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Maria Callas… Alessandro Cecchi Paone… David Copperfield… Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit… Biographies Multiposts

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Biographies of famous and historical figures

Encyclopedia of Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Maria Callas
  2. Maria Chiara Carrozza biography
  3. Biography of Alessandro Cecchi Paone
  4. Biography of David Copperfield
  5. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit biography
  6. Peter Falk biography
  7. Biography of Farinelli
  8. B.B. King biography
  9. Biography of Louis XVIII of France
  10. Roy Paci biography
  11. Biography of Pietro Pomponazzi
  12. Biography of Gio Ponti
  13. Mickey Rourke biography
  14. Fabrizio Ruffo biography
  15. Biography of Albert Szent-gyorgyi
  16. Lee Kuan Yew biography

Biography of Maria Callas

The Divine
December 2, 1923
September 16, 1977

Who's Maria Callas?

Maria Callas (born Maria Anna Sofia Cecilia Kalogeropoulos), the undisputed Queen of Opera appealed from time to time as Diva, goddess and divine counterparts, probably was born on 2 December 1923, although his birth is surrounded by substantial mystery (there are those who claims to be the 3 or 4 December). Only certainty, New York City, Fifth Avenue, where his parents lived-Georges Kalogheropoulos and Evangelia Dimitriadis-of Greek origin.
The origin of this confusion about dates is to be found in the fact that apparently the parents, to make up for the loss of his son Vasily, who died during a typhus epidemic in just three years, wanted a boy, so much so that when her mother learned that she had given birth to a girl, for the first few days would not even see her, while his father paid no attention even to register at the registry office.
His childhood was quiet anyway, like many girls her age, although earlier, in just five years, an almost tragic life break: hit by a car in the street in Manhattan, 192ma remained in a coma for 22 days before recovering.
Maria had a six-year-old sister, Jackie called Jakinthy, the family favourite (singular destiny ... Jackie is the nickname of Jacqueline Kennedy, the woman who will take away the companion). Jackie had every privilege, like that to take voice lessons and piano lessons, that Mary had just listening from behind the door. Except that she could learn what the sister learned with much difficulty. Not surprisingly, at the age of eleven, he participated in the radio program "The amateur hour", singing "La Paloma" and won second prize.
Maria a passion for singing, even when the mother after the divorce, decides to return to Greece, taking the girl with him.
In 1937 he entered the Conservatory of Athens and is perfected in the Greek and French. Will be difficult years for the young Callas: the miseries of occupation and fame, and later the conquest, after the war, freedom, a peaceful and prosperous existence finally. The first successes are right in Greece: "Cavalleria Rusticana" as Santuzza and Tosca, then its future workhorse.
Callas did, however, in the heart of New York and, above all, his father, returning to the United States to embrace him and especially for the fear that the American citizen is removed is its primary purpose. Reaches the father: two years will not particularly happy (artistic glories) that Maria Callas will, once again, to "escape". It's on meta, and June 27, 1947 is Italy.
Callas leave the United States "still poor in canna", as she herself said, with $ 50 in his pocket and a few clothes. With her are Luisa Bagarotzy, wife of an American contractor, and vocalist Nicola Rossi-Lemeni. The goal is Verona where Maria Callas would have met her future husband, Giovanni Battista Meneghini, a lover of art and good food. Divided them 37 years apart and Callas, maybe, not loved man who married on April 21, 1949.
The luck to Italy kicking soprano. Verona, Milan, Venice have the privilege to hear his "Mona Lisa", "Tristan and Isolde", "standard", "the Puritans", "Aida", "I Vespri siciliani", "Il Trovatore" and so on. Friendships are born important, fundamental to his career and his life. Antonio Ghiringhelli, Superintendent of the scale, Wally and Arturo Toscanini. The famous conductor remains astonished and amazed by the great soprano voice so much that he wanted to direct it in "Macbeth", but Verdi's masterpiece, unfortunately, was not to scale.
Callas talking about Renata Tebaldi declared: "when we sing the Valkyrie and i Puritani side by side, then you can make a comparison. Until then it would be like comparing Coca Cola champagne ".
New love, new passions come in life (not only) of Callas. He directs Luchino Visconti in Milan in 1954, in "Vestale" of Spontini, Pasolini (which Callas wrote numerous letters to console the Ninetto Davoli), Zeffirelli, Giuseppe di Stefano.
Italy is not the only homeland of choice of the famous soprano. Triumphs and enthusiastic acclaim are followed worldwide. London, Vienna, Berlin, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Paris, New York (Metropolitan), Chicago, Philadelphia, Dallas, Kansas City. Her voice captivates, moves, amazing. Art, gossip and social life are intertwined in the life of Maria Callas.
The 1959 is the year of the break with her husband. Thanks to her friend Elsa Maxwell, American billionaire, knows the Greek shipowner Aristotle Onassis. Their will be a destructive love "ugly and violent" as you called it. Years of passion, of love, luxury and rampant sgretolatezza. A man will suffer a great deal of Callas.
From this Union was born a child, Homer, who lived a few hours, that might have changed the course of their romance.
After the 1964 starts the decline, though perhaps more in the psychological sense that art. Aristotle Onassis leaves her for Jacqueline Kennedy. The news reaches through the newspapers as a terrible blow and from that moment will be a continuous descent into oblivion. His voice begins to lose intensity and enamel, so "la divina" retires from the world and takes refuge in Paris.
September 16, 1977 dies only 53 years. Next to her a Butler and Mary, the faithful housekeeper.
After her death, Maria Callas ' clothes, such as Marguerite Gautier, went up for auction in Paris. She's nothing remains: even the ashes were scattered in the Aegean. However, there is a plaque in his memory at the Pere Lachaise Cemetery in Paris (where they are buried many prominent names in politics, science, performing arts, film and music).
Remains in his voice recordings, which has resulted in a unique way to many characters tragic and unhappy.

Maria Chiara Carrozza biography

September 16, 1965

Who is Maria Chiara Carrozza?

