Niels Bohr… Heinrich Himmler… Edgar Allan Poe… Vladimir Putin… Biographies Multiposts

Biographies of famous and historical figures

Encyclopedia of Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Niels Bohr
  2. Biography of Canaletto
  3. Biography of Bernardo Caprotti
  4. Biography of Augusto Daolio
  5. Lapo Elkann's Biography
  6. Biography of Natalia Ginzburg
  7. Biography of Heinrich Himmler
  8. Mario Lanza biography
  9. Biography of Federico Pizzarotti
  10. Biography of Edgar Allan Poe
  11. Biography of Anna Politkovskaya
  12. Biography of Vladimir Putin
  13. Biography of Mimmo Rotella
  14. Biography of Desmond Tutu

Biography of Niels Bohr

How many Atomic models
7 October 1885
November 18, 1962

Who was Niels Bohr?

Niels Henrik David Bohr was born in Copenhagen on 7 October 18The future physicist, studied at the University of Copenhagen, where his father manages the Chair of Physiology (and where his brother Harald becomes Professor of mathematics). He graduated in 1909, then complete his doctorate with a thesis on the theories of the passage of particles through matter.
In the same year he travels from Cambridge University to study nuclear physics at the famous Cavendish Laboratory, directed by j. j. Thompson, but due to strong theoretical divergences with the latter, it passes soon in Manchester where he started working with Rutherford, focusing primarily on the activity of radioactive elements.
In 1913 introduced the first draft of "his" Atomic model, which is based on Max Planck's discoveries concerning the "how much" action, providing a decisive contribution to the development of quantum mechanics, all driven by the discovery of his "Mentor" Rutherford, the atomic nucleus.
In 1916 Bohr is called at the University of Copenhagen as Professor of physics, and in 1921 he became Director of the Institute of theoretical physics (which will remain in charge until his death), and made important studies on the foundations of quantum mechanics, studying the composition of the nuclei, their aggregation and disintegration, thereby justifying the processes of transition.
In 1922 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics, in recognition of the work accomplished in the field of quantum physics; during the same period also provides its representation of the atomic nucleus, representing it in the shape of a drop, hence the name of the theory of "Liquid droplet".
When in 1939 the Nazi-occupied Denmark, takes refuge in Sweden is to avoid arrest by the police of Germany, passing then to England, settling finally in the United States, where it lay for nearly two years, following the same process of scientists such as Fermi, Einstein and others. Here he collaborated to the Manhattan project, aimed at creating an atomic bomb, until the explosion of the first aircraft, in 1945.
After the war Bohr returned to teach at the University of Copenhagen, where is committed to promote the peaceful exploitation of Atomic Energy and a reduction in the use of atomic weapons with potential.
He was one of the founders of CERN, in addition to being the President of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences.
On his death on November 18, 1962, its body is buried in Assistens Kirkegard in Norrebro area in Copenhagen. His name is a table element chemistry of Mendeleev, Bohrium, present among the transuranic elements with atomic number 107.

Biography of Canaletto

7 October 1697
19 April 1768

Who is Canaletto?

Giovanni Antonio Canal, known as Canaletto, the painter who was able to give to the international landscape painting a cut enough to be appreciated throughout the world. The nickname "Canaletto" occurs from 1726 in letters, but is from 1740 that uses it for good.
Canaletto was born in Venice on 17 December 1697 in the parish of San Lio from a Venetian family of the bourgeoisie. The Father Bernardo has a painting studio of stage sets. Right here with his brother Christopher learns the basics and learn to paint stage decorations for the staging of plays in Venice. Canaletto in 1718-1720, together with his father and brother, he moved to Rome to perform scenes from two plays by Alessandro Scarlatti.
This trip is important because it makes contact with the landscape painting: Viviano Codazzi and Giovanni Ghisolfi with painting of ruins, Sweerts, Van Lear, Miel, Cequozzi, Giovanni Paolo Panini with fantastic views of Roman Antiquities and Gaspar Van Wittel to the Dutch landscape painting. Returning to Venice, Canaletto take relations with the city's landscape painters like Luca Carlevarijs and Marco Rossi starting to paint full time.
Between 1722 and 1723 works for the future Consul and patron English Joseph Smith with jobs going to embellish the residences in England. In the period 1725-1726 is hired by Irish impresario Owen McSwiney. From here on out contact with the English-speaking world is critical to Canaletto's Venetian Rococo direction in the environment, both for the new market.
In the 1930s the first mediators with Britain McSwiney and Anton Maria Zanetti old are replaced by Joseph Smith exclusively. The subjects painted passing from views of San Marco, Rialto Canal in whims with Roman ruins, hills and vistas. War of the Austrian succession from 1740 to Canaletto's market shrinks due to non-arrival of the English visitors, so in 1746 decides to go to London with a letter of introduction to the Duke of Richmond, already a client of the master. However, two ads in the Daily Adversiter dispel the initial diffidence.
Passed this stage include many noble requiring new commissions to Canaletto. The subjects become those of the castles, palaces, the countryside and the urban scenes. The English stay after two brief returns to his homeland ended in 1755 with the final return to Venice.
The last years are crowned by the German merchant Sigismund Streit. The subject that characterizes this stage is the whim. In 1763 Canaletto Venetian painting and sculpture is accepted into the Academy. Died at his home in corte Perina near San Lio Church on the evening of 19 April 1768.

Biography of Bernardo Caprotti

Italy gear
October 7, 1925

Who is Bernardo Caprotti?

