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Ray Charles… Wilkie Collins… John Coltrane… Sigmund Freud… Romy Schneider… Biographies Multiposts

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Biographies of famous and historical figures

Encyclopedia of Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Augustus biography
  2. Biography of Vincenzo Bellini
  3. Ray Charles biography
  4. Biography of Wilkie Collins
  5. John Coltrane biography
  6. Renato Curcio biography
  7. Biography of Salvo D'acquisto
  8. Biography of Bob Fosse
  9. Biography of Sigmund Freud
  10. Biography of Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi
  11. Biography of Josefa Idem
  12. Julio Iglesias biography
  13. Biography of Aldo Moro
  14. Pablo Neruda biography
  15. Padre Pio biography
  16. Biography of Gino Paoli
  17. Mario Pincherle biography
  18. Paolo Rossi biography
  19. Romy Schneider biography
  20. Bruce Springsteen biography

Augustus biography

The foundations of an empire
September 23, 63 Bc
August 19, 14

Who is Augustus?

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Augustus was born in Rome in 63 BC, Gaius Octavius is the father and the mother is Azia, the daughter of Julia, sister of Julius Caesar. In 45 BC Caesar adopts, for he has no male descendants. While located in Apollonia, in Greece, in order to study waiting to leave for the expedition against the Parthians, Octavian Caesar receives news of the death of Julius Caesar on March 15 44 BC's back to Rome to avenge the killing of Caesar and to collect the inheritance left by him. At the age of nineteen Octavian shows great determination and courage, managing to keep his two bitter enemies, Marcus Antonius and the Roman Senate.
The disagreement between Octavian and Mark Antony is now evident, since the latter refuses to deliver immediately in the hands of the first Caesar's legacy. The most bitter conflict you have in Modena, where Octavian supported by veterans of Caesar and the Senate gets the victory against Mark Antony.
In 43 BC, realizing that the Senate strongly supports the oligarchic form of Government and to try to find a truce with Mark Antony, Octavian, as Consul, agree with the latter and Lepidus to create their Triumvirate. In the years of the triumvirate of the three ordered to kill their enemies, seize assets, distributed land to the Veterans of Caesar and enlist military forces to be deployed in the battle against supporters of Brutus and Cassius, who took refuge in Greece. The three men share the Roman lands. In 42 BC, the armed forces of Octavian Caesar and Mark Antony are reporting a huge victory against the men of Brutus and Caesar in Philippi.
Despite a second agreement between the triumvirs and the partitions made, territorial conflict between Mark Antony and Octavian is rekindled, leading to the battle of Actium of 31 BC, which ended in 29 BC, Octavian's victory in 27 BC receives the title of Augustus. He has the task of reorganizing the Roman Empire in terms of political, economic, military and religious. Respectful of the old Roman Institutions, he is preparing to run in an exemplary way the Roman Empire. He also for the position of Roman Consul also accumulates those princeps and Senates of Imperator, which can send Given to his heirs.
Augusto realizes that the time has come to put an end to the Republican form of Government, because the Empire's territory is very vast. In fact, he realizes that the time has come to carry out a constitutional reform in the Empire, it is for this reason that in 27 BC he chastises end of military emergency. Cesare Ottaviano Augusto carries within the Empire a whole series of major reforms including constitutional reform, the reorganization of the armed forces, decreasing the number of Legions by fifty to twenty-eight and eighteen, finally the order to carry out numerous public works to embellish the Imperial capital, Rome. Administratively also creates new colonies, Provinces and prefectures, with the objective of romanizzarle.
Augustus in his hands all the economic power of the Principality, but seeks to ensure that resources are distributed fairly, so that you have the support of all the subject populations. In the provinces it makes build roads, ports, new commercial port facilities. In 23-15 BC reorders the monetary system. His Principality, known for his peaceful characters, actually was characterized by numerous threats and conflicts such as the conflict in the North-Western Iberian Peninsula from 29 BC to 19 BC, which then became part of the Empire. After countless military clashes on the border of the Danube and the Rhine are permanently incorporated in the Imperial domains.
Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Augustus died on 19 August 14 ad, leaving in the hands of Tiberius a great empire.

Biography of Vincenzo Bellini

The colors of the melody
November 3, 1801
September 23, 1835

Who is Vincenzo Bellini?

Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini, Italian composer, one of the most famous of 800 composers, was born in Catania on November 3, 18He studied music in Catania, then in Naples (1819). Among his teachers there is Nicola Antonio Zingarelli, who directs him towards the study of the classics. Know the calabrese Francesco Florimo, which establishes a deep and lasting friendship. Florimo becomes Librarian of the Conservatory of Naples and you friend's biographer Bellini, who died prematurely.
Among his first compositions, at this time, there are works of sacred music, some symphonies and some Arias for voice and orchestra, including the famous "Sore image", now known for subsequent adaptations for voice and piano.
Presents in 1825 at the Conservatory Theatre "Adelson e Salvini", his first and final course work. Only a year later with "Bianca e Fernando", comes the first big and unexpected success. Not to disrespect to Prince Ferdinand of Bourbon, the opera was staged at the teatro San Carlo in Naples with the title changed to "Bianca e Gernando".
In 1827 he was commissioned to write an opera to be represented at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan. Bellini leaves Naples and Maddalena Fumaroli, the girl he loves but who had not been able to marry because of the opposition of his father.
Are staged in Milan "Il pirata" (1827) and "La straniera" (1829) getting resounding successes; in the pages of the press of the time Milan you can appreciate how Bellini was considered the only Italian Opera composer with a distinct personal style can stand up to that of Gioacchino Rossini.
"Zaira" in 1829, represented in Parma, gets less fortunate: it seems that the style of Bellini are adapted to the tastes of the traditional provincial audience. Of later works the most successful are those written for the public in Milan: "La sonnambula" (1831), Norma (1831) and "Paris" (I puritani-1835).
At the same time also includes two works for the teatro La Fenice in Venice: "I Capuleti e I Montecchi (1830), for which suitable part of music written for" Zaira ", and" little lucky Beatrice di Tenda (1833).
The turning point in his career as in his artistic evolution coincided with his move to Paris. Vincenzo Bellini here comes into contact with some of the greatest composers of Europe (including Fryderyk Chopin); while retaining its melodic inspiration, the music of the Italian language is enriched with colours and new solutions.
In Paris he composed numerous Chamber romance of great interest, some of which are in French. It is now mature and ready to compose a work in French for the Opéra de Paris: Unfortunately his career and his life is cut short at the age of 33 years, from an intestinal infection probably contracted a few years earlier.
Vincenzo Bellini is buried near Chopin and cherubs in Père Lachaise Cemetery, where his body will remain for over forty years, until 1876, when it is brought to the Cathedral of Catania.
Starting from 1985 until the entry into force of the Euro, the Italian banknote from 5,000 Lire showed the representation of the face of Vincenzo Bellini.

Ray Charles biography

The Genius
September 23, 1930
June 10, 2004

Who is Ray Charles?

Ray Charles Robinson was born in Albany, Georgia on 23 September 19As a child begins to sing in Church, but around five years accused serious eye problems, that within a few months will lead to blindness.
"The genius" as it is called by those who know him well since its inception, he created his first group, the "McSon Trio" in 1947, on the style of the famous "Nat King Cole trio".
Ray Charles could only be inspired by this music giant, who in many quarters is referred to as the true forerunner of soul music, author of memorable songs like "I got the woman" or "Unforgettable". All songs that show how King Cole managed to transform gospel music (basically religious tradition), into something secular but equally spiritual.
All of which have profoundly influenced the artistic development of "The genius" who, thanks to his great vocal talent, could turn any song (it was blues, pop or country), in an intimate and inner experience.
The first disc, "Confession Blues" (for the Swingtime) 19The transformations begin when Ray Charles participates in session of Guitar Slim that will give life to the excellent "The things I used to do". His first big hit, "I got a woman" (1954) is a prime example of the qualities described above, then repeated by numerous other songs including we must mention "Talkin' bout you", "This little girl of mine" and "Hallelujah I love her so". In all these pieces, Charles interprets one of the most significant changes in the evolution and history of Black Music, with a style very similar to the jazz world and practice of improvisation. Not surprisingly his performances remain some memorable to renowned jazz Festival, teeming with connoisseurs-trained ears ready to kill mercilessly anyone who does not live up to their expectations.
After Ray Charles came to softer beaches, turning his music toward pop-orchestral style that alienated almost permanently from those characteristics he forged themselves. Big hits of the era are the magical "Georgia on my mind" and "I can't stop loving you" 1962.
In the mid-60 's is plagued by physical problems and trouble with the law caused by heavy drug use started at the Seattle Times and finally stopped in recent years.
In 1980 he participated in the cult movie "The Blues Brothers" (cult film by John Landis, starring John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd), film which raised not just its immense figure.
Then something must be broken inside him: for a long time the genius of soul was missing from the stage as well as the sale of cut, occasionally the pearls from the past and forcing fans to turn to his discography, however rich, composed of dozens of disks.
He died on June 10, 2004 in Beverly Hills, California, at the age of 73 years, of complications from liver disease.

Biography of Wilkie Collins

Yellow-ghost stories
January 8, 1824
September 23, 1889
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Who is Wilkie Collins?

