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Encyclopedia of Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Primo Carnera
- Biography of Evariste Galois
- Biography of Don Carlo Gnocchi
- Biography of Katy Perry
- Biography of Pablo Picasso
Biography of Primo Carnera
October 25, 1906
June 29, 1967
Who is Primo Carnera?Primo Carnera was the greatest boxer of the 20th century: Italian word of Nino Benvenuti, another great champion he shares with Carnera also an extraordinary greatness as a man. Born on 25 October 1906, the "giant with feet of clay", as he was baptized because of its grim parable descendant, Carnera is an extremely important character in local sports history. In fact, it has been the first Italian Boxer to win the world heavyweight title. If we think that pugilistic sport is not part of the dna of the breed, more inclined to team games like football or volleyball, this was a memorable event.
More than two meters tall, 120 kilograms, Carnera was able to Excel in a field where Americans are usually the undisputed masters, giving breath and force on the lean Italian boxing tradition.
The highly moving story of connotation Carnera is derived by taking the typical emigrant road to success: from Sequals, the small town forty kilometres from Udine where born and remains up to eighteen, when he decided to move at some relatives in France near Le Mans. His is the ascent of the one who with the sweat of his brow, the sacrifices and the immense effort you won his place in the Sun and, if you will, tries to impose an image from "hard" when she gave ample proof of a big heart (and just mention the Foundation Carnera demonstrating).
The funny aspect of the matter is that Carnera, despite the huge tonnage that was evident from an early age, by its very nature was far from thought to dedicate himself to boxing. He could see it better as a Carpenter but, having regard to its fearsome mole, were not few who, in an Italy that is poor and eager for redemption, advised to undertake a competitive sports career. The key role in choosing the good giant to devote himself to the ring due to the insistence of his uncle who was hosting in France.
In its first meeting a local amateur is massacred by the giant Italian. Given the start withering, America is around the corner and dreams of glory and wealth they start standing out in front of the eyes of ingenuous sample.
The stages of his busy career start with the drama of Ernie Schaaf, who died after the match on 10 February 1933; follow the challenge with Uzcudum in Rome (1933) in the moment of greatest triumph of fascism, and ends with the exploit of his life, success by knockout in New York on Jack Sharkey in six shots. It was June 26, 1933 and Carnera became world heavyweight boxing champion; and it was from 1914 that a meeting was held not for the world of the greatest in Europe.
Propaganda mussolinian turned it into a big event, with il Duce in the stands and Piazza di Siena, the parlor of horseback riding, turned into a big arena, packed to seventy thousand people many of whom received since morning.
At the peak of his career, Carnera, "the strongest man in the world", lend her face smashed several advertising: the Punt e mes, Zanussi appliances, Necchi.
Despite the fame, however, never loses its disarming spontaneity.
Looms the sad decline. Lost in a disastrous against Max Baer, despite a defeat by knockout in 1937 in Budapest against the Romanian Joseph Zupan was transformed by Italian newspapers in brilliant victory.
Carnera was a myth that you could not dent, a hero from Polish to greater glory of Italy. In his story the gentle giant was in fact even comic book hero and performer of some twenty films including "the ladies man" (1933) with Myrna Loy, Jack Dempsey and Max Baer and "the Iron Crown (1941), with Gino Cervi, Massimo Girotti, Luisa Ferida, Osvaldo Valenti and Paolo Stoppa.
In 1956, the film "The clay giant" with Humphrey Bogart, loosely based on the career of Carnera Boxer, threw his heavy shadows discreditable dating, assuming all kinds of combine behind the scenes of his match. An accusation that Primo Carnera has always rejected until the day of his death on 29 June in Friuli, Sequals, 1967.
It is also important to refute the cliché that uncouth man and has only seen Carnera muscles. In fact this giant with a heart of gold knew the lyrics and, as a good fond of poetry, he could recite entire verses of Dante Alighieri's favorite.