Bernardo Caprotti was born in Milan on 7 October 19Wealthy Italian entrepreneur, his name is associated with the famous brand Esselunga, national supermarket chain flourished in full economic boom during the ' 50, with factories in much of Central and Northern Italy.
Its origins are those of the rich bourgeoisie Lombard: Caprotti family belongs to a group of industrialists engaged in textiles, especially cotton. The young Bernardo follows with good results before completing high school and then at the University of Milan, his law degree.
In 1951 her father decides to send him in the United States, in order to get him to transpose those managerial and technical updates, upon return, they could benefit the industry of family. In this period is still working in the textiles, which involved the future entrepreneur.
In America, Bernardo Caprotti works hard, who moved into the Assembly lines of cards, spinning wheels continue to ring, lavishing their knowledge of frames and, also, of the so-called "cottons" on Wall Street. Its acquisitions, this time in the Usa, ranging from skills related to tissue mechanics, frame with all the machinery of the case, until the financial aspects related to the textile enterprise, as evidenced by the experience on Wall Street.
In early 1952, after about a year ago, he began working in the manufacturing industry of family, that during those years he name "Caprotti Watchmakers". In the summer of that year, however, the young horse Bernard must take hold of the whole work, because the father is suddenly missing. So, with the help of his brothers, takes over the family cotton business.
Five years later, in 1957, the Rockefeller Group proposes that the Caprotti family to enter into a joint venture in the emerging Foundation of Supermarkets Italiani Spa: future Esselunga. It is basically the first American supermarket chain that is born in the peninsula.
Bernardo Caprotti understands the benefits of the operation, especially in the future, and enters the deal proposed by Nelson Rockefeller. From the beginning, working again and much of the family's factories, the entrepreneur enters with a share of 18%, representing each of the Caprotti brothers, namely Bernardo, Guido and Claudio. With them, are part of the operation some of the most prominent families of Milan and Lombardy, as kinky, with 16%, and the entrepreneur Marco Brunelli, who supervises the 10%.
In fact, it all would have been born by chance and you should for an intuition of Guido Caprotti and Brunelli, friends and both on vacation, in 1957, in the resort of Saint Moritz. In the halls of the Palace hotel the two would have heard the brothers Brustio, another family with a view to the Lombard, upper middle class group executives ' La Rinascente ', discussing the possibility of a uk supermarket chain in the process of being born on the initiative of American Tycoon Rockefeller. Just a few months later, following some friction arising, Cameron decided to replace the Brustio in Supermarkets Italy.
The opening of the first store dates from 27 November 1957 in a former workshop of viale Regina Giovanna, in Milan. The advertising executive Max Huber, poses an "S" with the top stretched up to the end of the word "Supermarket", with which comes the shopping adventure launched by Nelson Rockefeller.
In the early ' 60 rages an advertising campaign that says "They long, short prices." Cameron and Associates understand that you must meet to spread and that now, their chain, is best known with this name. So, after a corporate restructuring, the company stops being "Supermarkets Italy" and officially becomes "Esselunga".
In parallel then, Bernardo Caprotti, looking after the interests of his family, 51% of the company buys from Rockefeller, which actually becomes Italian in all respects. The operation cost is $ 4 million and sees all three Caprotti brothers committed, although Bernardo to deal with major issues.
On 9 February 1961 also opens its first store in Florence, in via Milanesi. By 1965 the milanese businessman he takes full direction, driving a chain which already has fifteen supermarkets scattered between Milan (10) and Florence (5). It is the beginning of a shopping adventure that brings the brand Esselunga in all regions of Italy, as well as in many locations North of the Center.
In 1989, on the American model, Esselunga opens its first "Superstore" in the city of Florence, in via di Novoli. Two years later, he opened the first Mall in Marlia, Lucca. Meanwhile, the group opens its first perfumery, what would become a chain apart: "Olimpia Beauté".
In forty years of work and investments, at the end of 2006, the company led by Cameron gets to manage 132 supermarkets, with about 17000 employees and a turnover of around 5 billion euros.
Cameron invests in new, more than any other Italian entrepreneur. Gives life, in 1994, to a "loyalty card", one of the first nationwide. Esselunga also begins to put the mark on specific products.
In the years ' 90, however, the milanese businessman gets caught up in the "Tangentopoli". In 1996, in fact, Bernardo Caprotti has to settle a nine-month sentence, due to various irregularities.
In 2003 the group opened its first bar, Esselunga branded "Atlantic Bar". In 2004 the son of Bernardo, Giuseppe Caprotti, which is credited with having launched the group in biological, is ousted from the company.
On 21 September 2007, in Milan, Bernardo Caprotti presents his book, entitled "Scythe and basket". Three years later, in 2010, receives an honorary degree in architecture at La Sapienza University in Rome. On 16 September 2011, however, following a legal dispute lasting several years, Esselunga is sentenced by a court in Milan: the cause are the serious allegations included in the book cited, in which the milanese businessman claims to have found it difficult to penetrate with its brand in regions neighbouring the "Reds", "Coop". The compensation that Esselunga must pay for unfair competition is 300,000 euros, in addition to the withdrawal of the publication from the market.

Biography of Augusto Daolio

Lord tramp
February 18, 1947
October 7, 1992

Who is Augustus Daolio?

Half Italy still sing their hearts out his songs, direct and immediate, melancholy but no frills exactly as it did him. With the disappearance of Augusto Daolio died tragically for an aggressive form of stomach cancer, it seemed that in the Eddy would end his group, the nomads. Fortunately the other band members knew how to react, and the nomads are still today the protagonists of the Italian landscape with their beautiful songs.
Augusto Daolio was born in Novellara (Reggio Emilia) on February 18, 19His adventure in the world of music began as a teenager and now with the group ' Nomads ': the complex will be destined to become a cult band in the history of Italian music.
At the same time tender and overflowing personality Augusto marks deep in the fate of the nomads. Her unique voice, slightly nasal but capable of a thousand inflections, his way of being on stage, its ability to drag the audience, make it right away some sort of flag and emblem and the soul of the complex.
Even his creativity is second to none. Author of beautiful lyrics, then become cornerstones of the Repertoire of the nomads, its poetic anthems, his inventions are critical to so many young people of the ' 60 and ' 70.
The artistic activity of Daolio is not expressed in the music. Pours his overflowing love of life also in painting and sculpture, with results for nothing despicable. Her hand is guided by a great imagination that leads him searching for a way and absolutely magical.
His partner is Rosanna Fantuzzi that after the death of vantante will base the Association "Augusto for life."
The relationship with his audience was always awesome. Augusto has never considered a great "divo", liked to stay with ordinary people, with fans, or rather, the friends who flocked to various concerts. One of its main features was its simplicity.
Even in the last stages of his illness, continued to have that strength, that stubbornness that made him the great man he was.
Augusto Daolio passed away on October 7, 1992.
On March 13, 1993, after great pain, the band resumed its activities.
To hold high the banner of the nomads, and by implication that of Augustus, are then joined the Group Danilo Sacco (vocals and guitar) and Francesco Gualerzi (vocals, various instruments).