Wilkie Collins was born in London on January 8, 1824, eldest son of the landscape painter William Collins. At the age of thirteen she moved with her family to Italy and stays there for about two years. His passion for fiction is stimulated even more by his experience in college. He began to write fantasy stories to escape from the oppression of a bully who, as he himself says, awakens his creative potential. Unfortunately Wilkie is an easy victim of jokes and scorn of his fellow students, because from birth is haunted by a pleasant aspect and almost deformed: it is, in fact, very low, but with head and thorax and disproportionate particularly small hands and feet.
His father, despite his son's artistic inclinations, wants to start a career in the legal profession or in the tea trade. For a short time he worked as an apprentice tea merchants, and defines the merchant apprenticeship a veritable prison feeding her adamant desire to become a writer. Despite the clashes with his father, whose sore bears especially religious rigidity, studied law but never practiced the legal profession. Knowledge of the law will still be useful for a writer: lawyers are the absolute protagonists of many of his novels. The first book that writes and publishes in 1848 is just a biography.
One of the most important gatherings of the young aspiring writer's life is that, in 1851, with Charles Dickens, and became and remains for life not only man, but also travel companion: the two roam together in the most forgotten in London and Paris. He collaborated for five years at magazines dickensiane "Household Words" and "All the year Round" and Dickens himself talking commends the hard work and dedication. To tie the two writers is also the common passion for Theatre: Charles Dickens, in fact, acted in two operas written by his friend and colleague fraternal.
Throughout his life the unfortunate writer suffers from gout, rheumatic pains and serious eye problems. To relieve the pain of being inflicted, the opium is prescribed for therapeutic purposes. But soon, Collins becomes dependent on: addiction that will last throughout her life with frequent moments of real excess.
Wilkie Collins achieves popularity in 1860 with the novel "the woman in white". The novel, published in accordance with the tradition of the time, inaugurated the genre of novels and is a mistaken identity centered on the similarity between the two female protagonists. One of two mad Anne Catherick, the protagonist of the novel meet at night in a London Park completely dressed in white. To inspire the writer is the real meeting in 1858 in Rengent's Park with a female ghost completely draped in a white robe. The fleeting appearance fascinates and intrigues in order to induce him to follow her. The woman fled from a villa in the park where he was held captive and treated with medical practices of Mesmerism, never recognized by official medicine. The woman is Caroline Graves, a widow with a young daughter. Wilkie and Caroline weave a relationship that will last for thirty years, but never married. Their relationship never breaks despite the writer couple, with a false name, the 19-year-old maid her mother, with whom he has three children, all baptized with the fake name of both spouses. Caroline same remarried but lives with her new husband only for three years and then return to live permanently with Wilkie Collins, who will continue to lead until his death a kind of double life.
The success of "the woman in white" does not remain isolated, received a favorable reception subsequent novels. The most known are: "Armadale (1866)" the Moonstone "(1868). The latter novel to be considered the father of detective fiction as the writer T.S. Eliot. The novel is published in installments, and, with each new issue of the magazine, a public increasingly anxious waiting to follow the investigation to find out who has stolen the precious Indian diamond that gives the title to the work, and that is the subject of a terrible curse. Despite the illness, Collins is a prolific writer in later years continues to write both novels and short stories. Among the novels: "the law and the Lady" (1875), "man and woman" (1870), "Jezebel's daughter" (1880).
Since 1880 the writer's health worsens even more. In 1889 following a carriage accident begins to suffer from lung problems; Wilkie Collins
He died in London on September 23, 1889 at the age of 65 years.

John Coltrane biography

Milestones and strides
September 23, 1926
July 17, 1967

Who is John Coltrane?

John William Coltrane, known only as John Coltrane, was born on 23 September 1926 in Hamlet, North Carolina, Usa. Is considered the greatest tenor in the history of jazz, master of the soprano sax, who also knew how to revive after decades of tarnish. According to many critical opinions should be considered together with his colleague Charlie Parker of the greatest innovators of music genre invented by African Americans in the late 19th century and early 20th.
Always imitated the style, tone, the dissonances, gave birth to some of the best discs of Jazz history, from "My Favourite Things" in "A love supreme". Some songs he composed, how the beautiful ballad "Naima", are now part of the classical repertoire of jazz music.
Both families of origin of the future have Scottish saxophonist surnames, undeniable sign of their African ancestry, the outcome is of the Negroes in the market which, as is well known, the United Kingdom had its monopoly from Central America up, especially on the East coast of the new world.
His mother's name is Alice Gertrude Blair, and will have a strong influence on him. His father comes from a family not particularly well seen in Hamlet, and which only merit to initiating his own son to music, albeit in an indirect way. Taylor, an amateur violinist himself, most likely dies when little John enrolled in junior high school, where he began playing the alto saxophone and clarinet, as well as the content, without ever storing hopes in music as a means for the future sustenance. Many years will pass before Coltrane's star blossom and be recognized universally.
The turning point for the young John arrives around 1944, when he moved to Philadelphia to attend the Granoff School of Music Studios. To fill with enthusiasm me, during those years, by convincing him that the saxophone would do permanently part of his life, are the musicians Lester Young and Johnny Hodges, whose music and fell in love.
The following year, saxophonist enlisted in the Navy and began to make music their work, playing in some cocktail band in Philadelphia. Returned to civilian life in 1946, is being done in many orchestras, in which he learns the sounds of Rhythm and blues, a genre that has a lot of importance to his artistic development. The blues experience involves him until 1948, when he finds himself member of the orchestra that accompanies guest singers of the legendary Apollo Theatre in Harlem, New York.
In this period, from about 1947 until 1951, John Coltrane skims some of the giants of American bop, sometimes suonandoci together, albeit for short sessions, watching and listening to them play at the height of their artistic evolutions. Intersects with musicians such as Miles Davis, Sonny Rollins, Art Blakey, and during 1949-1951 playing for several months with the great trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, at that time one of the few "clean" of American jazz, engaged in the hard and painful struggles to save the best talent ever from the grip of heroin (one for all, the legendary Charlie Parker, victim of those years).
Dates back to 1955 the first intake of Coltrane with a big time. Miles Davis wants with it, in fact, fixed in its formation. However the experience between them, the first, lasts just one year and Davis fired him, telling a Coltrane as far from a real stylistic definition, immature and devoid of his artistic personality.
Seven months after the dismissal, however, in 1956, John Coltrane is used at one of the greatest jazz experimentalists of all time, which will be of key importance for its musical maturation: the great Thelonious Monk. ' Trane, as it is dubbed in those years, he plays in a Quartet that performs at the Five Spot in New York, along with the great pianist, from whom he learns the experimentalism with both hands, inspired by new and more intricate sounds.
The saxophonist, who would in the future defined a Monk "musical architect of the highest order", at that time he goes home every day of the pianist, forcing him to teach him all his musical knowledge. It was the turning point for him, also because of the abandonment of the heroin, the drug that hitherto prevented him from concentrating fully on the study of the instrument.
It is the time in which the "sheets of sound", "curtain or sheets of sound," according to the definition that gives someone the papers of the time, speaking of the sounds developed by ' Except in those days. Saxophonist stumbles in compositions by Monk and during the months when he plays at the Five Spot search and find their own way, working on harmonics, prolonging his solo to the end, drawing their legendary "cries", moans or grunts, sound directly from the blues repertoire, played years before and repeated during the giddy live session.
When he returns with Miles Davis in 1958, Coltrane is a different musician, accomplished, in strong evolution. Dates back to this period, a legendary recording of "Round midnight", where you can see all the talent in the new ' fibrillation Trane. This year begins his Golden moment which, after an ill-fated European tour culminates in 1960 with the publication by the Atlantic of his first solo album, "Giant step".
The step is really gigantic, Coltrane because work contains masterpieces of the genre as his "Naima", dedicated to his wife, "Countdown" and "Cousin Mary". In these you can see the turn from his improvisation, now paid in the style pioneered by Davis and endorsed by Coltrane: modal.
At the end of the same year winning saxophonist critics, colleagues and the public with the first of an endless (and often abusive) series of engravings about his most famous song, "My favourite things", which also marks the debut for him, from the point of view, the soprano saxophone, an instrument dropped quietly after the Eclipse of Sidney Bechett.
In the period of "My favourite things" Coltrane gives life to his Quartet, which sanctioned the birth of a new way of thinking about be-bop. Binds the drummer Elvin Jones and the great pianist McCoy Tyner, both soloists for years to come, pulling in that last piece double bass also the equally formidable Jimmy Garrison.
Throughout the 1961 experiment and saxophonist, and gives rise to some memorable compositions, including also appears another great talent, multi-instrumentalist Eric Dolphy. "Africa", "Impressions", "Donna" and "Spiritual" are songs that make for a good idea of the talent of ' Trane, whose evolution in that period comes down increasingly to Africa, winking at India and its "raga".
In this period the Atlantic and Impulse labels compete to have his recordings, sometimes essays looking autographs, other daughters of particular versions of standard unforgettable. But between 1964 and 1965 that John Coltrane made his masterpiece of mysticism and music, soul and African American Indian ancestry, with the album "A love supreme". The title track that gives the title to the work consists of a four-part suite, which wants to be a real song of praise of God, a prayer, a hymn. The duration, in various versions, is never less than thirty minutes.
Is the maximum for his art and the subsequent albums that he recorded as "Meditations" and "Om" (a clear evocation Brahmanic), however, cannot reach the peaks reached at the end of 1965.
A few months later Coltrane also takes under a great disciple, Pharoah Sanders, who stands with him in live performances and in some short recordings, in a dialectical way, taking both hands by the master and bringing his music to the extreme, always varying it and making it even more unique.
Please note at this time the tour in Japan, very successful, and the sudden cancellation by the saxophonist of his coming in Europe, probably because of his health problems.
As for the discs, his last engravings date back to February and March of 1967, after a memorable concert with Ornette Coleman in the Village of New York. In this phase it was possible to find, as is evident in the discs published posthumously by titles "Expressions" and "Interstellar space", a change of course nothing short of remarkable in ' Trane, outcome of its ongoing research, to talk about some sort of new "Chamber Music", for when absolutely afro-descended.
On July 17, 1967 in Huntington hospital on Long Island, John Coltrane died of liver cancer.
Of the four children he had had with Alice Coltrane, Ravi became a popular musician.

Renato Curcio biography

A five-pointed star
September 23, 1941

Who is Renato Curcio?