In 2008 was presented at Madison Square Garden in New York on the biopic "Carnera: The Walking Mountain" (the Italian Renzo Martinelli); on this occasion the daughter of champion Juana Maria, exercising the profession of psychologist in the United States, about the life of the father has got to tell: "... gave the dedication and care for others. He taught us that nobody stays on top forever, and that the true character of a person is judged by how it deals with the descent. He was a man very sweet and tender. I know that the fascist regime elected him, but the truth is that the regime used my dad, how he was using each of those days. Dad has never been fascist and did not belong to any political party. I adored my father, I was kidnapped by his courage and by his strength, both physical and spiritual. He loved classical literature, art and the opera. Always trying to improve and wished that my brother and I charted. When I graduated from high school in Los Angeles, was in Australia and sent me a telegram and a bouquet of red roses, apologizing for not being able to be with me. While I received my diploma, I tried my mom sitting in the front row and near her was my father. He had made the trip from Australia to Los Angeles to attend the ceremony. Then departed that night. "
Biography of Evariste Galois
31 December 1832
Who is Evariste Galois?Evariste Galois was born on 25 October 1811 in Bourg La Reine (near Paris), France. The father Nicholas Gabriel Galois, and his mother, Adelaide Marie Demante were both smart and well trained in philosophy, classical literature and religion. But, there is no sign of any maths skills in any member of the family of Galois. His mother was the only teacher until the age of twelve Galois. She taught Greek, Latin, and religion, where he imparted her natural skepticism to his son. Galois's father was a man of importance in the community and in 1815 he was elected head of Bourg-la-Reine.
The starting point of the historical events that played a major role in the life of Galois was surely the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 17From here onwards the monarchy of Louis 16° had great difficulty, since most French men put aside their differences and joined behind the attempt to destroy the privileges of the Church and the State.
Despite attempts to reach a compromise, Louis XVI was captured after attempts to leave the country. Following the execution of the King, on 21 January 1793, there followed a reign of terror with many legal processes. By the end of 1793 there were 4595 political prisoners in Paris. However, France began to have better times when their armies, under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte, gained victories over victories.
Napoleon became first consul in 1800 and later emperor in 18The French armies continued the conquest of Europe, while Napoleon's power was becoming more stable. In 1801, Napoleon was at the apogee of his power. But in 1805 there were changes. Russia failed campaign of 1812 was followed by some defeats, and the allies entered Paris on 31 March 18Napoleon abdicated on 6 April and Louis XVIII was appointed as King of the allies. The year 1815 he saw the famous hundred days. Napoleon entered in Paris on March 20, was defeated at Waterloo on 18 June, and abdicated for the second time on 22 June. Louis XVIII was renamed King, but died in September 1824, and Charles X became the new ruler.
Galois was at school during this time. He enrolled in the Lycée Louis le Grand as the 6 October 1823 fourth collegiate class. When li first period there was a small rebellion and forty pupils were expelled from school. Galois was not involved and during the 1824-25 his GPA was good and received many awards. However in 1826 Galois had to repeat a year because his work on rhetoric was not enough to the required standard.
The month of February 1827 Galois was a change in life. He registered his first math class, the class of m. Vernier. Quickly was absorbed by mathematics and its Director of studies he wrote: "it is the passion for mathematics that dominates it, I think it would be better for him than his parents made it possible to study this, you're wasting your time here doing nothing, but torments his teachers and destroys if himself with duties."
Galois school entries began to describe it as singular, quirky, original and closed. Interestingly, perhaps the most original mathematician who ever lived has been criticized for being original. M. Vernier reported anyway "intelligence, remarkable progress but there's enough method.".
In 1828 Galois gave consideration at the Polytechnic School, but was rejected. Was the main University of Paris and Galois must have wanted to enter it for academic reasons. However, he also wanted to get into this school for political reasons that existed among his students, because Galois followed the example of his parents being a fierce Republican.