Maria Chiara Carrozza was born on 16 September 19After graduating from the University of Pisa in 1990 and obtained a PhD in engineering at the Sant'Anna School of advanced studies in 1994, in 2001 is guest editor for the magazine, published by IOS Press Technology and Health Care "," Special Issue on Actuators for Artificial Limbs ".
Starting from 2002 is responsible for St. Anne School, under programs, internationalization of the agreements entered into with the Ecole Normale Superiéeure 4 of France for the definition of educational programs of common interest and the exchange of teachers and students; In addition, it is also responsible for the Convention with the Scuola Normale Superiore on the internationalization of the curriculum students. Following is a Visiting Professor at the University of Vienna in 2003: in Austria teaches courses related to Biomechanics (as will the year after in Rome at the Campus Biomedico); in the same year, at the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna of Pisa University and teaches courses in fundamentals of humanoid robotics, design criteria of artificial hands, rehabilitation engineering, neuro-Robotics and biomechatronics, and is guest editor for the scientific journal "Journal of Autonomous Robots" of "Special Issue on Rehabilitation Robotics".
In 2004, the year in which he is associate editor of the journal "International Journal of Human-friendly Welfare Robotic Systems", was elected a member of the Board of Directors of the national group of Bioengineering, in representation of associate professors: will retain office until 20In 2005, however, Maria Chiara Carrozza becomes member of the Scientific Committee of the Centro di Ricerca Matematica "Ennio De Giorgi", and becomes part of the Scientific Committee of the "Limonaia" Association for the diffusion of scientific and technological culture; as Director of the Research Division also becomes President of the Commission and Commission Research patents.
The following year he was guest editor, international journal "IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Special Issue on" Therapeutic Robotics ", and in" Advanced Robotics "," Special Issue on Robotic Platform for Research in Neuroscience; also works with the Organization of the "International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics" of Pisa and the "International Conference of Robotics and Automation".
In 2007 part of the scientific organization of the "International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics" in Nordwijk, the Netherlands, and the International Conference on Robotics Systems IROS "of San Diego, in the United States. On 1 November of that year, Maria Chiara Carrozza was named Rector of the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna.
On 12 September 2008, she was awarded the prize "the Balearics-Warrior pisano", which aims to honour personalities who are dedicated to the enhancement of the traditions and the growth of the city of Pisa. In 2009 is part of the Scientific Committee of the National Conference "and" Robotic Neurorehabilitation of Genoa, while the Palazzo Vecchio Firenze Award "Woman, 18th Edition, to be the youngest Rector of Italy, but also manager, Coordinator and researcher; two years later his pupil Nicholas van Rooyen wins "Massimo Grattarola.
In 2012 Maria Chiara Carrozza receives in Milan in December, the "Eureka", achieved thanks to the work done in the development of exoskeletons and prostheses for personal assistance and rehabilitation.
In 2013 chooses to attempt political adventure, being elected in parliamentary democratic party (leaders in Tuscany) after the elections of February 24 and On 28 April, she was appointed Minister for education, University and research in the new Government by Enrico Letta.
Coordinator of numerous projects related to the upper and lower limbs financed by Regione Toscana, by the Ministry of education and the European Commission, is responsible, within the Institute of Robotics of the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Neuro-robotics.

Biography of Alessandro Cecchi Paone

September 16, 1961

Who is Alessandro Cecchi Paone?

Alessandro Cecchi Paone was born on September 16, 1961 in Rome. Just 16 years television debut presenting a newscast for teenagers on Raiuno. After graduating in 1980, in 1983 he won "a new face for 80 years" contest that allows him to get to "Unomattina". After graduating in political science, in 1985 he moved to Milan and on Raiuno presents primetime "Mister"; the following year conducts "Test", always on the first national network.
In 1991 is the half-figure of the 13 edition of "Tg2": three years later is the first Rai journalist to announce the general election victory of the pole of freedoms, unified networks. In the second half of the nineties Alessandro Cecchi Paone moved to Mediaset where lead "pets" and "Mediterraneo di Ulisse" route.
Then becomes a fixed face Retequattro, thanks to "rendezvous with history" and "the time machine". In 2001, on the occasion of the ceremony Telegatti, argues with the organizers to have inserted his program together with "Quark" and "big brother" in the category "Costume and culture". Then, go to MT Channel Guide satellite channel produced by Mediaset just inspired "the time machine".
For the assayer, Alessandro Cecchi Paone publishes between 2000 and 2002 "the frontiers of space", "Kingdom of the dinosaurs", "A wise man told me" and "Yes global". In addition, for Net writes "graffiti and Internet" and "When Lucy began to walk", while De Agostini gives prints "journey into prehistory" and "on the edge of the universe".
The 2003 is a year full of publications: De Agostini in library "arrive in the ancient Roman world" and "the adventure of the four wheels"; with Einaudi "All in"; with Rizzoli "Odysseus, the hero who invented the Mediterranean"; and Utet "images from the world". In 2004, the year in which he writes for Il Saggiatore "just for love, family and procreation in the global world," Cecchi Paone publicly revealed to be homosexual; running in the same year Italy firmly in European elections, winning preferences not being elected 29mila.
In 2005 Rizzoli publishes "Alexander the great" yesterday and today, Mediolanum Channel and writes and conducts "Alexander. The great achievements of the economy ", in which it proposed the cartoon" Elmo ", whose protagonist-Elmo, of course-has the appearance of Cecchi Paone. After the experience with MT Channel, publish to Marsilio "open face", and starting from September 2006 presents on the talk-Gay.tv reality "Open Space", designed by himself.
In the same year he began working for the University Suor Orsola Benincasa in Naples, where he teaches Writing to documentary production. In January 2007 leave Open space and on Italy 1 presents with Eva Henger "Chance", quiz show that however gets mediocre plays: why Alexander was replaced by Daniele Bossari.
Later, he joined together with Franco Grillini, despite different political faith (Gates comes from the Democrats of the left and the Arcigay; Cecchi Paone to Italy Force, and radicals by Gay Lib), the Socialist constituent Assembly created by Enrico Boselli to reconstitute in the centre-left coalition the Italian Socialist Party. After the experience of Radio Kiss Kiss, where he presented "Klima" News in the fall of 2007 Cecchi Paone is one of the contestants of the fifth edition of "l'isola dei famosi", reality show aired on Raidue: withdraws from the program after little more than a month, claiming to want to leave the opportunity to win one of the famous and not claiming to feel the lack of food and the Internet.
In 2008 she published for Armando Curcio Editore "Odysseus-the hero, man," and back in Rai to present "Scommettiamo che", which however gets audience results below expectations; at the same time Alexander takes the card Italian Republican party, which becomes a National Councillor and member of the Secretariat in 20Also collaborates with "La Voce Repubblicana", for which newspaper edited a book entitled "the party of modernity".
After you have written with Flavio Pagano "the revolt of Gypsies-Auschwitz 1944", published by Mursia, and have been one of the envoys of the "mystery" show in Italy, 1 in 2012 back to participate in "l'isola dei famosi" (now in its ninth edition): is deleted during the sixth episode of the television series the public televoting at home. In the summer of that year, cause a stir his statements on the occasion of the European Football Championship, when he says that in the national team by Cesare Prandelli there are two homosexual players, a bisexual three metrosexual, without revealing their names, however.
Later, Alessandro Cecchi Paone is called to submit to my Yahoo! mail "Time House-the time of science", while on channel 8, Channel 9, Naples Canale21 and Santander Uk is the host of the news program "in unified networks". After you have written with Flavio Charged "the champion in love-naughty games in sport", published by Giunti, where talks about homosexuality in football and sport in 2013 with Paul Stalks for public Piemme "other" reasons.