Renato Curcio was born in Monterotondo (Rome) on September 23, 19Was born from an affair between his mother Yolanda Curcio, young girl pugliese emigrated to Rome, and Renato Zampa, brother of the well-known film director Luigi Zampa.
Lived a difficult childhood because of precarious jobs. Was soon marked by the death of his uncle Armando, worker at Fiat, killed in 1945 by a reprisal of the RSI (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, known popularly as the Republic of Salò, the fascist government denomination established in Italian territory occupied by the Nazis, and founded by Mussolini in 1943).
Renato spent his adolescence between Milan and Houses, where she attended Catholic militancy. He graduated from the Galileo Galilei Institute Campochiesa di Albenga frazione.
In 1962 he moved to Trento and enrolled in the Faculty of Historical Sociology, from which a few years later (1968) notes will start mobilizations. In Trento Margherita know Mara Cagol, who would become his wife. In 1967 founded the study group "University": the group performs an activity of analysis and theoretical training through study and reading of texts ignored by college classes. Among the authors include Che Guevara, Mao Zedong, Herbert Marcuse, Cabral, Padgett.
In these years mature their "ideological belief" within the academic struggles, joining some small groups of the extreme left. For a time share their home with Mauro Rostagno, left, intelligent and charismatic, which is also nicknamed the "Who" of Trento.
Will complete all examinations, then for political choice, decides not to graduate.
Curcio, who joined the magazine Marxist-Leninist "political work", has a way of expressing opinions away from armed struggle.
The rethinking on the subject of violence comes after (and probably also caused by) the clashes of Avola of December 2, 1968: on this occasion the police fired on and killed two workers and continuing to shoot non-stop for 25 minutes.
At the beginning of November 1969 in any full student protest: Curcio participates in the now famous Chiavari Conference at hotel Stella Maris. Here are the foundations to start the armed struggle in Italy, that takes a core of belonging to the Milan Metropolitan political Collective. The next year they founded the Red Brigades: the month of may of 1970 when in the suburb of Lorenteggio, to Milan, the first flyers with the five-pointed star.
Curcio is driving the BR with his wife Mara and Alberto Franceschini. The first is the subversive action September 17, 1970, when the Group blows the garage by Giuseppe Leoni, Director of SIT Siemens company. Sit Siemens, Pirelli, Alfa Romeo were the first industries where the armed party takes office.
In 1974 Curcio is stopped. Thanks to an action led by Mara, Curcio he escaped in February 19In the summer of the same year his wife died during a shootout with law enforcement. Renato Curcio was again arrested at the beginning of 1976 (thanks to the infiltration inside the BR of Silvano Girotto, then passed into history as "Frate Mitra").
With the death of Mara and the imprisonment of leading Curcio and Feng, the direction of movement was handed over to representatives of the so-called "military wing" led by Mario Moretti, who will lead the group in the miserable season of injuries and murders that Italy will know from the second half of the 70 's.
Although Curcio had never theorized as violence, bloodshed ever repented of his choices. Remained in jail from 1976 until 7 April 1993, it is now Editorial Director in "sensitive" leaves, for which he has written books on the subject of social insecurity ("flexible", "the consumer worked" and "the company").

Biography of Salvo D'acquisto

The sacrifice and memory
October 15, 1920
September 23, 1943

Who is subject to purchasing?

Salvo d'acquisto was born on 15 October 1920 in Naples, in Antignano in via San Gennaro, in a four-storey building, Villa Alba. His father, Salvatore, Palermo, while his mother, Ines, you.
The first of five children (the others being frank, Rosario, Erminia and Alexander), Except following a growing strict Catholic education since an early age and attended the asylum from salesiane Figlie di Maria Ausiliatrice in via Vomero Alvino.
After elementary school (school "Vanvitelli") and averages, he enrolled at the liceo "Giambattista Vico", which he finished the military card for calling lever; enlisted-August 15 1939-as a volunteer in the Carabinieri, in which they played or weapon includes his maternal grandfather and three uncles.
The arma dei Carabinieri
After attending School, he was promoted to officer and sent to the Legion of Rome. Here he remained for some months, serving the core Fabbriguerra in Rome Sallustiana.
He later volunteered for Libya with the Carabinieri Section 608esima near Tripoli: is the 23 November 1940, and it's been a few months since the beginning of World War II. Despite a leg injury, Unless he decides to stay in area of operations with his unit, but because of malarial fever is forced to return to Italy.
In September 1942 he attended the Nco School Carabinieri in Florence, and a few months later he was appointed a midshipman. Then, after obtaining the rank of Deputy Brigadier, is sent to Torrimpietra, at the local police station: a rural area along the via Aurelia, to several tens of kilometres from Rome (in an area that today is part of the municipality of Fiumicino).
The meeting with the Nazi SS
After the Badoglio proclamation of 8 September 1943, Salvo D'acquisto has to contend with the presence of an SS Division arrived on site: some men of the German troops, in fact, accasermano in different locations previously used by the Guardia di Finanza in Torre di Palidoro, a city which is part of the territorial jurisdiction of the Torrimpietra Carabinieri.
On this occasion, on 22 September, the SS soldiers are victims of the explosion of a hand grenade occurred during an inspection of abandoned crates containing ammunition: two soldiers are injured and two others die. Responsibility for the episode is attributed to some local assassins, and the Commander of the German Department calls for the collaboration of the police: to respond to the request is Salvo D'acquisto, due to the absence of the Commander.
German threats of reprisals if they are not found guilty of wrongdoing, Deputy Brigadier napoletano you put in search of reliable information about the incident, and considers that the SS is considered a fortuitous accident.
For an order of Feldmarschall Kesselring, however, the Germans did not recede from its position, and impose a reprisal. On September 23 are staged the raids leading to the capture of 22 people chosen randomly among the local residents, while a team picks up army forcibly Salvo D'acquisto from the barracks and in the main square in Palidoro, along with the other hostages.
During a quick interrogation, all Italians declare themselves innocent; Meanwhile, Deputy Brigadier is separate from the raked, kept in check by the German military, who are taking it with a stick and hit him: he keeps a dignified demeanor. At that point the Germans ask Salvo D'acquisto indicate the names of those responsible, and the policeman responds that the explosion was accidental: I mean, there aren't any.
Heroic action
As a result, and the hostages are taken out of the country: the raked Spades are delivered and are forced to dig to get a mass grave in view of their shooting. Excavations lasting for a few hours; However, the hostages are all-unexpectedly-released except of purchase.
The latter, in fact, self-incrimination of the attack, even though you may not be responsible for saving the lives of twenty-two prisoners, who in fact are immediately freed and escaped. Salvo d'acquisto remains inside the pit in front of the platoon ready to carry out the execution. Before being killed, he throws the cry "long live Italy!"; then the Germans shoot without mercy. His body is then covered by the military, with the excavated soil above. Was less than 23 years.
Salvo D'acquisto today and to the memory of his sacrifice are titled monuments, avenues and barracks. His figure was also commemorated by Pope John Paul II, who in a speech to the police (February 26, 2001) had said: "the history of the Carabinieri shows that you can reach the peak of Holiness in faithful fulfilment and generous of the duties of their State. I think, here, your colleague, vice brigadiere Salvo D'acquisto, Gold Medal of military valor, which is in the process of beatification cause. "

Biography of Bob Fosse

Love to dance
June 23, 1927
September 23, 1987

Who is Bob Fosse?

Born on June 23, 1927 in Chicago, Robert Louis Fosse, dancer, Director and choreographer, is among the most cherished and represented in the world, a brilliant innovator in modern musical theatre.
With his characteristic and unmistakable style, in his career and private life are interspersed with stunning successes on stage romances disasters and failures in life.
The failure of three weddings, love for his work and unbridled ambition, will lose her daughter, the wife, the girlfriend, and as inescapable conclusion of transgression and the excesses that have marked his life. Thanks to his energetic dance style and vitalissimo was considered a living legend of Broadway (in fact the film "All that Jazz" is his film biography).
Son of art, young debuted on Broadway. In the 50 's, she starred in many musicals, but did not emerge. More luck he had as a choreographer and theater director.
In his debut film as a Director only in 1968 with "Sweet Charity-A girl who wanted to be loved" (Shirley MacLaine), musical adaptation of "Le notti di Cabiria" by Federico Fellini. With the next "Cabaret" (1972), based on a novel by Christopher Isherwood, Bob Fosse packs a hit film that seals the stardom of Liza Minnelli. The film, toni and expressionistic atmosphere, is set in the Berlin of the last years of the Weimar Republic with Nazis being irresistible rise.
The next "Lenny" (1974, with Dustin Hoffman) tells, with a refined technique from reportage, the life of Lenny Bruce, actor known for his battles against the dominant respectability, political corruption and the Viet Nam war.
In 1978, with "All that Jazz" (with Roy Scheider and Jessica Lange), returns to his favorite genre: the musical involved. The film, which is a dramatic and painful meditation on death, manages to combine a tragic vision with the spectacular musical.
The world of entertainment back in "Star 80" (1983, with Eric Roberts), a dramatic story of love and death, against the backdrop of world of Playboy Magazine.
Bob Fosse died at the age of 60 years in Washington DC on 23 September 1987, died of a heart attack.

Biography of Sigmund Freud

All on the couch
May 6, 1856
September 23, 1939

Who is Sigmund Freud?