Lapo Elkann's Biography

Brand or non-brand
October 7, 1977

Who's Lapo Elkann?

Lapo Edovard Elkann was born in New York the day October 7, 19The son of journalist and Alain Elkann, Margherita Agnelli's brother John and Geneva, granddaughters of the industrialist Gianni Agnelli and thus heirs to the Agnelli family which is headed by Fiat.
He studied at the French Lycée Victor Duruy and international relations in London, then as is tradition in the upbringing of offspring of the Agnelli family, in 1994 held the first experience working as a metalworker in the Piaggio factory under an assumed name: Lapo Rossi. During this period he also took part in a strike, demanding better working conditions, due to the excessive heat that is suffered to the Assembly line. Passionate about new technologies and languages, in the learn to speak fluent Italian, French, English, Portuguese and Spanish.
Lapo works then in Ferrari and Maserati marketing department where he spent four and a half years doing important experiences in the field of strategic communication. In 2001, after the events of September 11, he was able to work for a year as Assistant to Henry Kissinger, old friend of his grandfather. In 2002 the Attorney's medical condition worsens and Lapo, him strongly linked, decides to return to Italy to be around him. Between the two there is a clear very special relationship: affection, complicity and esteem, show that Gianni Agnelli saw in creativity, originality and the curiosity of his nephew much of its elegant yet whimsical personality.
Gianni Agnelli dies at the beginning of 2003, leaving the leadership of the young John Elkann-Fiat said Jaki-di Lapo brother and him less bizarre and whimsical. Lapo consolidates its role in Fiat asking specifically to deal with brand promotion and communication. Lapo is the first to realize that the Fiat brand suffers from a huge communication problem, especially in relation to young people. Lapo has a winning intuition. Raise the image of the entire Fiat in Italy and abroad through different types of gadgets, such as the sweatshirt with logo of the automaker, which he promoted and worn publicly firsthand. His commitment and mission, almost an obsession, give excellent results.
From 2004 he became head of Brand promotion for all three brands of Ingot: Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Lancia.
In addition to managerial intuition, great popularity comes from the Chronicle rose for his romantic relationship with actress Martina Stella, then finished. The modern and irreverent character of Lapo has got to be often and in different statements: the tv, the media, as the parodies and criticisms help to create a character.
Then Lapo plunges into what appears to be an abyss, becoming the star of a fact that elicits quite a stir: the day October 11, 2005 is hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Hospital of Turin's Mauriziano, following a drug overdose mix of opium, heroin and cocaine. Lapo is found in a coma after a wild night passed with four trannies. One of them, Donato Broco (known in the world of prostitution as "Patrizia"), he told the Corriere della Sera that Lapo had strayed to her house that night, as seems to have been used to it.
To leave behind all heavy aftermaths of this affair, released from the hospital, Lapo moved to Arizona, in the United States, where he starts a therapy, followed by a period of convalescence in the family residence in Miami (in Florida).
Back in Italy with morale rebuilt, wants to demonstrate its new energy and talent: "Italy Independent" gives birth to a new company specialized in producing and selling accessories and apparel. In the presentation of the new brand "-I" (which in English sounds like "eye-eye"), stresses the fundamental focus for him on the launch of the concept of "no-brand", referring to the possibility for the consumer to completely customize the product to buy. Its first product created and presented at Pitti Uomo 2007 are a type of sunglasses in carbon fiber. In the first three years after the glasses there will be a watch, jewellery, then a bike, skateboard and items for travellers; all objects that point primarily to the use of innovative materials.
In late October 2007 Lapo Elkann became President of the Italian society of volleyball A1 series Sparkling Milano; the adventure ended in June 2008 when he was given the title at the company Volleyball Pineto (Teramo).

Biography of Natalia Ginzburg

Tell the pain
July 14, 1916
October 7, 1991

Who is Natalia Ginzburg?