Biography of David Copperfield

Magical Project
September 16, 1956

Who is David Copperfield?

Became famous not only because of his undoubted ability, but also for being the coolest kid for years fiance of supermodel Claudia Schiffer (although it is rumored that their was a love for advertising purposes), David Cooperfield, with that name that invokes sad stories to Dickens (his real name is David Kotkin more prosaic), is still perhaps the greatest living magician.
Extraordinary, crazy and verging on science fiction were some of his companies, the most famous of which was the staging of the disappearance of the statue of liberty.
Born in New Jersey on September 16, 1956 and equipped with a real and natural talent for staging, whatever it was, he began performing as a young ventriloquist debuting just twelve years as a magician with the stage name "the boy Dabas".
In the us, a land that has known plenty of production, David has no way to show everyone what stuff is done and what are its true potential. In a short time, in fact, unable to win at home thanks to a new way of presenting the prestidigitation.
Copperfield (and therein lies the true, great find) is successful, performing first with the classical repertoire of the magician and then with great illusions, to give a new image, more dynamic and modern magical proposing in his hugely popular American tv special (broadcast worldwide), a sight to 360 degrees in tune with the needs and expectations of an increasingly difficult to astonish and amuse.
It is famous remains the disappearance of the statue of liberty, as well as the number of crossing the great wall of China, hyperbolic performance made during his special recorded in China; or when did levitate and disappear, a Ferrari from 60,000 dollars and his personal jet disappear, or even when a horse disappear levitate and the Orient Express.
In the midst of all these "levitations", one could not be dedicated to itself, and in fact the dark one Copprfield did not hesitate to experiment with yet another trick on himself, even managing to fly (and thus fulfilling a personal dream).
Become a real celebrity, greeted everywhere as the most famous movie star, Copperfield enjoys a wide circle of experts. Collaborators and specialists collaborate with him in the creation of great illusions that then Copperfield presents during his shows and plays. True lover of magic and history of magic (his idol, of course, is the Great Houdini), possesses a huge collection of tools, books and posters of antique magic, belonged to the greatest magicians in history and that preserves in its "International Museum and Library of the Conjuring Arts" at the disposal of the magical world.
Also, for many years necessary supported by specialist doctors and volunteers, Copperfield has, through the Project Magic, fun and easy magic tricks, which teaches children to hospitals to help convalescents in psychomotor rehabilitation and for faster healing. "Project magic" (we could translate it in Italian), is active in more than 1000 hospitals scattered in 30 countries around the world.
Finally, it is important to remember that David Copperfield has been awarded the title of "Magician of the Millennium" by the Presidency of the 21 World Congress of magic (FISM), in a ceremony held in Lisbon.

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit biography

Discussions on the stairs
May 24, 1686
September 16, 1736

Who is Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit?

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit was born in Gdansk (Poland) on May 23, 1686.
Develop a particular skill in the art of glassblowing, dowry that will employ to build scientific equipment.
Maker of scientific instruments in addition to merchant, having travelled in England, France and Germany settles and spends most of his life in the Netherlands, where he deepened the study of physics.
His scientific publications are mostly modest until his fame his fame spread in different European countries for having invented in 1720 a personal system for the manufacture of thermometers. For his discoveries was elected fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1724.
The following years will serve to the study and improvement of his inventions; switch from using alcohol in an item thermometers more accurate (and known today): Mercury.
Fahrenheit also invented a special type of hydrometer.
His name is linked to the thermometric scale widely used in English-speaking countries until the 70 's, and today still officially used in the United States.
At a pressure of 1 atmosphere, the freezing temperature corresponds to the temperature of 32° F (Fahrenheit), while its boiling point shall be assigned the value of 212° f.
In the scale, centigrade or Celsius, introduced by Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius and employed in most countries, the melting point of water is 0° C, the boiling point at 100° c.
The two scales are different for both the values assigned to the freezing point and boiling point of water, both for the number of degrees in which the reference interval is divided: in Fahrenheit the range 32-212° F corresponds to a temperature of 180 degrees on the Celsius scale, while the range 0-100° C corresponds to 100 degrees.
The conversion formula for a temperature expressed in degrees Celsius is representation:
F = (9/5 C) + 32.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit dies at the age of 50 years in the Hague, September 16, 1736.

Peter Falk biography

I have to tell my wife
September 16, 1927
June 23, 2011

Who is Peter Falk?

"Ah!" Columbo, please sit down. " How many times have we seen the pantomime villain on duty and in the telefilm series dedicated to Italian-American COP before swaggering welcomes and confident the pick-ups and then Lieutenant is subjugated by his insinuating ways, pretend naivety and seemingly dreamy air but that actually hides a determination and a pique even sadists?
One thing is certain: Colombo knows how to wear down the nerves of those who identified as potential killers. Needless to say, hardly wrong. Their so cold, so computers and controlled, often beautiful life and lovers of easy success, fall inexorably in front of such a humble Lieutenant, capable of conducting interrogations masquerading as conversation (in which is always mentioned the inevitable, as mysterious, wife), strong of his insights and his strict reasoning.
Was this is now the mimesis of Peter Falk with the character he played, that whenever we met, we expected to feel ask few questions about where we were crossing a line that day than that now.
Instead Peter Michael Falk, actor and producer, was nothing more than a friendly and jovial gentleman, with a great talent for painting, born in New York City on September 16, 1927 and marked by small from a serious eye disease, then removed. From here, that look so quaint that has marked and that some even made his fortune.
Much of his success is due to his determination and his courage. Before starting his career Peter Falk was an anonymous employee of the State of Connecticut: bored from work came to acting. In 1955 he was already a professional actor with a solid theatrical experience on Broadway.
His television debut takes place in 1957 and since that time he took part in numerous tv series, including "The Naked City," "the untouchables," "The twilight zone". Her film debut takes place with "the barbarians" by Nicholas Ray (1958), followed by "Assassin Syndicate" (1960), which won him an Oscar nomination as best supporting actor. But it is the character of Columbo which makes known to the general public. The first episode of the series airs on NBC in 1967 and since then, for more than thirty years the public passion of the small screen.
The series airs continuously for seven years, from 1971 to 1978 but thereafter, given the enormous success and the urgent request of the public, also are filmed films designed specifically for television, many of which are produced by the same Peter Falk.
On the purely cinematic level we find in "invitation to murder mystery dinner" (1976, by Robert Moore with Peter Sellers); He often collaborates with the great Director John Cassavetes ("husbands", 1970, "a wife", 1974, "The great deception", 1985), and in 1988 he took part in the German film that is exhibited "Il cielo sopra Berlino" of then unknown Wim Wenders. A film of great thickness and that constitutes an important reflection on life, but in which we see Peter Falk interpret an Angel as himself-former Angel, with considerable effect alienating. The success paves the way for a new regular series Columbo, which resumed in 1989.
In the following decade, Peter Falk is dedicated more to television, participating in a few feature films, including "the stars" by Robert Altman (1992, with Tim Robbins), "faraway, so close" by Wim Wenders of 1993, where again takes on the character of the former Angel. In 2001, is again a gangster in "Corky Romano" by Rob Pritts.
He married twice, first to Alice from 1960 to 1976 Mayo, with whom he has two adopted daughters, the second to actress Shera Danese, who often joins in the episodes of the series "Columbo". In 2004 Peter Falk has received the Gold Plaque of Ente David di Donatello.
Sick from Alzheimer's 2008, June 23, 2011 goes out at the age of 83 years in his mansion in Beverly Hills.