Sigmund Freud was born 6 May 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia, city then dominated by the Habsburg empire. His is a typical family of merchants. He graduated in medicine in 1881, and after a transfer of the whole family in Vienna, working for a time in the neurophysiology laboratory directed by Brücke.
In 1882, for economic reasons, he abandoned his scientific research and is dedicated to the medical profession, specializing in neurology. In 1885 obtained a scholarship which allowed him to access the legendary neuropathology of Salpetrière, directed by famous Charcot. This very intense experience and meeting-acquaintance with the great scientist, leaves a deep impression on the young scholar. However, this does not mean that Freud then always maintained a very original and autonomous attitude with respect to the convictions of the illustrious scholar. For example, the future father of psychoanalysis poorly accepted the conclusions of Charcot about the hysteria, which he regarded as an illness due to organic causes, comparing it to a sort of State of hypnosis. Nevertheless, for Freud began to take shape some observations on the role of sexuality in human behavior, just starting to Charcot remarks were marginal, as the connection between hysteria and sexuality.
In 1886 he married Martha Bernays, who later gave him six children (the most famous among them is Anna Freud, which continues his father's research in the field of child psychoanalysis). The 1889, however, is marked by a sharp contrast with Charcot. The crux of the dispute is the role of hypnosis, a discipline that Freud has studied in a specialized school of Nancy and that strong impression on him as well as considerable scientific interest.
Back in Vienna, he devoted himself entirely to the neurologist. In the meantime befriended Josef Breuer, with whom in the 1895 "studies on hysteria" and at the beginning of the great intellectual adventure and clinic that will take him to the Foundation of psychoanalysis. The beginnings, ironically, are due to their common interest in hypnosis. Breuer, in fact, using this method, he was able to remember his patient (the famous Anna o. Freudian writings), traumatic events associated with an outbreak of hysteria. Warning, however, that the patient was developing a form of love and dependence on him (the phenomenon that later will be called "transference"), Breuer had discontinued by entrusting the patient to Freud which, for its part, case, heal the young. The result is connected to another famous Freudian "invention", almost an icon of his method, the famous psychoanalyst's couch ", which allows the patient, in that case just Anna o., to express their own inner magma through the therapeutic use of the word. It is the so-called "talking cure", as he called it the same Anna. If a register arise in charge of certifying the date of birth of psychoanalysis, that would surely be the chosen moment.
In 1899 (but with symbolic date of 1900) Freud publishes another work by revolutionaries and somewhat unsettling: "the interpretation of dreams". It is a stage that marks a turning point of the entire Western thought, through the parallels between rational logic and logic of the dream and the unfolding of language "hieroglyph" through which dreams speak to real human being who is a carrier. Since then, the weight that dreams have Freud's work will increasingly heavy, as well as attention and analysis that the psychologist will dedicate them. This unique approach will inspire numerous reactions, mostly of veined of skepticism if not open denigration. In particular, however, are targeted his theories on sexuality, not to mention angry reactions against the "scandalous" discoveries about the dynamics of infantile sexuality. In a narrow minded society closed and conservative, as it was then Vienna (certainly not, however, from the point of view of art and literature, which indeed enjoyed a highly revolutionary season from that point of view), could not pass unharmed a scholar who described in his books the child as a "polymorphous pervert". Of course, those definitions were completely misrepresented ...
In 1908 finally takes the first Congress of the International psychoanalytic society, which sees present, among others, Jung and Adler. Both, incidentally, will result in different directions: one giving rise to a different form of depth psychology, the so-called "analytical psychology", the other by calling his theory "individual psychology".
At the dawn of the advent of the dramatic events which will mark Europe, the epilogue of this intellectual epic could only be tragic. In 1933 in Berlin the Nazis now in power, in a burning pyre bookish notorious, even Jew Freud works, accomplice also stiff resistance to the advance of Nazi barbarism.
In 1938 the situation is so unbearable that is forced to leave. He moved to London where, after just one year, died of cancer of the mouth, for which he was also excised the jaw. It's the 23 September 1939, World War II is coming, epitome of that instinct of death so present in the works of the great revolutionary thought.
Works:
-Studies on hysteria (1895 with Breuer)
-The origins of psychoanalysis. Letters to Fliess (1887-1902)
-The interpretation of dreams (1900)
-Psychology of everyday life (1901)
-Three essays on sexual life (1905)
-Wit and its relationship to the unconscious (1905)
-Totem and taboo (1912-13)
-Introduction to psychoanalysis (1915-17)
-Metapsychology (1915-17)
-Beyond the pleasure principle (1920)
-Autobiography (1925)
-The problem of non-medical analysis (1926-27)
-The future of an illusion (1927)
-civilization and its discontents (1929)
-Clinical cases (1932)
-Analysis terminable and interminable analysis (1937)
-Buildings in analysis (1937)
-Man Mose is monotheism (1934-38)

Biography of Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi

Restless Patriot
August 12, 1804
September 23, 1873

Who is Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi?

Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi was born in Livorno on August 12, 1804, by Francesco Donato and Teresa crampons. His character of often violent polemicist leads him, already as a boy, tough fights with his father until his escape from home. Mazzini, politician and patriot, especially, and rhetorical romantic writer, with his historical novels-the most famous of which are "La battaglia di Benevento" (1827) and "l'assedio di Firenze" (1863)-exerts a significant influence on the Italian youth. But also works like "the donkey" (1858) and "Beatrice Cenci" (1854) achieved great success.
The meeting with George Gordon Byron, which takes place in 1821, affects not just in his literary style: he Guerrazzi dedicates his first opera, "to the memory of Lord Byron", 18In 1831 joined the "Young Italy" by Giuseppe Mazzini, a choice that costs him in 1832, and in the following years, repeated arrests. The love of country leads him to adhere to political movements of 1848, after which he became first Minister of the Interior of the Grand Duchy, then member of the Triumvirate in the provisional Government of Tuscany, along with Malik and Mazzoni, and finally Dictator in Tuscany. But it is a very short because with the return of the Grand Duke, in 1849, was convicted, despite his "apology" (1851), into exile in Corsica, where he remained for about ten years.
In 1861 Guerrazzi is elected Deputy in Italian Parliament, a position he retains until 1870 with a tough and constant opposition to Cavour. He died three years later on September 23, 1873, aged 69 years, on his farm, while positivism, the new enlightenment coming from France, is spreading inexorably making its obsolete romantic idealism.
Atypical Republican, enthusiastic but critical, scourge of costumes and debunker, anticlerical but deeply convinced of the goodness of the Christian message, Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi represents, with its provocatively combine sacred and profane, the lone voice who refuses every compromise and that enthuses.
Considered a minor character, his figure was recently re-evaluated between the protagonists and codified more restless and nobles of the Italian Risorgimento.
Guerrazzi's other works: "Isabella Orsini, Duchess of Bracciano" (1844); "Address to the Prince and the people" (1847); "Il Marchese di Santa Prassede, which is his father's revenge" (1853); "La torre di Nonza (1857); "Pasquale Sottocorno. Memory "(1857); "Pasquale Paoli ossia la Rotta di Pontenuovo. 18TH century tale "(1860); "To my motherland" (1860); "The siege of Rome" (1864); "The hole in the wall-history that precedes the century dies" (1875); "Dying" (1885); "Isabella Orsini, Duchess of Bracciano" (1888).

Biography of Josefa Idem

Persist and win
September 23, 1964

Who is Josefa Idem?

Josefa Idem was born in Goch, Germany, on 23 September 19German canoeist, naturalized Italian since 1990, world and Olympic champion in the kayak single. It has 35 medals from the Olympics, world and European. It is also the first and only woman in the history of Italian canoeing who won a World Championship and the Olympics.
Quit the sport, turned an interest in civil and political level, especially in the region in which you reside for years now, the Emilia-Romagna region, as well as in the city of Ravenna. Speaks German very well, his natural language, French, English and Italian.
The encounter with the canoe to the small Josefa arrives at the age of eleven. However, initially, and for many years to come, what would become his future Olympic discipline, remains just a fun. The Ditto until her diploma, graduated with honors in a German school, he devoted himself especially to the study. The languages are mostly his passion, so he graduated in this specific address.
Eighteen, Josefa must make a choice and, in the end, you leave take the passion for the sport. Enter then in the German national team and two years later, in his twenties, he won the bronze medal at the Los Angeles Olympics in 19The specialty is torque kayak K2 500 metres, on, and with her there is Barbara Schüttpelz.
The 1985 marks her transition to K1, the canoe that became his specialty. For two years it has promptly at world finals in kayak single, but can't get past the fifth. Equally disappointing, both from the individual point of view, is the experience at the Olympics in Seoul in 19Comes the ninth and fifth respectively, and in the same year, becoming aware of the limits of the German Federation with regard to this sport, he decided to move to Italy, in order to give a twist to his career as an athlete. In November, is in the country, take a strong interest.
Rely then, soul and body, as you say, the coach Guglielmo Guerrini. The change you notice immediately and Josefa Idem earns two third places in World Cup K1 500 metres and about 5,000.
A year later, the beautiful Josefa and her coach wedding get married. Marriage allows the Paddler to get German and Italian residency to naturalize also from a sporting point of view.
1990 World Cup therefore Josefa Idem competed with the Italian national team and won his first world title in K1 on the 500, in addition to bronze in the 5000.
The following year, at the World Championships, gets exactly placings reversed, with gold in K1 5000 meters and bronze in the K1 500 metres.
In 1992 he became an Italian citizen in all respects. Then in the same year, for the first time as Italian and not naturalized, takes part in the Olympic Games in Barcelona, Spain, but fails to go on fourth place. In 1994, at the World Championships in Mexico City, comes third.
Meanwhile, on 30 April 1995, Janek was born, her first child.
In 1996, at the Atlanta Olympics, won the bronze medal in the K1 5From this time onward Idem, begins to win of all, getting within a decade the Italian woman athlete who won more in individual sports. From 1997 until 2002 he won three world titles, five European titles and the gold medal in the K1 500 metres at the Sydney Olympics in 2000.
The year after this important result, also on his second son, Jonas.
The 2001 is the year of his entry into politics. Josefa Idem for the lists of the olive and was elected to the municipality of Ravenna, where lived for years, becoming Councillor for sports. Keep until 2007.
In confirmation of his extraordinary athleticism, 15 months after his second birth, at the age of 40 years, Josefa you call into question, winning the silver medal at the 2004 Athens Games, his sixth career Olympic Games.
Not content, in 2008, 43 year old, also gets the silver medal at the Beijing Olympics, always in his specialty of about 500 m kayak single.
Finally, on 20 August 2010, beats every record as to Olympic and world interests, competing at the World Championships in Sezged. It is also the female athlete with the most Olympic Games ever played, not only at national level.
Since about 2000, it marries many awareness campaigns, such as the Aism, the Italian Association that takes care of multiple sclerosis, and for organ donation, which since 2002 engages in his region.
From 2005 collaborates with La Gazzetta dello Sport. At the end of his political involvement at the local level, in February 2007, she was appointed a member of the Scientific Committee for the supervision and control of Doping for health protection in sports, the Ministry of health. The same year, his literary debut, with the publication of the autobiography "upstream", published by Sperling & Kupfer Publishing House.
In August 2011, thanks to the results of Sezged, qualify for the London Olympics of 2012, will participate-at the age of forty-seven years-to beat a new record attendance but above all to win again.
Leaders for the Emilia-Romagna for the Senate, is elected in the general elections of 2013: at the end of April, she was appointed Minister for equal opportunity, sport and youth policies of the Government.