Natalia Ginzburg (born with the name Natalia Levi) was born in Palermo on July 14, 19His father is the famous Jewish scientist Giuseppe Levi and the mother is the milanese Lidia Tanzi. The father, besides being a great scientist (among its illustrious pupils remember Rita Levi-Montalcini), is also a college professor who shares the ideals antifascists. For their opposition to the fascist regime, Giuseppe Levi and his three sons, were arrested and prosecuted.
Natalia then spends his childhood at a difficult time, which is characterized by the affirmation of the fascist regime in power and exclusion of the Jewish population. The young man grows into a cultural and intellectual environment anti-fascist and becomes accustomed to constant checks that the fascist police performs in his home. At an early age helps so even the arrest of the father and his brothers.
In childhood is educated at home, receiving an elementary education through private lessons. As a teenager he attended grammar school and, after finishing his studies, attended University literature courses, which soon leaves. At the age of eighteen, while not having completed his academic studies, he began to devote himself to his literary activity by writing the short story "children", which was published in 1933 in the magazine Solaria. Four years later he also translated French opera of Marcel Proust, "in search of lost time".
In 1938 he married with the intellectual Leo Ginzburg. From this marriage three children: Andrea, Alessandra and Carlo. In recent years many good friendships with tightens exponents of antifascism in Turin and has strong ties with the Piedmontese Einaudi Publishing House, whose husband is the co-founder; These, with his works of Russian literature, numerous public, which teaches as lecturer.
Two years after her husband was sentenced to exile for political and racial reasons, so Natalia and his sons followed him in Parisien, in Abruzzo. In this period the writer creates new lyrics under the pseudonym Alessandra Tornimparte titled "the road that goes to town".
Their forcible transfer ends in 19A year later, Leone Ginzburg was again arrested for illegal publishing activities carried on with his wife, and imprisoned in Regina Coeli Roman prison. After suffering continual and atrocious tortures, lion dies the same year. This dramatic event is very painful for Natalia which must be strong and grow alone his three children.
After leaving Rome back in Piedmont, in Turin, where he started working for Einaudi. In the same year the Piedmont Publishing House also publishes his novel, which was created a few years earlier. In Piedmont the peaking around his parents and his children who, during the Nazi occupation have found shelter in Tuscany.
In 1947 he writes a new novel, "it was so," in which he tells the difficult times he faced under the regime of Mussolini. This piece of literature also receives the prestigious award Time. Three years later marries Gabriele Baldini, a Professor of English literature and Director of the Italian Cultural Institute based in London. From their Union were born two children, Susanna and Antonio, who unfortunately soon have health problems.
With her husband and sons moved to Rome where he continues to devote himself to literary work, studying in particular the theme of memory, linked to his ordeal under the fascist regime, and to that of the family. During this period he collaborated for a major project, the "Politecnico", a magazine for students and workers. Also in these years that makes a great friendship with another important Italian writer, Cesare Pavese.
Between 1952 and 1957 the literary production of Natalia Ginzburg is intense; among his lyrics are: "all our yesterdays", "Valentine", which won the important premio Viareggio, and "Sagittarius". In the sixties he published other novels like "Le voci della sera", "Five short stories", "The small virtues" and the famous "lexicon", in which he described his family's Christmas episodes of daily life; his father Joseph is the main character of the novel.
The writer, with a subtle irony and affection for his family, describes all the events that surround his family background. Within the novel, in addition to the father figure, also mentions the mother and her three brothers, ricordati several times because of their arrest and their imprisonment.
The novel also tells about the death of her first husband, Leone Ginzburg in Regina Coeli prison, the unjust persecution of Italian Jews, suicide on the part of the writer Cesare Pavese. With this work, in 1963, also gets the Strega prize.
The following year made her film debut playing a role in the film directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini, "the Gospel according to Matthew."
Six years later, following the death of her second husband, and after the serious Piazza Fontana bombing, begins to engage in politics, supporting the ideals of the left. Italy is interested in cultural and Political Affairs, strongly affected in this period of dramatic events that are called "strategy of tension".
During the 1970s and 1980s translates another work of Marcel Proust, "Swann's way" and wrote several novels, including: "never have to wonder", "imaginary life", "dear Michael", "Family", "the city and the House" and "La famiglia Manzoni".
The author is also dedicated to the creation of two comedies: "I married with joy" and "Country". In addition to the literary, political and military continues in 1983 she was elected as a member of the Communist Party within the Italian Parliament.
After you have finished translating "one life", novel by French author Guy de Maupassant, Natalia Ginzburg dies during the night of 6 October 7, 1991 and, at the age of 75 years.

Biography of Heinrich Himmler

The face of evil
October 7, 1900
May 23, 1945

Who is Heinrich Himmler?

The Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler, born on October 7, 1900, is considered by historians the black soul of that wretched scheme, the executioner more ruthless and cynical, and the crazy planner of the death camps, picture, confirmed by himself, since he liked to say he was "a merciless executioner."
The second of three children, his father was Professor at the gymnasium of Munich, while her mother was a homemaker very caring towards their children. Both parents were firm believers Catholics and provided to the cultural education of children, that, precisely for this reason, were among the first of their class to which they were enrolled. At the outbreak of World War I Himmler was fourteen years old. Followed closely the events and urged parents to send him to the front as an officer, take their friendships among the aristocrats. However the war ended before he was given the opportunity. Himmler was mortified by the sudden German defeat and the humiliating peace terms imposed on the new Republic. This was the cause of his change from model boy in what ultimately became.
In 1923 he participated in the failed coup in Munich by Hitler. In this period the ideology of Himmler mingled with the ambition of a career. He joined the SS in 19Organizational and bureaucratic qualities of Himmler were immediately appreciated. The SS grew up together to advance the career of Himmler, who, in 1929, became its Chief. On July 3, 1928 Himmler married Margarete Boden, who later bore him a daughter.
The SS, were initially a small group of men, incorporated within the established SA, the Socialist party paramilitary assault teams led by Rohm, but soon things changed: the SS and their lead grew more and more their prestige and their importance in the eyes of the fuhrer, until, on June 30, 1934, in what was the "night of the long knives" , Rohm and his lieutenants were barbarously murdered by order of Hitler and Himmler behind the same conspiracy.
Since that time the SA were supplanted by an increasing number of SS, which became notorious for their cruelty and for chilling reprisals to which it gave rise, in the course of their work. Thus, the SS paramilitary militias were the great Reich and Himmler their fierce leader: were pure-blooded soldiers necessarily and mandatorily ariano, the black uniforms they never stopped not to sow panic in occupied Europe. In their hat was depicted a skull, symbol of death and terror, in their daggers was engraved with the ranting motto "my honor is loyalty." The Himmler project became to untie his SS from State control and the Nazi party, so he created a State within a State which soon would have terrified both enemies of the regime that his opponents personally. Hitler, oddly enough, let him do it. At the behest of Himmler, the SS changed the Organization and very diversified.
After the seizure of power by the Nazis, Himmler was appointed head of the political police of Bavaria. Thanks to his prestigious role in the SS, he became Chief of police in practice also other German regions. In 1933 he created the first concentration camp at Dachau, built on the site of the former munitions factory and gunpowder to Dachau near Munich, in order to decrease the number of prisoners in prisons. This site, intended to house all political prisoners of Bavaria, was soon defined by SS "concentration camp" (KZ Konentrationlager). In the twelve years of its existence have been recorded over two hundred thousand prisoners, but it is not possible to determine how many of the deportees were not registered. Dachau was a "model" in which were tested and fine tuned the most refined techniques of physical and psychic annihilation of opponents of the regime. Shortly before the release of the SS destroyed much of their official documents, in order to avoid that they could be used as evidence against them.
With the war Himmler was able to implement in full the extermination program so that on the eve of the invasion of the Soviet Union, his power was unchallenged. In 1941 he created, along with Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen, extermination units in the Soviet Union. Later (1943) census showed her powers also to Interior Minister thereby controlling total repressive machine. When the hopes of winning the war became void for Germany, tried to negotiate a peace with Britain and the USA. Having been made aware, Hitler dismissed him. After the surrender of Germany Himmler assumed a false identity, he attempted to escape but was arrested by the British and a few days later committed suicide.