Back to Louise-le-Grand, Galois enrolled in math class by Louis Richard. However, he worked more and more on his own research and less and less in his school work. He studied on the book the geometry of Legendre and treaties of Lagrange. As reported by Richard "This student works only in the higher branches of Mathematics".
In April 1829 Galois had his first mathematical journal published on continued fractions in the annals of mathematics. On 25 May and 1 June he submitted articles on algebraic solution of the equations at the Academy of Sciences. Cauchy was appointed as a judge of the newspaper of Galois.
A tragedy shook Galois on 2 July 1829 when his father committed suicide. The priest of Bourg-la-Reine forged the name of Mayor Galois on malignant epigrams directed at relatives of Galois. Galois's father was good-natured and scandal that came out was more than he could think of. He hanged himself in his apartment in Paris, just a short walk from Louis-le-Grand, where he studied his son. Galois was deeply marked by the death of his father and this influenced the direction that took his life afterwards.
A few weeks after the death of his father, Galois claimed the entrance examination at the Polytechnic School for the second time. And for the second time he was rejected, perhaps in part because they supported him under the worst possible circumstances, that is too soon after the death of his father, partly because he was never very good at expressing his deep mathematical ideas. Galois therefore contented himself to enter the normal school, of which there was a branch in Louis-le-Grand, and for which he had to take the exams Baccalaureat, which could have avoided entering the Polytechnic School.
He passed them, and received his Bachelor's degree on 29 December 18His examiner in mathematics wrote: "the student is sometimes in difficulty in expressing his ideas, but is smart and shows a remarkable spirit of research."
His literature examiner wrote: "this is the only student who answered miserably, knows nothing. I was told that this student has an extraordinary ability in mathematics. This surprises me enormously, since, after his exam, I think he has very little intelligence. "
Galois sent him to the new work on the theory of equations, Cauchy but later learned from Bullentin de Fèrussac, in an article published posthumously Abel which coincided with a portion of his work. Galois, later welcomed the Board of Cauchy and introduced a new article on the condition that an equation is solvable through the radicals in February 18The newspaper was sent to the Academy's Secretary Fourier, to be considered for the Grand Prize of mathematics. Fourier died in April 1830 and Galois's paper was never subsequently found and never considered for the prize.
Galois, after reading the work of Abel and Jacobi, he worked on the theory of elliptic functions and abelian integrals. With the support of Jacques Sturm, he published three papers in Bullentin de Férussac in April 18However, he learned in June that the Academy Award was unanimously awarded to Abel and Jacobi (after his death), and that his personal work was not even been considered.
The July 1830 saw a revolution. Charles X fled France. There were rioters in the streets of Paris and the Director of the Ecole Normale, m. Guigniault, closed his students in the school to avoid that part. Galois tried to climb the wall to join the rebels, but failed. In December 1830 m. Guigniault wrote newspaper articles attacking students and Galois retorted in the Gazette des Ecole, attacking m. Guigniault for its decision to close the students in the school. Galois was expelled because of this letter and joined the Artillery of the National Guard, the Republican militias arm. On 31 December 1830 the artillery of the National Guard was abolished by a Royal Decree, since the new King Louis-Philippe the felt as a threat to his throne.
Two minor publications, an excerpt in the Annales de Gergonne (December 1830) and a letter on the teaching of science in the Gazette des Ecoles (2 January 1831) were the last publications during his lifetime. In January 1831 Galois attempted to return to mathematics. He organized some higher algebra math classes that drew forty students at the first meeting, but afterwards the number dropped significantly. Galois was prodded from Poisson to present a third version of his essay about the equations at the Academy and he heard him, leading him to end on 17 January.