Biography of Farinelli

January 24, 1705
September 16, 1782

Who is Faith?

Known as Farinelli, Carlo Maria Michelangelo Nicola Broschi was born on 24 January 1705 in Andria (at the time included territory in the Kingdom of Naples) from a wealthy family belonging to the noblesse de robe locally.
Approaches to music as a child, at the invitation of father Salvatore (feudal administrator), which leads him to study singing, while his older brother, Riccardo, studied as a composer.
The famous castration
It is precisely in Riccardo 1717, after his father's death, decides to subject Charles to castration, in order to allow him to keep his voice before inevitably changes resulting from the development of the body.
The name of art
Following the intervention, to Carlo is forced the stage name Farinelli: a pseudonym that is both a diversity index and a symbol that aims to recognize its virtues. The name Faith comes from a family of lawyers and attorneys in Naples, Carlo Farina, who attended as a child, and who is responsible to pay young studies after avoidance.
Studies of aging and the onset on the scene
He is then sent to Naples, where his natural talent of soprano is entrusted to the teachings of Niccolò Porpora: thanks to him, the voice of the young Pascal gets to reach very high peaks (up to C5 in vocalizations) and very low (up to C2, deep contralto).
In 1720, in 15 years, Charles begins in Naples, in "Serenade" Angelica and Medoro, performing alongside Francesco Vitale contralto, Domenico Gizzi (musician of the Royal Chapel soprano) and Marianna Bulgarelli Benti, known as "la Romanina", an evening organized in honor of the Austrian Empire.
Two years later, she made her debut in theatre in Rome, during Carnival season, singing in the drama of Luca Antonio Predieri "Sofonisba" and "Olybrius" purple.
Back to Rome in 1723 and 1724, always for the Carnival Seasons: engages in "Adelaide" and purple "Farnace" by Leonardo Vinci, both dramatic productions. In the following years, he returns to the scene in Rome, but also debuts in Vienna, Milan, Venice and Bologna. Right here in 1727 feeds the challenge with another important, Italian castrato Antonio Bernacchi: challenge however honest, to the point that the same Bernacchi, far older opponent, spares no advice and suggestions to the competitor.
England and musical composition
After being spotted by Johan Joachim Quantz, Farinelli in 1730 he joined the Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna. Four years later he moved to London, where he has the opportunity to sing, among other things, at Lincoln's Inn Fields at the Opera of the nobility conducted by purple. Meanwhile, sounds (viola d'amore and keyboard instruments) and devoted himself to composition (write, for example, the music and the text "Goodbye London").
Remains in England for three years, with a growing reputation that leads him to earn more than 5,000 pounds. There are, however, problems, as the rivalry with the theatrical group, George Frideric Handel, supported by King George II, it is also because of the hassles in respect of such rivalry in 1737 he decides to abandon Britain.
Farinelli in Spain
He moved to Spain at the invitation of Philip V's wife, Elisabeth Farnese. Faith is called the Court of the Iberian monarchy to revive the King, suffering from neurasthenia, and now autoesiliatosi in private life, away from the Affairs of State: well, Charles-according to legend-thanks to her voice manages to revive the spirit of Philip V, to the point where the latter decides not to leave leave the singer, "forced" to perform every day in the same eight or nine Arias , starting from "pale sun" from "Artaxerxes" by Johann Adolf Hasse.
Faith, then, becomes familiar Spanish kings criado, salaried with 2,000 ducati but with the obligation of not being able to sing in front of other people.
With the accession of Ferdinand VI, the honors are not limited, but rather increase: the artist of Andria is named Knight of Calatrava, thus obtaining the highest charge meant until then, noble gentlemen only.
By virtue of its strong influence on the Court, moreover, Farinelli is committed to facilitate the reclamation of the banks of the Tagus, but also to have an Italian opera.
Inundated with gifts, respected, loved and honored, Farinelli spends a heyday, embellished by the collaboration with the Neapolitan Domenico Scarlatti: that period runs out, however, in 1759, when he was dismissed by the new King Charles III, worried by its excessive restraint influence.
The return in Italy
Faith, therefore, decides to return to Bologna, where he goes to live in a huge mansion outside Porta Lame: here-in later years-receives numerous visits by important personalities, including Joseph II of Austria and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, but also suffers from loneliness. Farinelli died in Bologna at the age of 77 years on 16 September 1782.
In 1994 the Belgian Director Gerard Corbiau said the life of an opera singer in the film "Farinelli" (starring Stefano Dionisi).

B.B. King biography

The Blues as a constant of life
September 16, 1925
May 14, 2015

Who is BB King?

Riley King, real name for b. b. King was born in Itta Bena, Mississippi (in a cotton plantation), the September 16, 1925, by a father accompanying guitarist mother preacher of sermons in the Methodist Church. This is a typical situation for many American blues and jazz musicians, an imprint of "existential" typical of the development of blues music. In fact, it is thanks to these stimuli that the young musician starts singing with her mother, who dies but unfortunately when he was just seven years old. Raised by his grandparents, he received his first guitar at fourteen and it begins to sing in Gospel groups in neighbouring countries and also during their military service in 1944 played in Memphis.
During this period he met a cousin, a well-known bluesman called "Bukka White". Then starts to avviciniarsi the world of black music, though his beginnings in show business they see behind a radio console as a conductor in a local radio station. This is where he begins calling himself "Riley King, the boy from beale street blues", then by adopting the pseudonym Blues Boy, which will soon become only b. b. King.
Decommissioned the "Dj", his career as a guitarist began playing on street corners. Thanks to the support of his cousin Bukka White manages to get noticed and, in 1948, performing in a radio show with Sonny Boy Williamson. Since then begins to get fixed engagements here and there, you will impress anyone who can hear his music.
50 's is the famous episode in which B.B. inextricably linked the name of his guitar "Lucille". During an exhibition in a heated room by flames improvised a Kerosene stove, two men begin fighting over a woman, Lucille precisely. During the fight that breaks out, catches fire, all fled, but b. b. back inside to retrieve their instrument that bears the name since then.
His first hit "Three o'clock Blues", led him to be known nationally and since then his concert activity becomes almost frenzied. As a result also of emergence of blues in the United States as in Europe, the success of B.B. crosses national borders until it, in 1967, to perform at the Montreux Jazz Festival.
Artists who claim b. b. King among their main influences do not count: Eric Clapton, Mike Bloomfield, Albert Collins, Buddy Guy, Freddie King, Jimi Hendrix, Otis Rush, Johnny Winter, Albert King and many others and there is no blues guitarist, famous or unknown, that do not have some of the phrasing in the repertoire "maestro".
Over the years countless awards come from Grammy Awards many prizes related to the world of music and art. In 1996, it published his autobiography, "Blues All Around Me".
Until the end of his life b. b. King was one of the most respected and followed in the music scene. Even amid a thousand influences, compromises, concessions to the world of entertainment, you can't deny the fact of having led the blues to a vast audience and helping with her figure to the success of this musical genre. A beautiful statement says: "many nights passed, travelling from one city to another without pause, for over 50 years. I recorded many discs, I had, like everyone else, good times and some bad, but the Blues has always been the constant in my life. I have lost the excitement for other things, but not for the Blues. It's been a long, hard and difficult path, the road's nightlife is certainly not a healthy and beautiful, full of goodbyes and solitude, but also capable of great excitement; I could go back I would do the same thing, because with everything that is was my life. "
He died at the age of 89 years in Las Vegas, on May 14, 2015.

