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Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
Lenin - Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov… Ernesto Guevara - Che Guevara… Daniel Bernoulli…
Biography of Lenin - Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov
(1870/04/22 - 1924/01/21)Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Russian political theoretician and revolutionary
Was born on April 22, 1870 in Simbirsk (city which, since 1924 until 1991, Ulyanovsk was named in his honor), son of an civil servant.
In 1887, the police arrested and executed to his brother mayor Alexander for having participated in a conspiracy to assassinate Tsar Alexander III.
He studied at the Kazan University that same year, but was expelled for participating in revolutionary activitiesshortly after. He studied the classical works of the revolutionary European thinking, especially the capital of Karl Marx. Admitted to the St. Petersburg University finished law in 18He worked in the city of Samara, on the banks of the Volga, defending people without resources, until he returned to Saint Petersburg in 1893.
In 1895 he co-founded the Union for the struggle for the emancipation of the working class of St. Petersburg. After spending 15 months in jail, along with one of his classmates, Nadiezhda Konstantinovna Krúpskaia - which was to become his wife - was deported to Siberia until 19After the exile, he escaped to Switzerland and founded the newspaper Iskra (spark) along with Georgy Valentinovich Plekhanov, L. Martov and other Marxists. The publication became an instrument of cohesion between the social-democratic.
He wrote his work in political theory, what to do? (1902). his project for the revolution was based on the existence of a party subject to a strict discipline, composed of revolutionary prepared to act as a "vanguard of the proletariat" and lead to the working masses to a win against the absolutism. His insistence on the importance of the professionalism of the revolutionary leaders divided the members of the Party worker social democratic Russian (POSDR), and at its Second Congress (1903) the differences became more profound. The group led by Lenin was that got most, hence the name Bolshevik ('majority' in Russian), while the opposition was known as sector menshevik ('minority' in Russian).
He returned to Russia after the revolution of 1905, but was forced to leave the country again in 1907 before the same lack of support that the insurrectionended. Lenin and the Mensheviks accusing each other of being responsible for the failure of the revolt. It is at this time when he wrote his main philosophical treatise entitled materialism and empirocriticismo (1909).
When broke out World War I in 1914, Lenin was opposed to Russia 's intervention in the conflict claiming that it would be a fratricidal struggle between the workers from across Europe for the benefit of the bourgeoisie and encouraged the Socialists to "transform the imperialist civil war war". He exhibited and Marxist war imperialism, stage of capitalism (1916), systematized the conception in which he argued that only a revolution that would destroy capitalism could provide lasting peace.
The Russian Revolution of March 1917 (February according to the Julian calendar) that it overthrew the Tsarist regime was an event that had not foreseen, but managed to enter the country on a train from Germany. His spectacular arrival in Petrograd (the name which was renamed Petersburgo) came a month after workers and soldiers had shot down the Tsar Nicholas II. The Bolsheviks in Petrograd, among them was Iósiv Stalin, were agreed that the representatives of the army and the soviets (together) of workers respect the Provisional Government that had been established, although Lenin rejected this line of action. Call April thesis claimed that only the soviets could satisfy the hopes, aspirations and needs of the workers and peasants.
The Congress of the Bolshevik Party accepted Lenin program under the slogan "all power to the soviets", whereas the revolution of March as the phase bourgeois which was to precede the urgent proletarian revolution. After a failed uprising of workers in July 1917, Lenin spent in Finland , the months of August and September hiding of the Provisional Government. During that time reflected his conception of the true Socialist Government in the trial the State and revolution, his most important contribution to Marxist theory, which advocated the need for the "dictatorship of the proletariat" as overcoming of the State based on the domination of a few classes for others. It also requested repeatedly to the Central Committee of the party that it fostered an armed rebellion in the capital. Finally his plan was approved and implemented on November 7 (October 25 according to the Julian calendar).
Lenin was elected President of the Council of people's Commissioners (head of Government). No private companies, with the exception of the banks were nationalized, and Lenin devised a program for the establishment of socialism and avoided the appearance of a system of single party by the inclusion of the Socialist revolutionary party in his Government. The Soviet regime had to pay the high price of a civil war (1918-1921) caused by those who considered threatened the privileges which had during the Czarist regime, which had the support of foreign powers. Thanks to the work of the Red Army, created and organized by Lev Trotsky, Soviet emerged triumphant from this confrontation.