On 18 April Sophie Germain wrote a letter to his friend, the mathematician books, which describes the situation of Galois. "... the death of Mr. Fourier, was too much for this student, Galois, who, despite his impertinence, shows signs of a remarkable arrangement. All
This has affected so much who was expelled from the Ecole Normale. Has no money. They say it will become completely crazy. I'm afraid it's true. "
Later in 1830 nineteen artillery officers of the National Guard were arrested and charged with conspiracy to overthrow the Government. They were acquitted and the 9 May 1831, 200 Republicans gathered for a dinner to celebrate the acquittal. During dinner, Galois lifted her glass and with a dagger in his hand, he seems to have made threats against the King, Louis-Philippe. After dinner, Galois was arrested and taken to the prison Sainte-Pélagie. At his trial, on June 15, his lawyer had said that defensive Galois "to Louis-Philippe, if wow factor" but the last words were masked by noise. Galois, rather surprisingly, for he had essentially repeated threats from the dock, was acquitted.
On July 14 was the day of the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille and Galois was again arrested. He wore the uniform of the Artillery of the National Guard, which was illegal. He carried a loaded gun, some pistols and a dagger. Galois was again sent into the prison of Sainte-Pélagie. While in prison he received the refusal of his essay. Poisson reported that: "his argument is neither sufficiently clear nor sufficiently well
developed to allow us to judge its value ".
He, however, encouraged Galois to publish a report of its work. In the prison Sainte-Pélagie, meanwhile, Galois tried to commit suicide, hitting with a dagger, but the other prisoners prevented him. While he was drunk in prison brought out his soul: "you know what I miss my friends? I confide to you alone: someone who I can love and love only in spirit. I lost my father and no one has ever replaced, are you listening? ".
In March 1832, a cholera epidemic swept Paris and prisoners, including Galois, Sieur Faultrier pension were transferred. Here he apparently fell in love with Stephanie-Felice du Motel, the daughter of the physicist. After I got it, the 29 April Galois switched letters with Stephanie, and it is clear that he was trying to get away from that relationship.
The name Stephanie appears many times as a side note in one of the manuscripts of Galois.
Galois fought in a duel with Perscheux of Herbinville on 30 may, the reason of the duel is not clear but it was definitely linked to Stephanie.
That's what led to the legend that he spent his last night writing all he knew about group theory. This story seems to, anyway, too overwhelming.
Galois was mortally wounded in a duel and was abandoned by Herbinville and his godparents personal and found by a farmer. He died at the age of 21 years in the hospital Cochin day 31 August 1832 and his funeral took place on June It was an opportunity for the rally of Republicans and was followed by riots that lasted for a few days.
Galois's brother and his friend Chevalier copied his mathematical papers and sent him to Gauss, Jacobi and others. Had been a desire by Galois that Jacobi and Gauss gave their opinions on his work. There is no record of any comment made by these two men. However, the newspapers came to Liouville which in September 1843, announced at the Academy that he had found in the papers of Galois a concise solution: "... so correct how deep is this amiable problem. Given an irreducible equation of first instance, decide whether it is fixable or not involving radicals. "
Liouville published these papers in his journal in 1846 Galois. Galois theory, which he sketched in these newspapers, is now called Galois theory ".
Biography of Don Carlo Gnocchi
October 25, 1902
February 28, 1956
Who is Don Carlo Gnocchi?Carlo Gnocchi, third son of Henry dumplings, stone Mason, and Clementina Pasta, seamstress, was born in San Colombano al Lambro, near Lodi, on October 25, 19Orphaned of his father Charles at the age of five he moved to Milan with his mother and two brothers Mario and Andrew. Not long after both brothers die of tuberculosis.
Charles, in poor health, often spends long periods of convalescence at an aunt in Montesiro, in the municipality of Besana, Monza, in Brianza. Carlo Gnocchi enters seminar at the school of Cardinal Andrea Ferrari and in 1925 he was ordained priest by the Archbishop of Milan, Eugenio Tosi. Don Gnocchi celebrates his first mass on 6 June in Asheklon.