Julio Iglesias biography

Music of the heart
September 23, 1943

Who is Julio Iglesias?

Julio Iglesias was born on 23 September 1943 in Madrid. It is the first son of the physician Julio Iglesias Puga and Maria del Rosario de la Cueva y Perignat. From an early age shows a certain predisposition for football and start a professional career playing as goalkeeper for Real Madrid's youth section.
Despite his desire to become a professional footballer, not abandoned his studies and he enrolled at the Faculty of law at the University of Madrid in the hope of joining the diplomatic corps. Her life is turned upside down when twenty years remains involved in a terrible car accident that leaves him half-paralyzed for a year and a half.
During the period of convalescence hopes start to walk and Julio proved to overcome pain starts playing, writing poetry and songs. The guitar is given by his nurse, Eladio Magdaleno, and Julio learns to play the minimum that allows him to put his poems to music.
Given his status as ex-sportsman whose hopes were cut short by fate, his poems are mostly sad and melancholy. Julio is wondering mostly about the fate of the men. His is only one way to alleviate the suffering, he does not think any chance to become a professional singer.
Thanks to the assistance of his father, who for a year leave the exercise of his profession to follow him in rehab, Julio Iglesias regains the use of his legs. Once healed he moved for a time in London to learn English and England that begins to sing in pubs at weekends. In Cambridge, where he attended Bell's Language School, which inspires Gwendolyne knows one of his most famous songs. In this period continues to write songs that try to sell at a record company, which convince him to participate in the Festival of Benidorm's Music, which he won in July 1968 with the song "La vida sigue igual".
After the victory of the festival signed his first recording contract with Columbia Discos. From this moment begins his triumphant career that also saw him on tour in America and then at the Festival of Vina del Mar in Chile.
Also runs on his first film, which bears the title of her first hit "La vida sigue igual". In 1971 marries Isabel Preysler Arrastria with whom he has three children: Isabel in 1971, Julio José Enrique Miguel in 1973 and in 1975 (which will become an internationally renowned pop singer by the name of Enrique Iglesias). The two go their separate ways, however, shortly after the birth of the last child in 1978.
His fame as a singer in the meantime is worldwide; Julio Iglesias affect disks in Italian, French, Portuguese, English, German, Italian and even Japanese. Thus becomes the most popular artist in the world with as many as 250 million records sold and a huge amount of awards, including a star on the legendary Hollywood sidewalk and well disks between 2600 Platinum and gold.
Julio personally oversees all phases of his work from the songs to the studio recordings. The first twenty discs are written, in fact, completely his own. His personal life is lively and eventful than his professional life and soon becomes a source of curiosity and speculation, as well as his friendships with powerful men and heads of State, his passion for wine and his amazing memory for faces and numbers.
In 1997 is to her fourth son, Miguel Alejandro. The new wife is called Miranda, Dutch model known in 1990 in Jakarta. In 1997 gets the important "Ascap Award", a prestigious award that is delivered for the first time to a South American artist and that sees him enter the Olympus of music next to the likes of Ella Fitzgerald, Barbra Streisand and Frank Sinatra.
The Mayor of Miami, where Julio resides, establishing the "Julio Iglesias day". In 1999 Miranda gives birth to their second son, Rodrigo, and two years later the twins Victoria and Cristina. In 2002 Julio loses his mother in honour of whose activity of supporter of the poor and needy, together with his brother Carlos presented the project for the construction of a social services Centre dedicated to mother and incorporated into the parish of Corpus Christi.
At the age of 61 years Julio the fruit of his second brother married her father, in 2005 to 91 years, announces the birth of another son, who unfortunately will not see the birth.
Julio continues to record and perform concerts worldwide dividing his time between his homes in Punta Cana in the Dominican Republic, in Marbella in Spain and at Miami.
In 2007 sees the light the fifth son, Guillermo, had with Miranda, who married in 2010 after twenty years of engagement. He currently devotes to new recording of his greatest hits, that has already released a book sold 100 000 copies in a few weeks.

Biography of Aldo Moro

Sacrificial lamb
September 23, 1916
May 9, 1978

Who is Aldo Moro?

The former Chairman of the Christian Democrats, murdered by the Red Brigades in 1978, was born on September 23, 1916 in Maglie, in the province of Lecce. After receiving his high school diploma at Liceo "Archytas of Tarentum" he enrolled in law school at the University of Bari, earning a degree with a thesis on "legal capacity" criminal. The thesis, and thorough recovery, will be his first scientific publication and the University career starts.
After a few years of his academic career, he founded with some friends in 1943, intellectuals in Bari, the magazine "review" which will be released until 1945, the year in which marries Eleonora Chiavarelli, with whom he had four children. In that same period, becomes President of the Graduates of Catholic action, and is Director of the magazine "Studium" issue will be regular contributor, pledging to raise awareness among young graduates to political engagement. In 1946 he was elected to the constituent Assembly and becomes part of the "75" responsible for drawing up the Constitution. Also, is the speaker for the part on "the rights of man and of the citizen". It is also Vice-Chair of the Dc.
In the elections of April 18, 1948 he was elected member of Parliament in Bari-Foggia and was appointed State Secretary for Foreign Affairs in the 5th De Gasperi Cabinet while does not stop his inexhaustible activity of teacher and trainer, with numerous publications to his name.
Became full Professor of criminal law at the University of Bari, in 1953: he was re-elected to Parliament and became Chairman of the Dc parliamentary group in the Chamber of Deputies. Even his political career, apparently does not know signs of strain of any kind. Solid and determined man, becomes in 1955 Minister of Justice in the first Government signs.
In 1956, during the VI National Congress of Dc held in Trento, consolidated his position within the party. He was the first elected into the National Council of the party. the following year, he became Minister of public instruction in the Government Zaman. You have to him the introduction of civic education in schools. Re-elected to the Chamber of deputies in 1958, is still Minister of public instruction in the second Fanfani Government.
The 1959 is a very important year for Aldo Moro. It plays the VIIth Congress of the Christian Democratic Party which won so much that he was entrusted with the Party Secretary, a position in time and riconfermatogli that will keep until January 19But another year very important, also in the light of the tragic event that will hit the politician doroteo, is the 1963 when, reelected to the room, is called to form the first Government of the center-left, remaining continuously in Office as Chairman of the Board until June 1968, driving three successive ministries of coalition with the Socialist Party.
It is basically the realization "in nuce", the famous "historical compromise" same invention Aldo Moro (use to use expressions like "parallel convergences"), namely political maneuver that contmplava the rapprochement of Communist and left-wing fringe to the moderate and centrist.
The uproar and dissent that such situations "compromise" arouse especially inside of the voters, but especially within the moderates, are nelkle lessons of 1968 when Moro was re-elected to the Chamber, yes but punish elections in fact, data in hand, the coalition parties and the crisis of the center-left. that said, it is inevitable that also affected the prestige of the same weight Aldo Moro. However, always remain the ministries and the
1970 to 1974, he assumed, although with some interval, the post of Foreign Minister. At the end of this period, returned to the Presidency of the Council forming his IV Ministry which lasts until January 1976.
In July 1976 he was elected President of the National Council of the Dc.
The March 16, 1978, the tragic epilogue of the ill-fated political life. A Red Brigades commandos burst into the Roman via Fani, where at that moment passing Moro in order to go to Parliament to participate in the debate on the confidence of the fourth, the first Andreotti Government with the support of the Pci, the five men killed and kidnaps the statesman. Shortly after, the Red Brigades claim the action with a call to Ansa. All over the country that clearly attack is an attack on the heart of the State and democratic institutions that represented.
a phone call to March 18 '' Messenger '' does find the '' Bulletin No. 1 '' of the Br, which contains the photo of Aldo Moro and announces the start of its '' process '' while, just the day after Pope Paul VI launches its first appeal for Malone. The secret service all over the world, even if the reports were accurate, and failed to find terrorist prison, renamed "people's prison", and which called for incessantly, through Dark letters, a negotiation.
On 9 may, after more than 50 days of captivity and exhausting negotiations with State representatives, the statesman is brutally murdered by BR, now convinced that this is the only consistent road to take. His imprisonment had caused extensive debate between those who were willing to give in to the demands of the APPO and who was clearly contrary to legitimate them, not debate that literally tore down the country on both political and moral level.
In this dialectic climate branding ended the dramatic call of Moro's captors, who made it known straight to a top politician that Moro's body could be found a corpse in the trunk of a car in via Caetani, symbolically midway between Piazza del Gesù, headquarters of the Christian Democrats, and via delle Botteghe Oscure, historical seat of the Italian Communist Party. According to the reconstructions, fragmentary yet despite the many years that have passed, the statesman he would be killed by brigades in via garage Moretti Montalcini, the Lair used by APPO as '' jail of the people. ''
His wife Eleanor and her daughter Maria Fidae, based on the acquisition of new items, have recently decided to break down the wall of silence that has shrouded the story, demanding the reopening of the investigation into the case.
Italian services have hit a major target on January 14, 2004 with the arrest of Rita Algranati APPO and Maurizio Falessi, fugitives in North Africa. The first was already sentenced to life in prison for the crime.
Yesterday Alessio Casimirri, husband of Algranati, remains the only fugitive the uncatchable group Br that participated in Via Fani ambush.