The first of three strokes suffered in May 1922 Lenin left him unable to fulfill the duties of his office. He never returned to play an active role in the Government or the party. It had recovered partially at the end of 1922, but suffered a second attack in March 1923 in which lost speech.
Lenin died on January 21, 1924 in the town of Gorki.
Biography of Ernesto Guevara - Che Guevara
(1928/06/14 - 1967/10/09)Ernesto Guevara de la Serna
Revolutionary and political leader
"You have to bring the war where the enemy carry it: home, to their places of fun, make it total." It be prevent you from having a minute's peace of mind, a calm outside the barracks, and even within the same minute; attack him wherever that is, make you feel a beast stalked by every place that transit"
Ernesto Che Guevara
He was born on June 14, 1928 in Rosario (Argentina).
Son of Ernesto Guevara and Celia de la Serna. He was the eldest of five children. His father was a staunch supporter of the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, and placed some in your home. He was Irish and Basque descent. His parents belonged to the upper class and the Argentine aristocracy families. His paternal great-grandfather, Patricio Julián Lynch and Roo, was considered the richest man of South America.
Two years will see an asthmatic condition and his family decides to move to Alta Gracia (Cordoba), 17 years of his life, it was there until 19It's fight against the disease with the practice of sports such as rugby. His parents separated and he remains with her mother and three brothers.
In 1944 he worked as a municipal employee in Santa María and a year later moved to Buenos Aires. He was declared unfit for military service. In 1948, he began career in medicine and in 1953 earned a doctorate by the University of Buenos Aires, where continued practicing at the San Isidro clubrugby. Signed articles with the pseudonym of Chang-cho in the magazine Tackle, the first magazine of rugby in Argentina that he founded and directed. Liked to play chess and read poetry, became a voracious Reader which philosophy really liked.
In 1950 he toured a total 4,500 kilometers to the North of Argentina visiting on motorcycle poorer regions, then is ready as a physician in merchant fleet on trips along the coast. From January to July 1952, carries out its first a motorcycle trip with his friend Alberto Granado, who visited Chile, Peru, Colombia and Venezuela. During the trip he met doctor Hugo Pesce, leader of the Communist Party of Peru; the meeting, together with poverty and the exploitation of Latin America by American multinationals, would determine his revolutionary vision.
In Costa Rica, he met politicians like Rómulo Betancourt, Juan Bosch and exiles of the July 26 movement, surviving leaders of the assault on the Moncada. In Guatemala, it shares the pension with other exiles and when Castle arms invades Guatemala, wants to participate in the resistance but is denied permission. There it made friendship with the Cuban Antonio Ñico López, who would give him the nickname of "Che" in reference to the interjection typically argentina used by Guevara.
It is dedicated to the transport of weapons and when falls Arbenz, his name appears among those sentenced to death. Saves it the Argentine Ambassador in Guatemala, Toniuzo Sanchez, that asila in the diplomatic headquarters. Two months later it obtained a safe-conduct to travel to Mexico. He worked as a photographer and doctor managing to barely survive. Shortly after his arrival, met with his Cuban friend Nico, who invites him to join with the survivors of the Moncada. On July 26, 1954, he joined the movement, formed by revolutionary Cuban exiles. Meet Raúl Castro, fresh out of prison, with which locks friendship, then introduces him to his brother Fidel Castro in July 1955 and, in August of the same year, married Hilda Gadea. His first daughter is born on February 15, 1956.