The first commitment of the young Don Carlo Gnocchi is to Assistant of oratorio: first in Cernusco Sul Naviglio, near Milan, then after only a year in the populous parish of San Pietro in Sala, in Milan. Thanks to his work collects esteem, acclaim and affection among the people so that the fame of his skills as a great educator arrives in the Archbishopric. In 1936 he was appointed spiritual director of Cardinal Ildefonso Schuster, one of the most prestigious schools of Milan: the Gonzaga Institute of the brothers of the Christian schools. At this time Don Gnocchi studies intently and writes short essays of pedagogy. At the end of the years ' 30 Cardinal Schuster gives him the task of spiritual assistance for university students of the second Legion of Milan, comprising mostly students of the Catholic University in addition to many alumni of Gonzaga.
In the 1940 Italy entered the war and many young students are called to the front. Don Carlo, consistent educational tension that always wants to present with its young even in danger, he enlisted as a chaplain volunteer battalion "Val Tagliamento" degli alpini: its target is the Greek Albanian front.
Ended the campaign in the Balkans, after a short interval in Milan, in 1942 Don Carlo Gnocchi starts for the front. This time the goal is Russia, with the alpini of the Tridentine Mass. In January of 1943 begins the dramatic retreat of Italian contingent: Don Gnocchi, fell exhausted on the edge of the track where he passed the flood of soldiers, is miraculously rescued, collected from a sled and saved. It is precisely in this tragic experience, assisting the wounded and dying and mountain from which it obtains last wishes, mature in him the idea of creating a great work of charity that will find fulfillment, after the war, in the "Pro Juventute foundation". He returned to Italy in 1943, Gnocchi begins his pilgrimage through the alpine valleys in search of family members of the fallen, to give them moral and material comfort. In this same period helps many partisans and politicians to flee to Switzerland, risking your life: is stopped by the SS with the serious charge of espionage and activities against the regime.
Since 1945 begins to take concrete form that project to help the suffering thought during the war years: Don Gnocchi was appointed Director of the Institute of Helplessness Arosio (Como), and welcomes the first war orphans and children maimed. Thus began the work that will bring Don Carlo Gnocchi earning the title more worthy of "father of maimed children." Admission requests come from all over Italy and soon the property of Abel proves insufficient to accommodate children. In 1947 is granted for rent-to a figure entirely symbolic-a large house in Cassano Magnano, in Varese.
In 1949 the work of Don Gnocchi gets a first official recognition: the "Federation Pro Childhood Mutilated", which he had founded the previous year to better coordinate assistance interventions towards young victims of war, it is recognized officially by Decree of the President of the Republic. In the same year, the Prime Minister, Alcide De Gasperi, promotes Don Carlo Gnocchi Adviser to the Presidency of the Council of Ministers for the problem of war-maimed children. By this time, one after another, they open new colleges: Parma (1949), Pessano (1949), Turin (1950), Inverigo (1950), Rome (1950), Salerno (1950) and Pozzolatico (1951). In 1951 the "Mutilated" Childhood is dissolved and all Pro Federation of heritage and are attributed to the new legal entity created by Don Gnocchi: the "Pro Juventute" Foundation, recognized by Decree of the President of the Republic the February 11, 1952.
In 1955 Don Carlo launches its last great challenge: build a modern Centre which is the synthesis of his rehabilitation methodology. In September of that year, in the presence of the head of State, Giovanni Gronchi, is the foundation stone of the new structure around the stadium Meazza (San Siro) in Milan. Victim of an incurable disease Don Gnocchi fail to see completed the work in which he had invested more energy: February 28, 1956, death reaches him prematurely at the Columbus, Milan clinic where has long been hospitalized with a serious form of cancer.
Funerals, celebrated the day 1 March by Archbishop Montini (later Pope Paul VI), were great for participation and concussion. The general feeling was that the disappearance of Don Carlo Gnocchi had deprived the community of a true Saint. During the rite was brought to the microphone a child. A standing ovation followed the words of the child: "Before I said: Hi don Carlo. Now I say: Hi, san Carlo ". To support the coffin there were four alpini; others carried on shoulders small maimed children in tears. Among friends, acquaintances and ordinary citizens were one hundred thousand in gremire the Duomo and its square. The entire city draped in mourning.