Mario Lanza biography

An entry in the memory
January 31, 1921
October 7, 1959

Who is Mario Lanza?

Mario Lanza, tenor elegant good looks from the issue round and soft but incisive, able to spin the b flat as few, after the huge success that kissed me in life, thirty years after his death it still boasts a large following around the world.
Born on January 31, 1921 at Philadelphia by the name Alfred Arnold Cocozza in a family of humble Italian immigrants, after the normal school dedicates a wide variety of activities. As a boy, has a particular penchant for sport, such that few people would have seen him as the future singer able to charm the crowds (especially female). In secret, however, the handsome young man of Italian origin cultivated a passion for sacred monster of singing par excellence: Caruso. A model always kept in mind, inspiration and example imperishable; such and so great was the identification, which Lanza will come to incarnate in a famous movie.
The conquest of success for this poor son of immigrants is not rained from the sky. Start turning to singing at the age of nineteen, already advanced in age discreetly, at Madame Irene Williams which thrilled his uncommon vocal talents, wants to hear the conductor Serge Koussevitzky.
The master listened when interpreting: "Vesti la giubba ..." from "Pagliacci", remaining enraptured in front of that voice changing and full of harmonics. " You're coming with me to study at Tanglewood "are the words of the master. The "treasure" Cocozza, who meanwhile had replaced the name Mario Lanza in honor of mother Maria Lanza, was being channelled in the best way.
Just a year after entering the Academy of Music where he took courses in piano and singing to Enrico Rosati, former teacher of Beniamino Gigli. The boy holds true to its potential and in 1942 won a major scholarship; will have to temporarily stop his career in order to fulfil its obligations.
However even during his military service he could perform successfully in some shows from the us air force where he was immediately dubbed the "Caruso of the Air Force.
Meanwhile took agreements with renowned producer Louis b. Meyer to appear as a performer in a series of films. More than guessed, given that those films have helped spread his name, to bring many people to the genre of Opera and to preserve not only its miraculous voice but also the myth that was building.
After the release of his first film "Midnight Kiss", Mario Lanza Lyric Opera debut of New Orleans (as Pinkerton in "Madame Butterfly"), but the film commitments do not allow him to devote the necessary time to this activity.
Many critics of the time esprimno regret these choices which represented a great loss and taking off to fans the chance to hear Lanza in complete operatic performances.
Given the real idolatry that Lanza had for Caruso insisted strongly because one of his films was based on the life of the legend of Opera. And the film "the great Caruso" is the result of the application and identification of Lanza singing genius who had trod down the scenes just a few decades earlier. Lanza in the film engages in some fifteen solo Arias taken from the Repertoire of his idol, effectively managing not to deface the arduous confrontation.
What is certain is that the filming techniques helped him and certainly singing on a set is not like singing in a theater, but the result is that from then on Mario Lanza is identified as a kind of wannabe Caruso and all this at a time in history when not only were outstanding opera singers, gigantic but when even the users of music were, on average, with some preparation. Knew I mean touch the strings of different audiences, from the most sophisticated to the most popular.
His is one of the few cases in which an exorbitant number of sales is not associated with the music of immediate consumption, although always rigorously "popular" (Lanza could sing from Giuseppe Verdi to Cole Porter, folk songs, operatic arias or religious songs).
After the many movies filmed the content feels the need to visit the land of his family origins, Italy. Here also holds numerous concerts and recorded new disks. Called for the opening of the opera season at La Scala in Milan, Mario Lanza hears that will Crown his life's dream. Will not come to the long-awaited appointment: crushes him just 38 years suddenly thrombosis in Rome the day 7 October 1959.
That was and is his fame that in Philadelphia on October 7 day is still officially considered the day of Mario Lanza.

Biography of Federico Pizzarotti

October 7, 1973

Who is Frederick Pizzarotti?

Federico Pizzarotti was born on 7 October 1973 in Parma. Judo enthusiast since childhood (the practice for ten years) and by computer, after graduating from the technical college for industry and trade with electronic address "Primo Levi" of his city works as a consultant to financial institutions and banks.
Meanwhile he developed a passion for the theatre, which leads him to star in several companies of Parma, including Famija Pramzana. Married in 2003 with Cinzia, approaches the five-star movement policy in 2009: the next year is a candidate as a regional councillor of the M5S in Emilia Romagna regional elections, but is not elected.
Several are the fortunes of the local elections of 2012 (at that time Frederick Pizzarotti works within the Ict as a project manager at Credito Emiliano di Reggio Emilia): little cricket candidate as Mayor of Parma after the Commissioner of the city following the resignation of Pietro Vignali, Mayor of the centre right, wins the runoff, in the back of 6 and 7 may, together with Vincenzo Bernazzoli, candidate of the Center and former President of the province of Parma. Winning just under 20% of preferences pizzarotti, 39% of the vote while Bah exceeds.
The fate of the ballot, therefore, seems to be marked, but the results of 20 and 21 may give a different outcome: the exponent cricket WINS by getting more than 60% of the vote, becoming the first mayor of five star Movement in a capital city of the province.
Since the early days of his Office Update voters with posts written on Facebook, on Twitter and on her official website, trying to develop his electoral program that also includes the so-called antidote anti-crisis, a list of ideas to use incentives to contain the wastes creating a smart grid, an intelligent energy network designed to promote self-sufficiency.
A few months after his election, however, Frederick Pizzarotti ends in the eye of the storm for failing to prevent the construction of an incinerator in Parma, which was one of the basic points of his electoral program.

Biography of Edgar Allan Poe

Torment and visions
19 January 1809
7 October 1849

Who was Edgar Allan Poe?

