Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Maria Antoinette of Austria
- Biography of Juan Ramón Jiménez
- Biography of Félix María Zuloaga
- Biography of Margarita Maza de Juárez
Biography of Maria Antoinette of Austria
(1755/11/02 - 1793/10/16)Maria Antoinette of Austria
Queen Consort of France (1774-1792)
He was born on November 2, 1755 in Vienna.
Daughter of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa.
She got married on May 16, 1770 to Louis, Dauphin of France, in the chapel of the Palace of Versailles. They were married in order to consolidate an alliance between France and the Habsburg dynasty.
Louis XVI of France and his wife María-Antoinette not consummated his marriage until seven years after the wedding. The King had phimosis , and intercourse was very painful. Fearfully refused to circumcision but ultimately the need for descent forced him to a surgery. They were parents of María Teresa de Francia (1778-1851, Louis Joseph of France (1781-1789), Luis XVII of France (1785-1795) and Maria Sofia Helena Beatriz de France (1786-1787).)
The Queen, who did not have the favour of the French for being foreign, made increasing his unpopularity by his loyalty to Austrian interests, the bad reputation of some of his friends and his extravagance, which has blamed the financial problems of the Government. With the outbreak of the French Revolution in the year 1780, it supported the hard-line sector of the Court that refused to reach an agreement with the moderate revolutionaries, and asked his brother, Leopold II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
The kings tried to flee Paris with his sons María Teresa and Luis Carlos in 1791, but were captured and taken prisoner. The monarchy was overthrown in 1792 and, following the execution of Luis XVI, It was separated from her son and sent to the Revolutionary court the following year, that accused her of treason and sentenced her to death.
Marie-Antoinette was guillotined on 16 October 1793 in Paris.
Biography of Juan Ramón Jiménez
(1881/12/23 - 1958/05/29)Juan Ramón Jiménez
Spanish poet and prize Nobel of literature
He was born on December 23, 1881 in Moguer, Huelva, in the bosom of a family of rich merchants.
Young man he thought devoted to painting, but when a newspaper published his first verses, it was decided by the poetry. He studied at the University of Seville.
Deeply touched by the poems of Rubén Darío in his youth, he was also passionate about reading the poets of French symbolism. In 1900 he came to Madrid, where he was a friend of Dario and Valle-Inclán. That same year her father died and suffered a great depression. After passing through various sanatoriums he returned to Moguer, where he dedicated himself to read and write. Also in 1900 were published his first two books of poems: Lilys and souls of violet.
In the 1920s he returned to Madrid, staying in the Residence, where the members of the generation of 27 recognized him as a teacher. He made several trips to France and later to the United States, where House that already it would be his partner for life, Zenobia Camprubí.
His major anthologies include selected poems (1917), second poetry anthology (1922), song (1936) and third anthology (1957). The influence of modernism is seen in his first books, although his poetic world is pointing to the ineffable. His work is made independent of any school, but the symbolism, already fully taken, follow influencing in his poetry almost until the end. With the passage of the years his style becomes more and more refined, always in search of the absolute beauty while remaining at the same time metaphysical and abstract, as you can be seen in Spring of ballads (1910) the sonorous solitude (1911) or diary of a newlywed poet (1917), basically writing during his trip to the United States. Follow eternities (1918), stone and sky (1919) and one of the highest points of his poetry, total station, a book written between 1923 and 1936, although not published until 1946.
The writings in prose that would later form the vast Gallery Spaniards of three worlds (1942) began to be published in newspapers and magazines in the years immediately prior to his exile. Another of his books written in poetic prose is Platero y yo (1917), where he blends fantasy and realism in relations between a man and his ass. It is the Spanish book translated into most languages of the world, along with Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes. He wrote also the Romances of Coral Gables (1948) and Fund Animal (1949). With them and the 'space' poem, it reaches what has been called its "third fullness" determined by direct contact with the sea.