The day of the funeral comes out a little book he wrote with his last strength, as a kind of Testament, which condenses all his life and his priesthood, his work among the youth of the parishes, the Gonzaga Institute, chaplain, but especially in the midst of the pain of the lowly and the youngest, to give each tear , every drop of blood scattered, the meaning and the highest value.
The last act of the Gnocchi was the corneal donation to two boys blind-Silvio Colagrande and amiable Battistello-when in Italy the transplantation was not governed by special laws. The double intervention, carried out by prof. Cesare Galeazzi, managed perfectly. The generosity of Don Carlo that he was dying and the enormous impact that the transplant and the results of operations they had on public opinion decisive acceleration imparted to the debate. In a matter of weeks launched a law on the subject.
Thirty years after the death of Don Carlo Gnocchi Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini will establish the process of Beatification. The Diocesan phase launched in 1987 ended in 19The December 20, 2002 Pope John Paul II declared him venerable. In 2009 Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi announces that the beatification will take place on 25 October of that year.
Biography of Katy Perry
October 25, 1984
Who is Katy Perry?Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson was born in Santa Barbara (California, USA) on October 25, 19The daughter of two pastors Methodists, Katy Perry grows up listening to gospel music. At the age of 15 years has already itself the determination needed to follow a career in music. He started working for some time in Nashville with some important authors and professional composers: a 17 year old Katy comes into contact with the legendary producer and songwriter Glen Ballard, who for several years driving, understands and develops his talent and his ability to write lyrics. In 2001 then obtains a contract with Red Hill Records, which released his first album, which bears his real name, "Katy Hudson"; the album is the Christian gospel genre.
Afterwards begins to be influenced by rock music, Freddie Mercury from Queen to Alanis Morissette. The strength of the songs and the beautiful voice of Katy capture the attention of Jason Flom, head of Capitol Music Group, which puts it under contract in the spring of 20At this point of his career decides to change his name by adopting his mother's maiden name; became known as Katy Perry, abandoning Katy Hudson because it's a name too consistent to those of actress Kate Hudson.
Katy Perry began working with the production team ' The Matrix ' and, in particular, with producer Glen Ballard. During this period, also affects a song that is featured on the soundtrack of the film "4 the Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants" (Sisterhood of the Travelling Pants). In early 2007, he signed with Capitol Records, with whom the June 17, 2008 releases the album "One of the Boys". The album was preceded by an EP, in 2007, titled "Ur So Gay", produced and written with Greg Wells (producer of OneRepublic and Mika). The song that gives the title to the EP, "Ur So Gay", attracts the attention of Madonna; the latter has no way to declare several times his appreciation for Katy Perry.
On April 29, 2008 is extracted and promoted the first single from the album "One of the Boys"; the song is called "I Kissed a Girl" debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 at # 76, climb the leaderboards and arrives at the Summit on June 25, 20The success contribute perhaps the controversy and disputes relating to the representation of sexuality, homosexuality and promiscuity that the text expresses. Katy Perry has also worked as an actress on the soap opera "love fever"; She also appeared in a few video clips, one of P.o.d. Albumstop and one of the song "Cupid's Chokehold" by Gym Class Heroes, whose leader Travis McCoy, was her boyfriend until early 2009.
Perezhilton.com, one of the forerunners of new trends, wrote "If Avril Lavigne she really talented and really pretty and seductive, it'd be Katy Perry. She has all these qualities. " To emphasize how do Katy Perry's character trend include its television appearances worldwide broadcasts live, as "Quelli che il calcio" by Simona Ventura, in 2008, and the Festival of Sanremo 2009, desired and invited by Paolo Bonolis, conductor and artistic director.
The wedding October 23, 2010 British actor Russell Brand in India, in a traditional hindu ceremony; the marriage, however, is very short: after only fourteen months the two divorce.