Edgar Allan Poe was born on 19 January 1809 in Boston, by David Poe and Elizabeth Arnold, actors wandering of modest economic conditions. His father abandoned the family when Edgar is still small; When the mother dies too soon, is unofficially adopted by John Allan, a rich merchant from Virginia. Hence the addition of the last name Allan to the original.
He moved to London to trade the young Poe attended private schools before returning to Richmond in 18In 1826 he enrolled at the University of Virginia where he begins to support studies on gambling. Indebitatosi in an unusual, the stepfather is refusing to pay debts forcing it that way to leave school to look for a job and cope with the many expenses. Since then begin strong between the two up to push the future misunderstandings writer to leave the House to get to Boston, and from there join the army.
In 1829 publishes anonymously "Tamerlane and other poems", and with his name "Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane and minor poems". At the same time, left the army, he moved with relatives in Baltimore.
In 1830 he enrolled at West Point Military Academy to be soon expelled for disobeying orders. In recent years Poe keeps writing satirical verses. In 1832 the first successes as a writer that lead him in 1835 to get the direction of the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond.
Her adopted father dies without leaving any inheritance to godson.
Shortly after, at the age of 27 years, Edgar Allan Poe married his cousin Virginia Clemm, not yet fourteen. This is a period in which it publishes numerous articles, short stories and poems, but do get big gains.
Looking for better luck decided to move to New York. From 1939 to 1940 he was editor of the "Gentleman's magazine", while simultaneously leaving his "Tales of the grotesque and arabesque" that provide a remarkable reputation.
His abilities as an editor were those that allowed him every time he landed by boat to a newspaper by doubling or Pack four times sales. In 1841 switches to direct the "Graham's magazine". Two years later the poor health of his wife Virginia and business difficulties, led him to dedicate himself with ever greater determination to drink and, despite the publication of new stories, its economic conditions remain precarious.
In 1844 Poe begins the series of "Marginalia", leaving the "Tales" and gets hit with the poem "The Raven". Things seem to be going well, especially when in 1845 became editor first, then owner of the "Broadway Journal".
Soon however reached reputation compromised by accusations of plagiarism, carrying Edgar Allan Poe into a deep nervous depression which, combined with economic difficulties, led him to cease publication of its newspaper.
He went to Fordham, seriously ill and in poverty, continues to publish articles and stories while not getting ever real fame at home; Instead, his name began to be noticed in Europe and especially in France.
In 1847 the death of Virginia marks a heavy health fallout of Poe, but do not distract us from continuing to write. His dedication to alcoholism reaches the limit: found in semi-unconscious state and delirious in Baltimore, Edgar Allan Poe died on October 7 1849.
Despite the tormented life and messy Poe's work constitutes a corpus surprisingly fed: at least 70 short stories, one of which is along as a novel-The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket (1838)-approximately 50 poems, at least 800 pages of critical articles (a considerable amount of reviews that makes it one of the most mature poets of the era), some essays-The Philosophy of Composition "(1846) , The Rationale of Verse (1848) and The Poetic Principle (1849)-and a poem in prose of high philosophy-Eureka (1848)-in which the author tries to prove, with the help of physics and astronomy, the approach and the identification of man with God.

Biography of Anna Politkovskaya

Words that hurt
August 30, 1958
October 7, 2006

Who is Anna Politkovskaya?

Anna Politkovskaya was a Russian journalist, voice criticism of Vladimir Putin and the military intervention in Chechnya.
Born in New York on August 30, 1958, daughter of two Soviet diplomats stationed at the United Nations. His journalistic career began in 1982, two years after graduating from the University of Moscow, when he started writing for the newspaper in the capital, Izvestia, he left in 19A year later he was Assistant of Yegor Yakovlev, Director of Obsčaja Gazeta and collaborator of Mikhail Gorbachev. In 1998 makes the first trip to Chechnya to interview the newly elected President of the former Soviet Republic, Aslan Maskhadov.
A year after leaving the Obsčaja Gazeta to achieve a small and independent newspaper, Novaya Gazeta, where he worked until the day of his death, on October 7, 20Since 2000, Politkovskaya makes a series of trips in the Caucasian Republics (Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia), where he came into contact with the victims ' families, visiting hospitals and refugee camps, casting Russian military and Chechen civilians, being horrified by the atrocities committed by the military against the civilian population.
The Novaya Gazeta publishes more than 200 articles that denounce the separatist republics, Russian attacks operated the political choices of the new President Vladimir Putin and Chechen Prime Ministers Ahmad Kadyrov and his son Ramsan, both supported by Moscow. Using the evidence gathered, the reporter also publishes a series of books ("a little piece of hell", "Russian Diary 2003-2005", "forbidden to speak. Chechnya, Beslan, Dubrovka Theatre: the inconvenient truths of Putin's Russia, "Putin's Russia" and "Chechnya, Russian disgrace").
For his business is threatened several times to death.
In 2001 is forced to flee to Vienna following intimidation received by mail from Sergei Lapin, an officer of the OMON (Russian police with responsibility for overseeing the former Soviet republics), which she accused of crimes against the civilian population of Chechnya. Lapin was arrested and then released in 20The trial resumes in 2003 to end, after numerous interruptions in 2005 with a conviction for the ex-COP for abuse and neglect made worse on a Chechen civilian and for falsifying documents.
Between 26 and October 27, 2002, Anna Politkovskaya collaborates to negotiation with terrorists for the release of the hostages, during the Moscow Theater hostage crisis in Moscow. Despite the efforts of courageous journalist, Russian special forces burst into the theater, having pumped a mysterious chemical agent inside the ventilation system. According to official estimates, at least 39 of 40 terrorists and 129 hostages die.
In September 2004 is invoked to deal with Chechen separatists in the school in Beslan. As it travels towards the Caucasian town, Anna Politkovskaya is struck by a sudden illness and loses consciousness. The plane was forced to turn back to allow his immediate hospitalization. Many suspect an attempt at poisoning, but the dynamics of what happened will never be cleared up completely.
On several occasions the Politkovskaya had recognized the danger of his work: "I am absolutely convinced that the risk is part of my job; the work of a Russian journalist, and I can't stay because it's my duty [...] I believe that the task of a doctor is to heal patients, the task of a singer is singing. The only duty of a journalist is to write what you see. "
For his work gets prestigious awards worldwide (the Italy gives it in 2006 on international journalism award named after Tiziano Terzani).
Anna Politkovskaya's corpse is found in the elevator of his Palace the day October 7, 20According to the police reconstruction, the journalist was returning home after having gone to the supermarket in the neighborhood. After having climbed to the seventh floor to lay the first parcels of groceries, went down to catch the others. On the ground floor was expecting a killer, right across from the elevator. As soon as the doors open, the man would have exploded against her four pistol shots, plus another "security on the nape.
According to the CCTV recording of the supermarket, are indicted three men, Sergei Khadzhikurbanov, a former officer anti-crime police Moscow and two Chechen brothers Ibragim Makhmudov and Jabrail origins. Also a former officer of the FSB (the modern Russian intelligence) Pavel Ryaguzov, not indicted for the murder, but associated with three, and charged with abuse of Office and extortion.
His funeral was held on October 10 at the Troekurovskij cemetery in Moscow attended by over a thousand people, including colleagues and ordinary admirers of the journalist, but no exponent of the Russian Government. Mr Putin, a few days after the murder, a news conference will affirm that Politkovskaya "was well known among journalists, human rights activists and the West. However, his influence on Russian political life was minimal ".