Pablo Neruda biography

The wonder of words
July 12, 1904
September 23, 1973

Who is Pablo Neruda?

July 12, 1904 was born in Parral (Chile), not far from the capital Santiago. His real name was Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto.
The father remains a widower and in 1906 he moved to Temuco. Here bride Trinidad Candia.
The future poet soon begins to show care for literature; his father but adverse encouragement comes from Gabriela Mistral, future Nobel Prize winner, who will be his teacher during the education period.
His first official job as a writer is article y perseverancia "enthusiasm" and was released only 13 years in the local newspaper "La Mañana". In the 1920 's that for his publications began to use the pseudonym of Pablo Neruda, who would later be recognized legally.
Neruda in 1923 has only 19 years old when he published his first book: "" Crepusculario "". Already the following year collecting considerable success with "twenty love poems and a song of despair".
Since 1925 he directed the journal "Caballo de bastos." He embarked on a diplomatic career starting from 1927: he was appointed first consul in Rangoon, then in Colombo (Ceylon).
In 1930 a Dutch bride in Batavia. In 1933 is Consul in Buenos Aires, where he met Federico Garcia Lorca. The following year he was in Madrid where he became friends with Rafael Alberti. At the outbreak of the civil war (1936) sides to the Republic and is dismissed from Office. He went to Paris. Here becomes Consul for the emigration of Chilean refugees Republicans.
In 1940 Neruda was appointed Consul for Mexico, where he met Matilde Urrutia, for which he writes "the captain's verses". He was elected Senator in 1945 and joined the Communist Party.
In 1949, after a period of hiding, to escape the anti-Communist Government of Gabriel González Videla, escapes from Chile and travels through the Soviet Union, Poland and Hungary.
Between 1951 and 1952 also passes for Italy; return there soon after and moved to Capri. Between 1955 and 1960 travels in Europe, Asia, Latin America.
In 1966 his person is the subject of a fierce controversy by Cuban intellectuals for his trip to the United States.
Pablo Neruda receives the Nobel Prize for literature in 19He died in Santiago on September 23, 1973.
Among his most important works include "Earth", "the captain's verses", "one hundred love sonnets", "Canto General", "Hate", "", "" Estravagario "the grapes and the wind," the drama "glory and death of Joaquin Murieta" and the memoir "I confess that I lived".

Padre Pio biography

Marked by sanctity
May 25, 1887
September 23, 1968

Who is Padre Pio?

St. Pio of Pietrelcina, also known as Padre Pio, born Francesco Forgione was born on May 25, 1887 in Pietrelcina, a small town near Benevento, Campania by Grazio Forgione and Maria Giuseppa Di Nunzio, smallholders. His mother was a very religious woman, to which Francis will always remain very close. He was baptized in the Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, the ancient parish of the village, located in the Castle at the top of Pietrelcina.
Her vocation manifested since an early age: when he was very young, only eight years old, stays for hours in front of the altar of St. Anne's Church to pray. Religious journey began with the Capuchins, the father decided to immigrate to America to meet the necessary expenses to do this study.
In 1903, at the age of fifteen, arrives at the convent of Morcone and on 22 January of the same year wearing the habit of cappuccino taking the name brother Pio of Pietrelcina: targets a Pianisi, where he remained until 1905.
After six years of studies in various convents, between continuous returns to his country for health reasons, was ordained a priest in the Cathedral of Benevento on August 10, 1910.
In 1916 the Foggia, in the convent of Sant'Anna, and on 4 September of that year he was sent to San Giovanni Rotondo, where he will remain there for the rest of his life.
Just a month later, in the countryside of Piana Romana, in Pietrelcina, for the first time receives the stigmata, soon after disappeared, at least visibly, for his prayers. This mystical event brings an increase in the pilgrimage, Gargano, from all over the world. During this time he also began to suffer from strange illnesses referred has never had an exact diagnosis and they will suffer for all existence.
From May 1919 to October of the same year is visited by different doctors to examine the stigmata. Dr. Giorgio Festa has to say: "... the injuries that Padre Pio and the bleeding that occurs have a source that our cognitions are far from explain. Well higher than the human science is their reason for being. "
Due to the large fuss raised by the case of Stigmata, as well as the inevitable, huge curiosity aroused by the fact at first sight of everything "miraculous", the Church forbids him from 1931 to 1933 to celebrate the harvest.
The Holy See also submits to numerous inquiries to ascertain the authenticity of the phenomenon and determine his personality.
Poor health forced him to switch to the monastic life continue convalescence parenthesis to his country. His superiors, however, prefer to leave it to the calm of his birthplace, where according to the availability of forces, help the parish priest.
From his spiritual guide the prayer groups, which rapidly spread throughout Italy and in several foreign countries. At the same time implementing the relief of suffering building, with the help of the faithful, a hospital, which gives the name of "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza", and which became in time an authentic city hospital, resulting in a growing development in the area, once deserted.
According to various testimonies other extraordinary gifts accompanied Padre Pio for life, in particular, the introspection of souls (was able to x-ray the soul of a person to only look), the scent you feel people also far, the benefit of his prayer for the faithful who came to him.
On September 22, 1968, eighty-one years, Padre Pio celebrated his last mass and on the night of day 23 died, bringing with them the mystery of which his whole life was basically covered.
On May 2, 1999 Pope John Paul II beatified him. Padre Pio of Pietrelcina was canonized on June 16, 2002.

Biography of Gino Paoli

With the class of simplicity
September 23, 1934

Who is Gino Paoli?

All believe genovese, and in a sense it is, Gino Paoli, the songwriter who wrote some of the most beautiful pages of Italian music of this century. But, in fact, the author of "Senza fine" and "taste of salt" was born on September 23, 1934 in Monfalcone.
But in Genoa, where he moved as a child that Gino Paoli-after the bellhop, the graphic designer and painter raggranellando more rewards than money-Debuts as dance hall singer, then form a band with his friends Luigi Tenco and Bruno Lauzi. Until the glorious Memories, which had held a baptism Bellini and Donizetti, Verdi and Puccini, decided to extend its activities to the light music and signed this strange miagolante voice singer. In 1960 he made "the cat", a strictly autobiographical piece: he spoke of the attic on the sea where Gino lived. It sold 119 copies, then disappeared and then returned unexpectedly becoming a success by 100 thousand copies a week.
Meanwhile, love story was born with Ornella Vanoni, singer discovered by Giorgio Strehler, who persuaded the Genoese singer-songwriter to write for her "Without end", the piece that made it famous. Then Mina, many discouraged, he recorded "Il cielo in una stanza", with the outcome that we all know.
Follow the "Sassi", "around the world" (1961), "Although" (1962), "Heaven", "what you need" (1963), "still Life" (1964) all tracks have become classics and translated into many languages.
Gino Paoli together with its "four friends" gives rise, in Genoa, songwriting, music revolutionary form of expression that seeks to express feelings and facts of real life with unconventional language; the song, in short, is no longer pure entertainment and leaves the scene to become an art form in all respects.
Now penniless painter is a famous singer. The year before there was the boom of "Sapore di sale", arranged by Ennio Morricone with assistance of sax Gato Barbieri. And yet a summer afternoon the rich and famous singer now had put a Derringer at heart. "I wanted to see what happens," will explain then. The bullet is still in his chest as a souvenir.
Meanwhile, Paul discovers and launches other artists: Lucio Dalla, jazz clarinetist, which produces the first disc, or refractory Fabrizio De André "forced" with the strength to sing with him at the Press Club. It also happens that the most diverse interpreters you "hold" of the canzoniere paoliano: Giants of 50 years as Claudio Villa, Carla Boni, Jula De Palma, Joe Sentieri, singers like Anna Moffo, actresses like Lea Massari and Catherine Spaak, protagonists of the 60 's such as Umberto Bindi, Luigi Tenco, Gianni Morandi. Later Gino Paoli's music will involve other famous singers such as Patty Pravo and Franco Battiato. Important, 80 years, collaboration with sugar, young still in its infancy, that will contribute to its success.
But with increasing popularity in humans will Paoli a crisis that will bring you out from the music scene for a few years.
The great return of Paoli is done with two brave album and anarchists, in which especially the juvenile world recognizes. The first, published in the mid-70 's, has a symbolic title, "the red lights are not God", and was performed on music of Catalan Jean Manoel Serrat. The second was released in 1977, three years later, and is titled "my job". Both speak of freedom, democracy, exclusion, diversity.
This maturation continues to score all his records of the next 20 years. Following the triumphant tour of 1985 with Ornella Vanoni, the experience of a member of the Pci, then become Pds, and Alderman in Arenzano.
The next exit "Without boundary, only ... for an hour", a live album of songs from his repertoire adapted in jazz, with the unpublished "without contours" and "beauty and the beast", sung by Gino with daughter Amanda Sandrelli and from the soundtrack of the Disney film. With cinema, moreover, Padilla had already dealt when, "before the revolution" by Bertolucci, had composed "live again" and "remember" then write "love story" (1984) and "from Afar" (1986), for the film "woman in the mirror" and "American wedding", both with Stefania Sandrelli.
Public records in those years whose contents draw upon its vast human experience: "the Moon and mister Hyde" and "Averti addosso" (1984), "Cosa farò da grande" (1986), "the Office of lost things" (1988), and then "Hello a little Zena salutime", dedicated to the Ligurian, song "has all the right stuff", a tribute to deceased singer-songwriter livornese Piero Ciampi, "crazy like a cat" (1991).
In 1991 this is the resounding success of "mad as a cat" and the single "Four friends at the bar" (with Vasco Rossi).
In the spring of 1993, "King Kong" and, two years later, "Amori dispari" in which returns to assert the primacy of feeling in a world that denies them.
In "misappropriation" (1996) "singer-songwriter" takes hold of a handful of international classics and translates into a kind of self-portrait, Lennon, Cat Stevens, Aznavour, Stevie Wonder, James Taylor, and others.
"Tomatoes" (1998) and "a story" (2000) new pages of a man who does not give up growing under the white hair innocence, the wonder and imagination of an eternal child.
In 2002 the album "If", whose single "another love" is presented to the "52° Festival di Sanremo", which achieved great success with audiences and critics, the true protagonist of the Italian music scene, always able to innovate while maintaining shapes and cantautorali content that has always distinguished it.
The big event "Pavarotti and Friends", also in 2002, sees him on the stage with the likes of James Brown, Sting, Lou Reed, Grace Jones, Zucchero, Bocelli, seal the social commitment has always been spokesman.
The year ended with a budget of over seventy concerts with the Orchestra sinfonica Dimi rhythm of Rome among the major Italian theaters and outdoor spaces more suggestive.
In 2004, in Sanremo, Gino Paoli is awarded the "lifetime achievement award". In the same year she performed in some of the most important Italian jazz festivals "jazz meeting" with friends, Enrico Rava, Danilo Rea, Rosario Bonaccorso and Roberto Gatto, approaching this refined musical genre has always been one of his biggest passions.
Among his latest works "do you remember? No, I do not remember "consisting of gentle duets with Ornella Vanoni, released at the end of September 2004, after the birthday of two great performers. Subsequent disks are "stories" (2009) and "the two of us." (2012, Gino Paoli together with Danilo Rea).
On May 17, 2013 is elected President of SIAE: its objectives are to combat piracy and copyright. Resigns on February 24, 2015, following investigations by the Italian Guardia di Finanza who see accused of tax evasion, moved to Switzerland for 2 million.