Biography of Pablo Picasso
25 October 1881
April 8, 1973
Who is Pablo Picasso?Pablo Ruiz Picasso was born on 25 October 1881, at night, in Malaga, Plaza de la Merced. His father, José Ruiz Blasco, is Professor at the school of Arts and crafts and curator of the Museum of the city. During your free time is also a painter. He devoted himself especially to the decoration of the dining rooms: leaves, flowers, parrots and especially pigeons which portrays and study habits and attitudes-almost obsessively-much to breed them and make them flutter freely in the House.
It is said that the first word spoken by little Pablo was not the traditional "mom", but "Piz", from "lapiz", meaning pencil. And before you even start talking Pablo draws. He does so well that, a few years later, his father leaves partner with some of his paintings, entrusting him-strange the case--precisely the treatment and definition of details. The result surprised everyone: the young Picasso immediately reveals an early inclination for drawing and painting. His father encourages his attitude, hoping to find in him the realization of his ambitions dashed.
In 1891 the family moved to La Coruna, where Don José has accepted a teaching post of drawing in the local Art Institute; Here Pablo from 1892 he attended drawing classes from the school of fine arts.
Meanwhile, the parents give birth to two more children, one of whom died almost immediately. In this same period the young Picasso reveals a new interest: gives birth to many magazines (made in a single copy) that writes and illustrates alone, baptizing them with the names, like "La torre de Hércules, La Coruna," "Azuly Blanco".
In June 1895 José Ruiz Blasco gets a place in Barcelona. New transfer of the family: Pablo continued her art studies at the Academy of the Catalan capital. He even a study, in calle de la Plata, he shares with his friend Manuel Pallarès.
In the following years we find Pablo in Madrid, where he won the competition of the Royal Academy. Works a lot, eats little, lives in a hovel poorly heated and eventually get sick. With scarlet fever returns to Barcelona, where for a time he attended the artistic literary Tavern "the four cats" ("Els Quatre Gats"), named in honor of "Le Chat Noir in Paris. Here we find artists, politicians, poets and vagabonds of all kinds and breed.
The following year, is the 1897, he completed a series of masterpieces, including the famous canvas "Science and charity", still very linked to the pictorial tradition of the 19th century. The picture gets a mention at the national exposition of fine arts in Madrid. While diligently attending the Academy and the father thinks of sending him to Monaco, his explosive nature and revolutionary begins slowly to manifest. During this time, among other things, it also adopts his mother's name as a stage name. He himself explains this decision, declaring that "my friends call me Barcelona Picasso because that name was more strange, more sonorous of Ruiz. It is probably for this reason that I adopted. "
In this choice, many see actually a growing conflict between father and son, a decision that underlines the bond of affection of the mother, which according to numerous testimonials, it seems to have taken much. However, despite the contrasts, the father continues to be a model for the disheveled artist, about to make a radical break with the aesthetic climate of his time. Picasso works with fury. The paintings, watercolors, pencil and charcoal drawings that come out from his studio in Barcelona in recent years are surprising for their eclecticism.
True to its roots and its affections, is in the Hall of theatrical performances of "Els Quatre Gats" that Picasso held his first solo exhibition, which opened on February 1, 19Despite the intent of the artist (and his circle of friends) is to shock the audience, the show basically like, despite the usual reservations of conservative, and they sell many works on paper.
Pablo becomes a "character", hated and loved. The role of the artist cursed for some suits. But at the end of the summer 1900, suffocated by the surrounding environment, it takes a train to Paris.
He settled in Montmartre, host Barcelona painter Isidro Nonell, and meets many of his countrymen, including Pedro Manyac, art dealer who offered him 150 francs a month in return for its production: the sum is decent and allows to Picasso to live a few months in Paris without too many worries. Not the good times economically, despite the important friendships tightening in recent years, including one with the critic and poet Max Jacob who tries to help him in every way. Meanwhile knows a girl of her age: Fernande Olivier, who portrayed in many of his paintings.