Biography of Louis XVIII of France

A weak referee
November 17, 1755
September 16, 1824

Who is Louis XVIII of France?

Louis, count of Provence, he was born at Versailles on November 17, 1755 from Dauphin of France Louis Ferdinand, son of Louis XV, and Marie-Josèphe of Saxony. On May 14, 1771 married Mary Josephine Louise of Savoy, daughter of King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain and sister of Maria Theresa, wife of his brother Charles X, but no children are born of the marriage.
Enemy of the revolution, two years after the storming of the Bastille flees from Paris and repairs to Hamm, Westphalia. Died on the guillotine by his brother Louis XVI on January 21, 1793, assumes the title of Regent, however, recognised by Catherine II of Russia, and proclaims the son of the beheaded King, the unfortunate little Louis XVII, in addition to appoint Lieutenant General the other brother, Charles, count of Artois. Even the Louis XVII died on 8 June 1795, he claims the throne, while remaining in exile, taking the name of Louis XVIII.
In the years that followed he works at his accession to the throne by visiting European diplomacy: is host of the father-in-law King Victor Emmanuel III, King of Sardinia, the Republic of Venice, Russia's Tsar Paul and the United Kingdom. But only the May 2, 1814, after the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte, in Paris, will take possession of the throne and start the Bourbon Restoration. Will follow the so-called pause "hundred days", between the flight of Bonaparte from Elba and the definitive defeat of Waterloo, during which the King fled to Ghent, in the Netherlands, before returning to full membership on the throne of France, invoked by the Senate and by the marshals.
Initially adopts a liberal policy, granting of a Constitution (called "octroyée", that is granted by the ruler and not voted by Parliament); getting rid of the Blacas, Prime Minister too nostalgic of the "Ancien Regime"; retaining some Napoleonic reforms and administrative and military personnel used by the emperor.
Louis also strives to put a stop to the reaction of extremists monarchists who would erase any trace of the revolution, and they become responsible for massacres among Republicans, true Liberals and bonapartists, especially following the murder of their leading representative and heir to the throne, the Duke of Berry, took place on February 14, 18It's the infamous period of "white terror", thus remembered for cruelty of the massacres perpetrated in the name of French reaction.
Thanks to the diplomacy of Richelieu, in 1818 Minister manages to steal the France to the control that the old antinapoleonica Coalition continues to exert on it, which means regaining the confidence in Europe and acceptance between the powers of the continent. The last brilliant company of Luigi is military intervention in Spain of 1823, carried out on behalf of the Holy Alliance, which frees the King Ferdinand IV from captivity of the Liberals over the throne reintegrandolo.
Turns off the following year, on September 16, 1824, in Paris, at the age of 69 years.
Despite having played a dynamic and capable of adapting to change, acting as referee between the royalist radicalism and liberal and constitutional forces, its action was still inadequate compared to the overwhelming momentum of revolutionary principles and now permeate the whole of Europe.
His reign marked the beginning of the decline of the French monarchy: will Charles X, his brother and successor, to suffer and witness the fall with the revolution of July 1830.

Roy Paci biography

Zingaro in Sicily
September 16, 1969

Who is Roy Paci?