Mario Pincherle biography

Ancient mysteries and modern evidence
July 9, 1919
September 23, 2012

Who is Mario Pincherle?

Mario Pincherle was born in Bologna on July 9, 1919, to a family of Jewish origin. His father, Maurice, Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Bologna, suffers the repercussions of the introduction in Italy of the anti-Semitic race laws and in 1939 he was forced to leave teaching. Must then wait until 1945 to regain his professorship.
Mario graduated in engineering in 1942 and, after only a year, it becomes a partisan in the mountains of the Marche region. The whole family is actually forced to flee. Leo's brother, renowned physicist and colleague of Enrico Fermi, not only loses his post as Professor at the University of Padua, but suffers the loss of a son a few months while fleeing to England.
These years of terrible suffering remain strongly etched in the hearts and minds of Mario, who even when in the autobiographical novel "signs" tells of his childhood and then of his adult life omits the tale of this painful moment with strong implications, including recognition of his Jewish identity.
At the end of the war he returned to Bologna and his life takes a quieter direction. 1954 Leo in Francesca with whom he had four children: Robert, Roberto, Marina and Ada. Almost always lives in Bologna and briefly in Vignola (Modena). He then moved to the Marche and precisely in Ancona where he remained until 1992 before moving permanently to Tuscany.
The research career of Mario Pincherle undergoes a breakthrough in 1965, when theorizes the existence of a tower, then called Zed, inside the pyramid of cheops. The discovery of Mario is based on the idea that the pyramid of Cheops is the tomb of the Pharaoh, as it has always supported. The deduction is supported by the fact that inside the pyramid is never found any Mummy. He speculates that the pyramid is a time built to protect the zeds with cosmic calendar functions, Astronomical Observatory and compass.
Pincherle also States that the Zed has been built by the Egyptians, but belong to the Atlantean civilization and consists of two hundred granite monoliths for a total weight of approximately 60 tons. The discovery gives impetus to a new research project aimed at reconstructing the building techniques employed in ancient Egypt. Accompanying these studies and research that rely on reading the Bible, Apocrypha texts, words of Enoch and Abraham approached him to a more spiritual dimension, which could lead to deeper religious themes, philosophical and scientific. The intent of Mario Pincherle is to bring readers to the issues that most interest him, discrediting even some false beliefs in the archaeological, palaeontological and historic.
His books often rupture as a result to the unmasking some fake mysteries of antiquity. Thanks to his research, describes the system used by the Egyptians to lift huge blocks of granite with which they build the pyramids; Reconstructs the first compass model; explains the technique used by Archimedes to burn the Roman fleet, and exposes even the method used by the ancients to obtain gold granulation. Among his most important research there is on twenty-two archetypes, already used by Socrates and Plato.
In the 1970s and 1980s his studies give rise to a certain distrust towards him, especially from publishers and traditional academic environments. But the writer continues on his way, continuing to publish texts and opening the way to holistic knowledge of the third millennium.
Among its lyrics: "the new Etruscology" (1999), "the secret of the Ark" (2000), "the Gospel of joy" (2001), "forbidden Jesus" (1997), the Gospel of Jesus "(1999)," The great pyramid and the Zed "(2000)," Aquarius "(2000)," the fifth Gospel "(2001)," Leopards "(2006)," the book of Abraham: the 32 paths of wisdom "(2009)," job: the secret of the Bible "(2009)," Katherine Mansfield a strange death "(2005).
Great knowledge of ancient languages, Mario Pincherle has also translated many ancient texts including the Apocrypha "Gospel of Thomas" and "book of Enoch", both translated from Aramaic.
Mario Pincherle died in Bientina (Pisa) on September 23, 2012 at the age of 93 years.

Paolo Rossi biography

Pablito Mundial!
September 23, 1956

Who is Paul Rossi?

Choose a name for all of the heroes of Spain 1982 would be unfair to all the great champions that Enzo Bearzot has brought on the roof of the world, but if it is necessary then to Paolo Rossi would be for many the more representative name because the event he signed the most goals that made Italy's world champion team.
Paolo Rossi was born in Santa Lucia di Prato on September 23, 19He moved to professional football playing as a right winger with Juventus; After undergoing three operations to remove the meniscus was loaned to Como.
The turning point of his career is done with co-owned the Lanerossi Vicenza; Here the coach F discovers its potential of fast and technical striker. Rossi is skilled in tight spaces of area and has a great intuition for goal, quality that was named in his honor as "Chief of the goals".
In the 1976-1977 season Paolo Rossi drag the Vicenza to promotion to Serie A; the following season is protagnista with his team to an unexpected second place in the top division. He won the title of top scorer with 24 goals scored and selected by popular acclaim from national team Coach Enzo Bearzot, to be part of the expedition of Argentinian World Cup 1978, where will prove to be one of the revelations of the tournament.
The Lanerossi Vicenza and Juventus do not agree on a footballer's property and have to resort to the system of envelopes. The news seems glaring: the property passes to the team vicentina offering about 2.7 trillion lire. That's when Paolo Rossi is the most valuable player of Italian football.
The following year the Vicenza relegated to serie B; in the 1979-80 season Rossi was loaned to Perugia. Here his image you spot a serious fact: Rossi gets caught up in the scandal of football-bets and disqualified for three years. The appeal will reduce it to two years.
Disqualification ends right ahead of the 1982 Spain world. His summoning arouses a sensation among the public. In the first few games Paolo Rossi in the shade as the rest of the team. Only in the final stages, as anticipated, Rossi proved protagonist: 3 goals scored against Brazil, 2 goals in the semi-final against Poland and a historic network in the final against Germany. He's the top scorer of the tournament. This extraordinary result earned him the nickname of "Pablito".
Shortly thereafter will be chosen as the winner of the Ballon d'Or 1982.
Back to Italian football, reds play three years with Juventus winning still a lot: a Cup, a Cup winners ' Cup and one Intercontinental Cup. Then switch to Milan and Verona. Here ends the only career 31 years due to the fact that his career has suffered many injuries.
Left football Paolo Rossi in Vicenza where he remains a task of building contractor, in partnership with former teammate Giancarlo Salvi.
In 2002, twenty years after the World Championship that has consigned to history, Paolo Rossi published his biography titled "I made Brazil cry".

Romy Schneider biography

As an Empress
September 23, 1938
May 29, 1982

Who is Romy Schneider?

