended his life in London, on March 11, 1955 Alexander Fleming stated that its only merit was to not ignore that suggestive coat of rust. He was buried in Saint Paul's Cathedral, in London.

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