Rosario P, better known as Roy Paci, born in Augsburg, in the province of Syracuse, Sicily, on 16 September 19Trumpeter, arranger, composer and Italian especially appreciated for its latin-jazz sounds and for life with the formation of a contamination Aretuska musical lives and follow not only at national level.
Rosario's first love, child with ear already developed is the piano. Soon, however, as early as 1979, when just 10 years, discovers his true vocation: the trumpet. It is in this period that the young future leader Roy Aretuska, participates in his country band. In three years, bolstered by a clearly above-average talent, becomes the principal trumpet of the national ensemble. At the same time, starts playing with some traditional jazz formations, such as "Hot Jazz Orchestra" of Augsburg and the "New Royal Big Band".
The formations have a footprint very linked to the Sicilian territory, despite the swing always dominant, and this allows the little Roy Paci to familiarize themselves with the various languages of music understanding in its wildest contaminations, also with a kind of audience, frequenter of jazz clubs. Rosario P therefore, during this brief apprenticeship with Sicilian formations, running the best Italian jazz club, becoming, so to speak, the bones.
In 1986 he met and began working with saxophonist Stefano Maltese, which introduced him to the musical directions. Join the Septet "As Sikilli", taking part in several national not only Festival, turning the squares and the most important jazz festival.
The 1990 is the year of change. Little Roy in his early twenties he moved to South America in search of a maturity and musical growth and composition that will prove to be very important.
He joined the Big Band of "Argentina" and simultaneously take part in cumbia ensemble. He performs alongside Selma Reis, Brazilian popular music and form the "T-Rio Blanco", playing with Jorge Accaraz and Angel Varela, in Montevideo, Uruguay.
Strong Latin American experience, decides to invest their knowledge in Africa and the Canary Islands. Pope Matelot, calls him Sabow in its formation of makossa.
On his return to Italy, resuming with Stefano Maltese music, but above all discovers the ska, which now begins to contaminate, strong sounds learned during his long apprenticeship and dashing around the world.
In 1994 Roy Paci leads the experimental project "acme Rosariosa project", presenting it to 19° Junior Jazz Festival in Krakow, as the only Italian group. Comes in fourth place and with some musicians who accompanied him in this adventure, thereupon, gives life to the "Caravane de Ville", with whom he won the Rockontest di Firenze, also in 1994.
Always this lucky 1994 binds to most famous "Mau Mau", which will be critical for him.
Ethnic festivals are those in which mostly performs, from Spain to BAM "Paleo" Swiss, until Midem, in France. With bassist Fred Casadei, who will follow him in, Aretuska also the duo "H", improvisation, in which live music licenses for silent films and B-movies.
Meanwhile, as an arranger and trumpeter, is disputed in many projects, both during live recording. Since 1996 is constantly on the scene, taking part in initiatives such as that of George Carlin, playing with Cristina Zavalloni, the Africa United and Il parto delle nuvole pesanti, historical Italian band.
Begins to appear also in the theatre, and in 1998 Ivano Fossati wants him in the project "trade almost telepathic," with actress Elisabetta Pozzi. The publishing house Einaudi, soon makes a book with dvd very appreciated by the audience.
With the friend of the "Mau Mau", Fabio Barovero, 1998 P launches a research work of great interest that reveals itself only in its kind. It's called "Banda Ionica and collects the most important funeral marches in the South of Italy. Join the "Persiana Jones", ska, alternative education with which he recorded three albums.
In 1999, Roy Paci meets Manu Chao, who wants him for his highly successful "Proxima Estacion ... Esperanza ". The Sicilian trumpeter accompanies him in the triumphant world tour of Radio Bemba, then play with another Spanish education, Macaco, captained by Dani El Mono Loco. With them comes the album "Rumbo Submarino".
The 2000 though, is another turning point, because the musician of Augusta, gives life to his most beloved project, what brought his name around the world, representing the ska and latin jazz Italian. The "Roy Paci & Aretuska": training young talent, led by bravo and well-versed trumpeter.
The following year, arrives for the first disc, entitled "Kiss Hands": a mixture of rock 'n' steady, ska, soul, funk and Mediterranean. And, in 2002, the tour of the new band from Rosario Paci, with more than one hundred concerts in Europe. Fawcett then, countryman, wants him on tv for his new program: "Stasera pago io". Meanwhile, Roy creates a new single, entitled "Cantu siciliano", and begins to be seen especially on MTV and All Music Network.
The 2003 is the year of "," second album Tuttapposto signed Roy Paci & Aretuska "". With them, as special guest, there are also Tony Scott and Chicco Montefiori. With his band, Roy Paci plays throughout Europe. Also in 2003, Leonardo Pieraccioni wants a special soundtrack for his film "Il paradiso all'improvviso" and P and make him a Aretuska special version of the song "Besame mucho". Meanwhile, take part in the FestivalBar and Roy won the "Premio Carosone".
In 2004 comes out then "Corleone", who want to discover, once again, the Sicilian tradition, however renewing it sonically and "contaminating" it with other types of music. At the same time affects the album "Wei-wu-wei" and "word of honor", the first with a new formation, the second with Aretuska. Then, she took part in the program by Piero Chiambretti, "Markette," aired on La7.
Meanwhile, collaborations and multiply jobs. During this time and for an additional five years and beyond, Roy Paci performs with important figures of Italian music and from Samuele Bersani European to Vinicio Capossela, through Eric Mingus, Enrico Rava and Nicola Arigliano, ending with Tony Levin and Subsonica.
In June 2007, after three albums, Roy Paci & Aretuska produce "Suonoglobal". The disc contains some important duets like those that Roy realizes with Manu Chao and with Pau Negrita. On the album, he also plays with Caparezza and Sud Sound System. The single driving force is "Toda Joia Toda Beleza", which becomes the soundtrack of summer.
The following year, in a special disc, celebrating ten years of the project, titled "Bestiario siciliano", there is the song "Defendemos la Alegria", which became the ending theme of the popular tv show "Zelig" 2008 Edition.
In May 2010, then comes "Latinist", driven by "Bonjour Bahia". The work is produced in Brazil, Morro de São Paulo, but is recorded at Lecce, Roy Paci studies. With him, the disc, there are even Lorenzo "Jovanotti" and CapaRezza. His tour comes right in the Usa, with stops in New York and Los Angeles.

Biography of Pietro Pomponazzi

Who wants to find the truth and heretic
September 16, 1462
May 18, 1525

Who is Pietro Pomponazzi?

The philosopher Pietro Pomponazzi was born in Mantua on September 16, 1462 to a noble family. 22 he enrolled at the University of Padua, where he attended the lectures of metaphysics of Dominican Francis Securo from Nardò; He also attended medical school with Peter Riccobonella and natural philosophy under Peter Trapolino; He graduated in arts in 1487.
Also called Panda for his diminutive stature, from 1488 to 1496 is Professor of philosophy at Padua, where always Meanwhile continued to study coming to graduate in medicine in 14Here he published the treatise "De maximo et minimo", criticizing the theories of William Heytesbury.
The following year in Carpi to teach logic at the Court of Prince Alberto Pio of Carpi; When he is exiled in Ferrara, Pomponazzi followed him, remaining with him until 14Meanwhile, Cornelia Dondi in 1497 wedding in Mantua, with whom he has two daughters.
In 1499 takes the place of the late Nicoletto Vernia, Professor of philosophy at Padua.
Widowed in 1507 remarried with Ludovica di Montagnana.
In 1590 the League of Cambrai in the war with the Venetian Republic occupies the city of Padova, but captured from Venice a month later: consequently the unrest drove the lectures are suspended. Pomponazzi with other teachers, left the city and moved to Ferrara, where he was invited by Alfonso I d'Este to teach in the University. This closed in 1510, he moved to Mantua until 1511; the following year at the University of Bologna.
Widowed for the second time, married with Adriana della Scrofa.
In his bolognese period he wrote his most important works, the "Tractatus de immortalitate animae, De fato and De incantationibus", plus reviews of the works of Aristotle, preserved thanks to notes of his students.
The "Tractatus de immortalitate animae" (1516): scandal in the work arouses the philosopher argues that the immortality of the soul cannot be proven rationally. Attacked from all sides, the book was publicly burned in Venice. Ambrose Fiandino, Augustinian philosopher, Pomponazzi complaint for heresy: only the intervention of Cardinal Pietro Bembo allows the mantovano to avoid the end.
In 1518 comes a condemnation from Pope Leo X who calls to retract its Pomponazzi thesis. Pomponazzi is not portrayed, indeed defends himself with his "apology" of 1518 and "Defensorium adversus Augustinum" 1519 Niphum, a response to "libellus" De immortalitate Agostino Nifo, arguing the distinction between truths of faith and truth of reason.
These facts prevent Pomponazzi publish two works that had already completed in 1520: "De causis effectuum naturalium sive de incantationibus and the" Libri quinque, de fato de libero arbitrio et de praedestinatione ", published posthumously later between 1556 and 1557.
Corrects and save his Theology front and released "De nutrition et augmentatione" (1521), the "De partibus animalium" (1521) and "De sensu" (1524).
Sick, with severe kidney stones, the Testament in 1524: died in Bologna on May 18, 15According to Antonio Brocard and Ercole Strozzi, his pupils, Pietro Pomponazzi would die by taking his life.