In the last years of the Decade of the 50, he had a prominent role in the guerrilla struggle initiated by Castro against Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. On December 2, 1956, landed in Cuba with the revolutionaries, the army awaited them and manages to disperse them. Fidel appointed him Commander in July 1957 and leads the call "column n ° 4" being the first to get the degree, before Raúl Castro. In 1958, Fidel decides to appoint him as director of the newly created Military Academy to train future guerrillas. In June 1958, forms the column n ° 8 with recruits to confront the offensive launched by Batista a month before sending 10,000 soldiers to the Sierra Maestra. On August 31, after the military failure of the dictatorship, Castro launches counteroffensive in order to spread guerrillas throughout the country and ordered to Che and Camilo Cienfuegos to head towards the capital. On December 28, it launches the attack against the city of Santa Clara, last stronghold of the regime before Havana, reinforced by troops higher than the number of guerrillas who have not exceeded 300 men. The battle ended after the capture of the armored train that arrived in the capital with reinforcements. Upon learning of the fall of Santa Clara, Batista decided to flee in the night of January 1, 1959, to the Dominican Republic.
In 1959 Castro took power after the triumph of the Cuban revolution. In February, the President Manuel Urrutia Ernesto Guevara says Cuban citizens for the services rendered to the nation. Hilda Gadea divorced in 1959, and on 9 June of the same year, he married Aleida March. He was father of 5 children, a daughter with his first wife, and four other children with the second. Alberto Korda photographed him with his beret watching the funeral procession of the dead in the terrorist attack on the ship La Coubre, on March 5, 19The photo entitled Guerrillero Heroico, was recognized by the Maryland Institute College of Art as "the most famous photograph in the world".
He was appointed Mindustry supply (1961-1965). It proceeded to the nationalization of the strategic sectors of the economy of the country opposing us influence in the third world, its presence was decisive in the configuration of the Castro regime and in the approach of the Cuban regime to the Communist block, abandoning the traditional ties that had joined with the United States to Cuba.
Travels to the United Arab Republic and will interview with Nasser, then meets in the India with Nehru and Tito in Belgrade. Returning to Cuba, he is appointed President of the Central Bank. On January 3, 1961, the United States announced the break in relations with the Cuban Government. April 17 is produced the Bay of Pigs invasion (Bay of pigs), where Fidel proclaimed the Socialist character of the Cuban revolution.
He wrote the revolutionary Cuba war stories (1961) and Journal of campaign in Bolivia (1968), two books that show the fight guerrilla that defended the revolutionary movements of peasant-based in developing countries. In 1964 he chairs the Cuban delegation to the General Assembly of the United Nations. Travel back to Algiers, where they interview with Ben Bella.
In 1965, wrote the famous farewell letter to Fidel Castro in which give their positions and the Cuban nationality and declares its willingness to make the revolution in other lands. He left Cuba, and appeared a year later in Bolivia, as a leader of peasants and Bolivian miners oppose the military Government. On October 8, 1967 is captured by a patrol of rangers and murdered. His last words were: "be serene and aim well! It's going to kill a man!" Display your body and before burying it, is cut off hands so it can not be subsequently identified.
His remains, along with fellow fighters, were transferred to Cuba in 1997; Ernesto Guevara in Santa Clara City today rest at the memorial.
Biography of Daniel Bernoulli
(1700/01/29 - 1782/03/17)Daniel Bernoulli
Born January 29, 1700 in Groningen, the Netherlands. Son of Jean Bernoulli and nephew of Jacques Bernoulli, two researchers who made important contributions to the early development of the calculation.
Although he got a title doctor in 1721, Daniel and his brother Nicolas were invited to work in the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, as Professor of mathematics. It was there where he came in collaboration with Euler.
In 1731 he began to extend its investigations to cover problems of life and health statistics. Two years later he returned to Basel where he taught Anatomy, Botany, philosophy and physics. As most important work stands in hydrodynamics , which was considered the most important properties of a fluid flow , pressure, density and speed and gave his fundamental relationship now known as The Bernoulli principle or Theory of the fluid dynamics. In his book also gives a theoretical explanation of the gas pressure on the walls of a container: "Throughout all fluid power total energy per unit mass is constant, being likewise constituted by the sum of the pressure, the kinetic energy per unit volume and the potential energy per unit volume".
Granted, between 1725 and 1749, ten Awards for his work on gravity, tides, astronomy, magnetism, currents of the ocean and the behaviour of a vessel at sea.
Daniel Bernoulli died March 17, 1782, in Basel, Switzerland.