The Parisian climate, and more specifically that of Montmartre, has a profound influence. In particular Picasso was struck by Toulouse-Lautrec, which inspired for some works of that period.
At the end of the same year back in Spain thanks to this experience. Stay in Malaga, then spends a few months in Madrid, where he collaborated to the realization of a new magazine "Artejoven", published by the Catalan Francisco de Asis Soler (Picasso shows almost the entire first issue with grotesque scenes of night life). In February 1901 receives but a terrible news: the friend Casagemas committed suicide for an unhappy love affair. The event deeply affects Picasso, marking his long life and his art.
Depart for Paris: this time we go back to set up an exhibit at the influential merchant Ambroise Vollard.
Twenty-five years Picasso is recognized and admired not only as a painter but also as a sculptor and engraver. During a visit to the Musée de l'homme, the Trocadero in Paris, was struck by the masks of black Africa, there exposed, and charm that exude. Mixed feelings, fear, terror, hilarity manifest themselves with an immediacy that Picasso would even in his works. Comes to light the work "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon," which opens one of the most important artistic movements of the century: Cubism.
In 1912 Picasso meets the second woman in his life: Marcelle, whom he called Eva, indicating that she has become the first of all women. The words "I love Eva" appears on many paintings of Cubist period.
In the summer of 1914 he begins to breathe air war. Some of the friends of Pablo, including Braque, Apollinaire, leave for the front. Montmartre is the first quarter. Many artistic circles are empty.
Unfortunately in the winter 1915 Eva falls ill with tuberculosis and a few months later he died. For Picasso is a hard blow. Change home, moves outside Paris. Know the poet Cocteau who, in close contact with the "Ballets Russes" (the same for which Stravinsky was composing, to which Picasso will devote a memorable portrait in ink), proposes to design the costumes and scenes of the next show. The "Ballets Russes" also have another importance, this time strictly private: thanks to them, the artist knows a new woman, Olga Kokhlova, who will soon become his wife and his new Muse, from there a few years replaced with Marie-Therese Walter, of just seventeen, although undoubtedly much mature. The latter will come as lifeblood in the works of the artist as a favorite model.
In 1936, at a time not easy even from a personal perspective, civil war breaks out in Spain: the Republicans against General Franco's fascists. For his love of freedom Picasso sympathizes for Republicans. Many artist friends depart to join the international brigades.
One evening, in a café of Saint-Germain, presented to him by the poet Paul Eluard, knows Dora Maar, a painter and photographer. Immediately, the two understand each other, thanks to the common interest for painting, and among them was born a cartel.
Meanwhile the news from the front are not good: the fascists are advancing.
The 1937 is the year of the universal exposition in Paris. For Republicans the Frente Popular it is important that the legitimate Spanish Government there is well represented. For the occasion, Picasso creates an enormous work, "Guernica", named after the Basque city just bombed by the Germans. Attack that had caused many deaths, among the people intent on fulfilling market costs. The "Guernica" becomes the opera symbol of the fight against fascism.
In the years ' 50 Pablo Picasso is by now an authority worldwide. He has seventy years and is finally clear, affections and working life. In the following years the success increases and often the artist's privacy is violated by unscrupulous journalists and photographers. There are exhibitions, works on artworks, paintings on boards. Until April 8, 1973 when Pablo Picasso, at the age of 92 years, suddenly turns off.
The last frame of the genius-as Andre Malraux--"only death has managed to dominate", dated January 13, 1972: is the famous "character with bird".
The last statement that remains of Picasso is this: "everything I have done is just the first step on a long road. It is only a preliminary process that must develop much later. My works are to be seen in relation to each other, always taking account of what I did and what I am about to do ".
Works of Picasso: deepening of some significant paintings
The Absinthe drinker (1901)
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907)
Self portrait (1907)
Three women (1909)
Harlequin in the mirror (1923)