Biography of Gio Ponti

High artistic paternity
November 18, 1891
September 16, 1979

Who is Gio Ponti?

Gio Ponti (Giovanni), renowned designer and milanese architect, was born in Milan on November 18, 18After interrupting his studies due to the call to arms during the first world war, he graduated in architecture in 1921 from the Politecnico di Milano.
Initially opened a studio together with the architect Emilio Lancia (1926-1933), then collaborates with engineers Antonio Fornaroli and Eugenio Soncini.
In 1923 Gio Ponti takes part in the biennial of Decorative Arts in Monza; then is involved in the organisation of the various degree programs that take place at Monza and Milan.
Starts 20 years design activity at the Richard Ginori ceramics industry: bridges reworks altogether industrial design strategy of the company. Ceramics wins the "Grand Prix" at the Paris Exposition of 19In these same years he also began an editorial activities: in 1928 he founded the magazine "Domus" magazine that does not abandon, except a brief period during World War II.
"Domus" along with "beautiful House" will be the center of the cultural debate of Italian design and architecture of the second half of the twentieth century.
The activity of Gio Ponti in the years ' 30 extends further: organize in 1933 the fifth triennale in Milan, designed the sets and costumes for La Scala Theatre, participates in the ADI (industrial design Association) and is among the supporters of the "compasso d'Oro" sponsored by the La Rinascente department store. During this period receives numerous awards both nationally and internationally.
Universal Designer, after many different objects in various fields-from stage sets, lamps, chairs, kitchen objects, interiors of famous ocean liners, up to peacocks, an espresso machine from bar-in 1936 he was offered a professorship at the Faculty of architecture of the Politecnico of Milan, a position he held until 1961.
Along with Fornaroli, in 1951 he joined the studio the architect Alberto Rosselli; Meanwhile, as design Gio Ponti's architecture are increasingly abandoning the innovative frequent references to the past. This is to be considered as the period of most intense and artistically fruitful Bridges activity: negli anni ' 50 will be realized in fact his most important works. One example is the second building to the offices of Montecatini (1951) and the Pirelli Tower (1955-1958) in Milan. The 120 meters high of the latter-built around a central structure designed by Pierluigi Nervi-make the "Pirellone" (as they used to call it the Milanese) one of the reinforced concrete skyscrapers highest in the world.
60 's are the churches of San Francesco (1964) and San Carlo (1967). 1970 's the Cathedral of Taranto.
Gio Ponti died in Milan on September 16, 1979.

Mickey Rourke biography

September 16, 1956

Who is Mickey Rourke?

Philip Andre Rourke, Jr. is the real name of Mickey Rourke, actor and former professional Boxer.
Mickey Rourke nace in Schenectady, Eastern County, State of New York, on September 16, 1956.
It was an interpreter of dramatic roles in films, action and thriller.
He practiced boxing in his youth and had a brief stint by professional Boxer in years ' 90.
Because of his wild life, his film career was uneven. Over the years, her roles were mostly those of outcast antihero rough and lonely character.
During the 80 's became an icon along with the sex-symbol actress Kim Basinger in the film "9 and a half weeks" (1986, by Adrian Lyne).
He returned to prominence in 2009 thanks to the starring role in the movie "The Wrestler" (Marisa Tomei): the film won the Golden Lion at the 65th Venice International Film Festival and for his beautiful interpretation, Mickey Rourke received his first Golden Globe and an Oscar nomination for best actor.

Fabrizio Ruffo biography

Church leader
September 16, 1774
December 13, 1827

Who is Fabrizio Ruffo?

Fabrizio Ruffo dei duchi di Bagnara, descendant and Baranello the Princes Ruffo di Calabria and, for mother, the equally noble Colonna family, was born in San Lucido in Calabria, September 16, 17In Rome he devoted himself to religious studies at Tommaso Cardinal Ruffo, his uncle, who entrusts his Secretary John Bankhead. Between the two creates a relationship of mutual respect and when Braschi becomes Pope Pius VI called him to the post of Clerk of the Board of the Apostolic Chamber (a sort of Ministry), then naming Treasurer General of the same room.
In this phase takes on important initiatives Fabrizio Ruffo in favor of free market and against the petty regulations, also supporting the economic reclamation of the Pontine marshes: daring challenges, for the time, that would jeopardize the social balance and ancient privileges, and thus bring the hostility of landowners creating serious embarrassment to the Pope.
Pius VI then think well of naming Cardinal, in 1794, but lifting it from every other Office. Resentful, as well as disappointed, moved to Naples and became a very good friend and Adviser of Ferdinand IV, who entrusted him with the Superintendence of the colony of San Leucio, Caserta. In 1798 he shares the fate of the King and of his wife Maria Carolina fled to Palermo while Napoli in January 1799, falls into the hands of the French and local conspirators shall establish the Neapolitan Republic.
But the cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo did not lose heart and Ferdinand IV of provide you with minimal means for forming an army to drive the reconquest of the Kingdom of the Mainland. Obtained as required, with the appointment of Lieutenant General of the King at the head of the expedition and landed near Reggio Calabria. Takes contact with anti-French rebels revolt fomentandoli: thus manages to coagularli-along with entire bands of brigands among whom the notorious FRA ' Diavolo, and then Mammone, Pronio, scarf, Guarriglia-around his small army that soon it enlarges to 25,000 men becoming, under the Bourbon and flags of the Church, the "army of the Holy faith".
Thanks to the network of parishes and religious institutions across the territory reconquered Calabria and Basilicata, and French troops from Naples because of rain in Northern Italy, on June 13, at the head of his sanfedisti, Ruffo enters the City faced stiff resistance from Republicans.
On June 19, when a few pockets of resistance remain, reluctant to predictable reprisals by the Bourbon King, offer them safety in return for surrender. But the Pact is violated-against his wishes and despite his attempts to understand the inappropriateness, even politics, to sow more terror-by Horatio Nelson and Ferdinand IV, establishing instead a brutal string of arrests, convictions and executions.
Describes the facts the historian Pietro Colletta, in his "history of the Kingdom of Naples", published posthumously by Capponi in 1834: "... The winners raced over to the vanquished: who was not of the Holy faith, Warrior or plebeian, met, was killed; then the bruttate squares and streets with corpses and blood; the honest, fugitives or hidden; the RAD, armed and daring; fights between these for sold or income; cries, moans: closed the Forum, vote the churches, the deserted streets or populated areas in turmoil ... ", and again:" With so many deaths throughout Italy and the world ended the year 1799 ... ".
Outraged and sincerely pained, in October of the same year, Fabrizio Ruffo leave Naples. It will return there fifteen years later, but to pursue his studies. Here goes the December 13, 1827, at the age of 83 years.