Biography of Vladimir Putin

Tsar of ice
October 7, 1952

Who is Vladimir Putin?

The new Czar of Russia? Perhaps, given the immense amount of power currently concentrated in his hands. After "liquidated" the so-called new oligarchs, namely the new billionaires who got rich with the sale-wanted by predecessor Boris Yeltsin--Russian State companies and able to influence politics, there are those who strongly indicates that the strongman Vladimir Putin stronger you can of the great mother Russia. For someone we are just a step below the dictatorship.
There is no denying that the instinct of command circles as another kind of red blood cells in the blood of this little guy from the character of iron, one raised with bread and Kgb and that no one, or almost, has never seen laughing. In public, her expression is always a sanguinary earnestness, primly at the edge of "rigor mortis". Maximally sometimes hints at some benevolent shrug of eyebrows, tempered by an attempt to smile, maybe when it is on the side of his friend Silvio Berlusconi.
Born on October 7, 1952 in that difficult metropolis that is Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), in 1970 Putin he enrolled at the University, he studied law and German, but in his free time he devoted himself to the practice of judo, which has always been a great supporter. In this sport, the Tsar of ice has always found that Union between body size and philosophical discipline that make a guide for everyday life. Maybe something of this discipline is served when in 1975 he joined the Kgb, called to work in counterintelligence.
A great career awaited him around the corner. Before you move Foreign Intelligence Department and ten years later is sent to Dresden in Eastern Germany, where he continues to be active in political Counterintelligence (before leaving Lyudimila bride, a girl eight years younger that will give him two daughters: Masha and Katya). Thanks to the period spent in Germany, Vladimir Putin has the opportunity to live outside the Soviet Union, though, fell off the wall, will be forced to return to his native Leningrad.
That experience allows him to become, in matters of foreign policy, the right arm of Anatoli Sobciak, Mayor of Leninigrado, adopting a programme of radical reforms in the political and economic field. It's Sobciak the promoter of the referendum to give back to the city the former name of Saint Petersburg. During this time Putin introduces currency stock exchange opens German towns to capital companies, further privatisation of old Soviet and catafalques care becomes the vice mayor, but his run stops with Sobciak's defeat in the elections of 1996.
Actually that apparent debacle will be his fortune. Calls to Moscow Anatoli Ciubais, the young economist who recommended him to Boris Yeltsin. Starts the climb of Putin: first Deputy of the mighty Pavel Borodin that handles the Kremlin's real estate Empire, then Chief of the Federal Security Service (Fsb), the new body that happens to the Kgb Putin holds the position of head of the then Board of presidential security.
On August 9, 1999 Boris Yeltsin retires, mainly due to health conditions prevailing. Putin is ready as a cat to catch the ball and, on March 26, 2000, he was elected President of the Russian Federation in the first round with more than 50 percent of the vote, after a campaign conducted in total disregard of the political confrontation. Vladimir Putin, on that occasion, has never accepted forms of discussion with other members of the Russian political scene. However his political fortune rests mainly on his statements about the thorny issue of Chechen independence, designed to nip the magmatic rebelliousness in the region. With a large majority even at the Duma (the Russian Parliament), also tries to bring back under the central authority of Moscow regional governors that Yeltsin had often replaced the central power.
Most Russians strongly supports his hardline, and a strong suspicion of a real ethnic hatred, rather than fear of disintegration of the State, undermines the legitimacy of this consent. The few opponents of Putin, moreover, identify precisely in the war strong elements of evaluation of a ruthless, dictatorial President affecting human rights. Russian elections have confirmed his power and an iron fist with which leads his leadership. In a scenario where rumors contrary to its decreased at death's door, Putin grossed consents to a vast majority of the population.
In March of 2004 was reelected President for a second term, with 71 percent of the vote. Four years later the successor that settles in the Kremlin is his loyal Dmitry Medvedev: Putin returns to the Premiership he already held before the presidential term. At the beginning of the month of March 2012, as was abundantly was predicted by all, was reelected for the third time President: consensus exceeds the 60%.

Biography of Mimmo Rotella

Manipulate the image
October 7, 1918
January 9, 2006

Who is Mimmo Rotella?