In 1936, at the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, he was forced to leave Spain. United States, Cuba and Puerto Rico, were his successive places of residence. He was already nearly extinct, the news of the award of the Nobel Prize in 1956, three days after his wife dies.
Juan Ramón Jiménez died on May 29, 1958 in the Clinic Mimiya de Santurce (Puerto Rico). His remains, together with the Zenobia, rest in the cemetery of Jesus in Moguer, (Spain).
Biography of Félix María Zuloaga
(1813/03/31 - 1898/02/13)Félix María Zuloaga
Military and Mexican politician
He was born on March 31, 1813, in Alamos, Sonora ore.
She studied primary in Chihuahua and then went to the Seminary of Mexico. He returned to Chihuahua and in 1834 he enlisted in the Civic militia. He participated in the battles against the apaches and comanches. He returned to the capital of the Republic (1838) and joined the army with the rank of second lieutenant of engineers.
In 1840 he defended the Government of Anastasio Bustamante , and in 1841 supported Antonio López de Santa Anna; He participated in the Yucatan campaign against separatists; He directed the works of fortification of the city of Monterrey (1846), and during the war with the United States, was Alderman and Mayor of Chihuahua. He belonged to the Liberal Party although it then joins the conservative.
In the company of other military it ruled against the Constitution proclaimed on December 17, 1857 just on 5 February of that year. Two days later President Ignacio Comonfort published a manifesto, adhering to the rebels in Tacubaya. It is consummated so the famous coup d'etat against the Constitution. On January 11, 1858, under the command of Zuloaga, again to give an opinion, achieving overthrow Comonfort. He held the Presidency on January 23, 1858, but 10 days later, Comonfort defended the Presidency, time that puts freedom in Benito Juárez and other Liberals. Juarez left the city of Mexico to establish the Presidency in Guanajuato and later in Guadalajara. Zuloaga remained in power supported by the Conservatives and within the Third Federal Republic, from January 23 to 24 December 1858, in that, through the Plan of Christmas, he was replaced by the conservative general Manuel Robles Pezuela, who was in power a month, as Miguel Miramón , returned to Zuloaga, who took over for the second time the Presidency from January 24 to February 2, 1859 When that handed power over to Miramon.
On May 9, 1860 published a decree so that it resume the Presidency. A day later, prisoner led Miramon campaigns in the interior of the country. The August 3 this year escaped in León, Guanajuato, and marched to the City of Mexico. The Governing Council did not recognize him as President. Aided by several conservative military, he assumed the Presidency, although only de facto, since he walked in the campaign, from August 13 to December 28, 1862, that concluded the Governments of the third Republic, to prepare the Second Empire which would run from 1863 conservatives.
Félix María Zuloaga died in the City of Mexico on February 13, 18
Biography of Margarita Maza de Juárez
(1826/03/29 - 1871/01/02)Margarita Maza de Juárez
Wife of Benito Juarez
He was born March 29, 1826, in the city of Oaxaca. Daughter of Antonio Maza and Petra Parada, who hosted a native boy who spoke no Spanish. That child was Benito Juárez, who was 20 years older than Margaret. On July 31, 1843, when she had met 17 years and 37, were married. They were parents of 11 children.
In 1853 the general Antonio López de Santa Anna banished to Juarez, and a year later Margarita had to flee, pregnant with six children. He opened a shop in Etla, to keep your home and send money to her husband, exiled in New Orleans, who finally met in Veracruz after being chased by bandits who wanted to kidnap her. During the French intervention organized theater performances to raise funds that would stop hospitals and relatives of the victims of the war. He had to settle in Washington and to the triumph of the Republic returned to Mexico aboard a boat which the United States President put at your disposal.
When Juarez arrives at the Presidency of the Republic, she becomes the First Lady of Mexico and meets their philanthropic duties, despite the hardships of those years.
Margarita Maza de Juárez died on January 2, 1871, in the nation's capital. His name was registered in the Chamber of deputies in 1966.