Biography of Albert Szent-gyorgyi

Not only does vitamin C
September 16, 1893
October 22, 1986

Who is Albert Szent-gyorgyi?

Albert von Szent-gyorgyi de Nagyrápolt September 16, 1893 was born in Budapest (Hungary). Hungarian physiologist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine in 1937, thanks to the discovery of vitamin C and related reactions of the citric acid cycle. Outside the medical and scientific field was active in the Hungarian Resistance during World War II, and also to politics after the war.
Albert's father, Nicolaus von Szent-gyorgyi was a landowner born in Marosvásárhely (now Târgu Mureş, Romania) of ancient origins Calvinist; Stephanie, Catholic mother, came from a family of professors of Anatomy, with three generations of scientists. In addition to the scientific preparation, even the music was a passion important in home of Albert: his mother was about to become an opera singer (she auditioned for Gustav Mahler), and his father was a very good pianist.
Albert Szent-Gyorgyi began his studies at the Semmelweis University in 1911, but soon gets bored in the theoretical lessons so starts to conduct research in the laboratory of Anatomy of his uncle's property. His studies are interrupted in 1914 when he served as a military doctor in the army during World War I. In 1916, disgusted by the war, says he was wounded by enemy fire and is sent home. Ending his medical training earning a degree in 1917.
In the same year he marries Kornelia Demeny, daughter of a Hungarian General (first of four wives who will have during her lifetime). Returned to work as a doctor for the army, is sent-together with Cida, who follows him-in the North of Italy.
After the war, Albert Szent-Györgyi began his research career in Pressburg (now Bratislava, capital of Slovakia). In the years following change destination several times, turning to universities, finishing at the Dutch University of Groningen, where his work focuses on the chemistry of cellular respiration. In this context, receive an invitation to join the Rockefeller Foundation, the American University of Cambridge. Here he received his Ph.d. in 1927, thanks to his work of what was then called "hexuronico acid" from adrenal gland tissue.
In 1930 accepts a position at the University of Szeged, one of the most important universities in his country. In search of Szent-gyorgyi and his assistant Joseph Svirbely, is detected as "hexuronico acid" was actually vitamin C, studying its anti-scorbutic activity.
In some experiments the scientists even used paprika as the basis for their vitamin c.
Scurvy is a disease virtually eradicated now, but before Szent-gyorgyi research (and Charles Glen King) and the subsequent industrial production of vitamin C, it was a very dangerous disease and feared; It was especially the terror of sailors, consuming only stored food during long crossings, suffered from this mysterious illness that caused your teeth fall out, swelling the bone ends, reopen wounds and falling prey to fever and apathy.
Also during this period, Szent-gyorgyi continues his work on cellular respiration, identifying fumaric acid and other items in what would become known as the Krebs cycle. In Szeged also meets the Zoltán Bay physicist, who becomes his friend. Later will work together in the field of bio-physics.
Albert Szent-gyorgyi in 1937 received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion process with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid". Three years later, in 1940, donates all the money received with the Nobel Prize to Finland: Hungarian volunteers had traveled and fought in the winter war for Finns, after the Soviet invasion in 1939.
In 1938 the scientist had started working on Biophysics of muscle movement. Turns out that muscles contain actin, which, combined with the protein myosin and with the energy source ATP, contract muscle fibers.
Just the fascist political groups take control of politics in Hungary, Szent-Gyorgyi strives to help his friends Jews to flee the country. During World War II he joined the Hungarian resistance movement. Although Hungary was allied with the axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan), Hungarian Prime Minister Miklós Kállay send Szent-gyorgyi in Cairo in 1944, apparently for a scientific conference-to launch secret negotiations with the allies. The Germans learned of this plot, and Adolf Hitler issues an arrest warrant for Szent-gyorgyi. The Hungarian escapes from house arrest and spent the period from 1944 to 1945 as a fugitive, trying to keep away from the Gestapo.
After the war, Szent-Györgyi is recognized by all as a public figure, much like someone would want President of Hungary. Meanwhile, the establishment of a laboratory at the University of Budapest and here becomes head of the Department of biochemistry. In politics he was elected as member of Parliament: in this position helps to restore the Academy of Sciences. Dissatisfied by the Hungarian Communist regime in 1947 emigrated to United States.
At the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, creates the "Institute for muscle research", thanks to the financial support of the Hungarian businessman Stephen Rath. However, Szent-Györgyi faces economic difficulties for several years, because of his status as a foreigner and his past political activities within a Government of a communist nation.
In 1948 he obtained a position as a researcher at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland; He divides his time between the NIH and Woods Hole. In 1950 the grants from the Armour Meat Company and the American Heart Association allow him to give new life to the "Institute for muscle research".
During the 1950 Szent-Györgyi began using electron microscopes to study muscles at the molecular level. After receiving the Lasker Award the year before, in 1955 in effect becomes a u.s. citizen. In 1956 may thus become a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
At the end of 1950, Szent-gyorgyi is dedicated to cancer research, developing some ideas on how to apply the theories of quantum mechanics to the biochemistry of cancer. The death of Stephen Rath, who had acted as Chief Financial Officer of the Institute for muscle research leave Szent-gyorgyi in a financial disaster. Szent-gyorgyi refuses to submit accounts to the Government, which imposes to provide exact details on how he plans to invest the money in research and what to expect. In 1971, following an interview with a newspaper in which Szent-Györgyi speaks of its financial difficulties, the Attorney Franklin Salisbury contacts to help him create a private body: non-profit National Foundation for cancer research.
Despite his advanced age, Szent-Györgyi began studying free radicals as a potential cause of cancer. The scientist comes to understand that cancer is ultimately an electronic problem at the molecular level.
Albert Szent-gyorgyi dies Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on October 22, 1986, at the age of 93 years.

Lee Kuan Yew biography

September 16, 1923

Who is Lee Kuan Yew?

Born in Singapore on September 16, 1923 Lee Kuan Yew became the first Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore, serving from 1959 to 19It was also the main protagonist politician who led the August 9, 1965 to the independence of Singapore from Malaysia.
Lee Kuan Yew was educated in Cambridge at the Fitzwilliam College and after his graduation he started pushing on the British Government for the independence of the small island. She sat at the head of a party, the PAP, the popular action Party, which won the first elections.
Theoretician of the principle of "Asian values" project of Lee Kuan Yew was to join the Malaya and form, from the Union of the two States, Malaysia. This marriage took place two years later but Singapore was expelled from Malaysia because of race riots that took place in Singapore.
During Goh Chok Tong's Government, second Prime Minister, from 1990 to 2004 was Lee Kuan Yew Senior Minister.
From 2004 to 2011 has held the position of Minister mentor under his son Lee Hsien Loong, third Prime Minister.

Sources: Biografieonline.it

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