An artist with a multifaceted personality and Visual conceptions intense and always aligned to a vanguard taste (not very pleased with the commercial research, despite the subjects), Mimmo Rotella was born in Catanzaro on October 7, 1918 and, after graduation from the Academy of fine arts in Naples, he settled in Rome in 1945.
The first phase of its activity is characterized by experimenting with different pictorial styles that will take him to revolutionise post-war artistic languages. In 1951 he mounted his first solo exhibition at the Galleria Chiurazzi in Rome, which gets wide resonance.
His name begins to elicit considerable interest so much that in the same year he was awarded a scholarship from the Fulbright Foundation.
It can thus afford to attend the prestigious University of Kansas City, a goal away to a kid growing up in the South Italian deeper.
Wheel counters the establishment with the creation of a wall panel in the Faculty of physics and the first recording of phonetic poems by him called "epistaltici".
In 1952 he was invited by Harvard University for a performance of phonetic poetry in Boston and by the Library of Congress in Washington to record some phonetic poems. Back in Italy, after a period of reflection on the means of painting and the need to use new instruments, invented the technique of décollage, characterized by ripping posters put up in the streets whose fragments, whether they be the recto or verso, are glued onto the canvas.
Memorable examples of this phase are "up" and "Collage", both from 1954.
From the purely abstract compositions to achieve gradually abandons 1958 décollage with clearly legible images. This trend culminates in the series "Cinecittà", built in 1962 (which includes "Heroes in jail" and "three minutes") and one dedicated to movie stars and celebrities ("Assault", 1962; "Marilyn", 1963, etc).
Are the years ' 60 and following the work dedicated to affiches in world cinema with the faces of the great myths of Hollywood.
In 1961, at the invitation of the critic Pierre Restany, adheres to the Group of Nouveaux Réalistes, where already Raymond Hains, Jacques Mahé de la Villeglé, François Dufrêne used posters with similar procedures to her. After moving to Paris in 1964 is still working on defining a new technique, the Mec Art, with which he creates works using mechanical means on emulsified canvases. The first works of this kind are exposed to Gallery J in Paris (1965).
Continue experimenting with the series of Artypo, typographic choices proofs and pasted freely on the canvas. In 1972 she published for the publishing house Sugar autobiographical volume "Autorotella" performing on the occasion of the presentation of the book the cultural circle Formentini in Milan, in a performance with its phonetic poems.
It's 1975 series "Plastiformes", which he exhibited at Galleria Plura in Milan; in the same year he published the first Italian LP of Phonetic Poems 1949/75 with presentation by Alfredo Todisco.
Gli anni ' 70 are marked by frequent trips to USA, India, Nepal, finally settling in Milan in 1980.
Belong in the early ' 80 the "Shell", advertising posters covered with sheets that conceal the underlying image, presented at Studio Marconi in Milan and Galleria Denis René of Paris (1981).
Back to painting the middle of the decade with "Cinecittà 2 cycle" in which takes up the theme of cinema dealt with large canvases and with the series "superimpositions of" out of sheet metal and décollage: these pictorial torn posters and pasted out of the artist's most recent season feature metal panels.
In addition to the main exhibitions of the Nouveaux Réalistes and over one hundred solo exhibitions in Italy and abroad, the artist has participated in important national and international exhibitions including:
-The Art of Assemblage (New York, Museum of Modern Art, 1961)
-Beyond the informal (IV International Art Biennale di San Marino, 1963)
-1960/70 Vitalità del negativo nell'arte italiana (Rome, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, 1970)
-Lines of artistic research in Italy 1960/1980 (Rome, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, 1981)
-Contemporary Italian art (London, Hayward Gallery, 1982)
-Italian art of the 20th century (London, Royal Academy of Arts, 1989)
-The Italian Metamorphosis 1943-1968 (New York, Solomon r. Guggenheim Museum, 1994)
-Art and film since 19Hall of Mirrors (Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, 1996)
Mimmo Rotella died in Milan on January 9, 2006.

Biography of Desmond Tutu

Against segregation, always
October 7, 1931

Who is Desmond Tutu?

Desmond Mpilo Tutu was born in Klerksdorp (South Africa) day October 7, 19He was the first Black Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town, South Africa. Thanks to his activism in the years ' 80 has achieved world renown as a strong opponent of apartheid, much to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 19Apartheid--which in afrikaans means "separation"-was the policy of racial segregation instituted by the South African Government of white ethnicity after the war, remained in force until 1994.
Tutu, who moved with his family to Johannesburg at the age of 12 years, wanted to become a doctor, but the few household savings they couldn't afford; so the young Desmond chooses to follow his father's footsteps into teaching.
Tutu studied at the Pretoria Bantu Normal College from 1951 to 1953; teaches then at Johannesburg Bantu High School, where he remained until 19Will resign following the approval of the Bantu Education Act, protesting the poor educational prospects of black South Africans.
In 1955 marries Leah Nomalizo with whom he had four children: Trevor Thamsanqa Zhou, Theresa Thandeka, Naomi Nontombi and Mpho Andrea. All will attend the famous Waterford Kamhlaba School.
Desmond Tutu continues his studies in the fields of Theology and in 1960 was ordained as Anglican priest. He became chaplain at the University of Fort Hare, where black dissent is a cultural cradle, and one of the few quality universities for black students in South Africa.
Tutu then moves at King's College London, where he remained from 1962 to 1966: here follows the Bachelor's and Master's degree in theology. Back in South Africa and between 1967 and 1972 he lectured full of messages that highlight the sad conditions of the black population.
Tutu wrote a letter to John Vorster, the South African Prime Minister, in which he described South Africa as "a barrel of gunpowder that can explode at any time". Will never receive a response.
In 1972 Tutu returned to England where he was appointed Deputy Director of the Theological Education Fund of the World Council of churches. In 1975 is still in South Africa where he was appointed deacon of St. Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg, first black to be hit by this Office.
In 1976 Soweto protests against Government's use of the afrikaans language in schools black, turns into a massive uprising against apartheid. From that moment on, Tutu will support economic boycott of his country.
Desmond Tutu holds the position of Bishop of Lesotho from 1976 to 1978, when he became General Secretary of the South African Council of churches: from this place, and with the consent of most churches, is able to carry on his political opposition against apartheid. Through his writings and lectures, both at home and abroad, Tutu resolutely supports reconciliation between all parties involved in apartheid.
On October 16, 1984 receives Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Committee cited his role as a "unifying figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa".
On September 7, 1986 became the first black person to lead the Anglican Church in South Africa.
After the fall of apartheid (1994) Tutu leads the "truth and reconciliation" Commission, a position for which he receives the "Sydney Peace Prize" in 1999.
In 2004 Tutu returns to United Kingdom to hold the speech of commemoration for the 175 anniversary of King's College. Visit also the nightclub of the student association, entitled "Tutu's" in his honor, where there is a bust portraying him.
A Tutu you have the phrase Rainbow Nation ("rainbow nation"), a term usually used to describe South Africa. This designation refers to the ideal peaceful and harmonious coexistence among the different ethnic groups of the country, and will be taken up by Nelson Mandela, eventually becoming common expression of national culture in the country.


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