Rosemarie Magdalena Albach-Retty, or more simply, as Romy Schneider is known to the public, was born in Vienna on 23 September 19Austrian, German mother, then naturalized French, was one of the hottest actresses of the years ' 60 and ' 70, famous for having served the role of a young Princess Sissi, the first great film dedicated to her.
A family one in which art is born and grows Romy. His mother, Magda Schneider, she is also a successful actress, whose career at the end the protagonist of more than seventy films. His father, Wolf Albach-Retty, is an actor, although less successful and cleverness. However, the future Princess Sissi has her mother's passion for acting. In addition, many films, the two play the role of mother and daughter, as happens in both the trilogy dedicated to the life of Elisabeth of Bavaria, Sissi and is in less well known ". Confidences of a minor ".
The screen debut for the young Schneider can only take place soon. Little more than 15-year-old, in fact, in 1953, he made his debut in German "Wenn der weiße Flieder wieder blüht". You will immediately notice its ethereal beauty and, especially, the resemblance to her mother, she too beautiful.
Two years later, Romy Schneider is Sissi, in the first of three films dedicated to Princess Elizabeth of Austria. It is mainly this now legendary interpretation that the beautiful French actress by adoption, owes much of his fame.
Romy as perfectly as Sissi, independent and refined, it is not surprising if the moniker has been wearing even in everyday life. This film, directed by Ernst Marischka, starring two actors Schneider, Karlheinz Böhm, Uta Franz and Gustav Knuth. The following year, therefore, is that of the second film in the saga, which is called "Sissi – the young Empress", and sees the viennese actress struggling with stiff the Habsburg Court. While in 1957, Schneider runs the last of the trilogy: "Sissi-the fate of an empress". Meanwhile, according to the sources, and what would subsequently declared Mr Karlheinz Böhm, Romy Schneider had refused the following year to take part in the fourth film dedicated to Elisabeth of Austria, as excessive and damaging to his career.
The success of the three films won a large international film: the actor Alain Delon, in 1958 he wants next in the film "the lover". A dramatic story, directed by Pierre Gaspard-Huit, based on the play "Liebelei", written by Arthur Schnitzler, and which had already been taken in earlier movies "crazy Lovers", played by Romy, mother Magda Schneider. On the set, the divo Delon falls madly in love with the viennese actress and begins a long relationship with her, too bad not finished before it has been convinced to move to France, in Paris. The young Schneider falls for Alain Delon, but also of his new land, which elects, soon, to their homeland.
"Crime in full sun", by René Clément, and "Boccaccio ' 70", Luchino Visconti, shot in 1960, respectively, and in 1962, mark Romy choice preferring from then on only the French and Italian films in those years. In "Boccaccio", the Austrian actress plays a role for the episode directed by Visconti, which in turn joins with three other episodes signed respectively by Federico Fellini, Vittorio De Sica, Mario Monicelli and practically better than Italian cinema has ever produced in its history.
In 1964, Romy Schneider breaks with Delon, initiating its descending parable, characterized by depression and, especially, alcohol. Shortly after it binds to Director Harry Meyen, in a marriage that failed almost before it began. With him she has a son, the unfortunate David, who was born on 3 December 19After just fourteen years, 5 July 1981, the boy dies in tragic circumstances, giving perhaps the final blow to the already fragile state of mind of his mother.
Meanwhile, the actress so beloved by the French won't save at work, and make other films worth mentioning. "The process" of 1962, is one of them. Not to mention "the pool" of 1968, signed by Jacques Deray, Italian "La Califfa", written by the good author Alberto Bevilacqua and dated 1970.
In 1973, the Schneider back to fill the role of Elisabeth of Bavaria, but in quite different from Sissi of twenty years before. "Ludwig", Luchino Visconti, is a film that does not spare the details relating to the life of the young and foolish King, causing some scandal compared with the period in which comes out in theaters.
On 21 January 1977, Schneider is a mother for the second time. Sarah is born, actress, from her second husband Daniel Biasini. Two years later, Romy runs another important film, "death live", directed by Bertrand Tavernier. But it was in 1980 that the actress finds a Polish time, playing a part that, according to many, was an excerpt of his dramatic existence. The film "Ghost of love", tragic and great transportation, directed by another important Director Dino Risi, who reveals all his prophetic inspiration, telling a story disturbing traits set in the city of Pavia.
A year after the death of 14-year-old son, Romy Schneider dies in Parisian House manufacturer Laurent Petin, his latest companion, on 29 May 1982, at the age of forty-three years. Officially, the cause is a heart attack, but not the few who claimed it was suicide.

Bruce Springsteen biography

Rock, Folk, America
September 23, 1949

Who is Bruce Springsteen?

Bruce Frederick Springsteen was born on September 23, 1949 at Monmouth Memorial Hospital in Long Branch, New Jersey.
Bruce is the eldest of two residents of Freehold, a small working-class town of New Jersey: Douglas, father of Irish descent, makes his living collecting an endless array of occupations, from a prison guard to taxi driver; his mother, Adele Zirilli, the daughter of Italian immigrants and works as a Secretary. Rounding out the Springsteen family arrive in Virginia in 1950 and 1962 Pamela.
Bruce spent all his childhood and much of the narrow confines of adolescence in Freehold, where, in an evening of September 1956, assists in the tv production of Elvis Presley on the Ed Sullivan Show, deciding what will instantly grow up: the singer of rock 'n' roll. Will no longer change idea.
The young Springsteen is shy and withdrawn almost to pathology, but when has a shoulder guitar seems suddenly come to life. In 1965 he joined the Castiles, a women in Freehold that arrives at two steps from the publish a single before disbanding in 1968.
While Springsteen's family moved to California, Bruce remains in New Jersey and began attending Asbury Park, a small town on the coast in those years boasts an extraordinarily lively music scene; It soon became one of the most prominent exponents, gathering around him many of the musicians who some years later would become the backbone of his E Street Band. During his time at Asbury Park Springsteen form different groups, one of which, the Steel Mill, reaches an extraordinary local success but not a record deal.
The meeting with Mike Appel, a writer in New York, gives a sudden twist to his career; Appel lacks in good manners, but his impetuousness and his genuine admiration for Springsteen manage to get his young customer a hearing at Columbia Records with John Hammond, the legendary talent scout who discovered Bob Dylan. Only two songs to convince Hammond that Springsteen deserves a contract with Columbia. The first two discs, "Greetings from Asbury Park, n.j. and The Wild, the Innocent & the E Street Shuffle", both of 1973, they get great reviews, but sales less than slim. Columbia begins to call Bruce "Hammond's folly" and prepares to withdraw from the contract; Springsteen did not lose heart and focuses on what has always been and always will be his main weapon: live performances. With his E Street Band launches into a long series of extraordinary intensity. One of these also assists Jon Landau, one of the most influential critic of ' Rolling Stone ' magazine. Landau is electrocuted and writes a long, poignant article that in the Middle reads "tonight I saw the future of rock 'n' roll and its name is Bruce Springsteen"; Columbia understands that all in all "Hammond's folly" deserves another chance.
It is a wise decision: in 1975 "Born to run", one of the drives in the history of rock; This time besides exciting the critical success, but it has a side effect: emphasize that the contract signed with Appel Bruce free of all rights on their songs. The long legal battle that comes from being held away from Springsteen recording studios for more than two years. Appel finally goes away with the money, Bruce recapture rights and Landau became his new manager.
The 1978 was the year of "Darkness on the Edge of Town" and a tour in which each concert seems to write a new page in the history of rock 'n' roll. The album, perhaps the most important in the artistic development of Springsteen, fixed the coordinates of his poetry: common people's stories equally common, dashed so bring out hidden heroism in everyday life and the lives of men whose main options are not winning or losing, but losing with dignity or get swallowed by the darkness of loneliness. These themes are expanded two years later in "The River" that will carry Springsteen, in 1981, to make his first real tour in Europe. Prolonged contact with a cultural reality far from the United States and illuminating reading a series of books recommended by friend/manager Landau brings a profound shift in Springsteen. "Nebraska", released in 1982, it was the best witness: acoustic is an album recorded in total solitude on an old four-track tape recorder, which tells stories of violence, death and alienation.
Some of the material recorded for Nebraska, but that did not find place in the disk, form the structure of "Born in the USA", which in 1984 gives Springsteen his greatest commercial success ever. The title track, mysteriously exchanged for a nationalist anthem, is actually the cry of rage by a Viet Nam veteran who feels to have been first used, then humiliated and finally forgotten by his own country. In 1985 Bruce marries model Julianne Phillips, while "Born in the u.s.a. tour" delivers an impressive array of records, giving him a reputation.
But soon realizes that Springsteen overexposure is not for him. Decides therefore to go bucking engraving in 1987 "Tunnel of Love", which speaks with hushed tones of the man-woman relationship and its many grey areas.
At that moment the topic is central to the life of Springsteen proves also the separation, which took place in the first months of the following year, with Phillips and the beginning of the relationship with his backup singer Patti Scialfa, who would become his wife two years later. That same year, Springsteen and the e Street Band participate with Youssou N'Dour, Tracy Chapman, Peter Gabriel and Sting in a world tour organized by Amnesty International, after which Bruce decides to give a break to many things: melts, to the disappointment of his fans, the E Street Band and that leaves New Jersey which had become the symbol.
Patti Scialfa moved to Los Angeles, where in 1990 Evan James was born, the couple's first child (followed by Jessica Rae in 1991 and Sam Ryan in 1994).
Break a silence that lasted almost five years and released two albums simultaneously in 1992, "Human Touch" and "Lucky Town"; the records don't sell as hoped and subsequent success has, but not entirely convincing fans, mostly wary of new musicians who have replaced the E Street Band.
In 1994, Bruce Springsteen wins an Oscar for the touching "Streets of Philadelphia", written for the film Philadelphia of his friend Jonathan Demme, and the following year she released a semi-acoustic disc, "The Ghost of Tom Joad". The heart of the album is made up of stories of Mexican migrants who cross the border illegally to seek a fortune that will not find.
A long acoustic tour in small theaters, it follows a decidedly which marks the return of the E Street Band. This is anything but a farewell tour: in 2002 Springsteen with the band he recorded "The Rising" is a bitter reflection on America post September 11 and the impact that this tragedy has had on the lives of many people who were directly affected. The tour that follows lasts for over a year, marking new records every night and repeating once again the extraordinary size of Springsteen's live: three-hour concerts marked by an exceptional charge of energy in which moments of intense drama mingle with other pure and unrestrained fun and where is canceled every barrier between the audience and the band.
The next album of unreleased arrives in spring 2005: recorded without the E Street Band (but always with Brendan O'Brien as producer), is titled "Devils & Dust", and marks a partial return of Springsteen folk atmospheres. Surprisingly, the next year announces end of April 2006 the publication of a new studio album: "We Shall Overcome: The Seeger Sessions": his first album of covers, followed by a new tour.
In the middle of August 2007, it was announced that "Magic", a new album produced by Brendan O'Brien and recorded with the E Street Band. The album was released in early October: for the first tour in America, then in Europe, lasting until summer 2008.
In autumn of the same year, Springsteen is committed to campaigning for Barack Obama, and on one occasion presents the new song "Working on a dream".
A few weeks later it was announced the release of the new album coming out at the end of January 2009.
At sixty years of age the Boss has no intention of sparing energy, especially on the stage where each performance is always a great expression of celebration and joy.
---
Discography:
Greeting from Asbury Park, n.j. (1973)
The Wild, the Innocent & the E Street Shuffle (1973)
Born to run (1975)
Darkness on the Edge of Town (1978)
The River (1980)
Nebraska (1982)
Born in the u.s.a. (1984)
Live 1975-85 (1986)
Tunnel of Love (1987)
Human Touch (1992)
Lucky Town (1992)
Unplugged (1993)
Greatest Hits (1995)
The Ghost of Tom Joad (1995)
Tracks (1998)
Live in New York City (2001)
The Rising (2002)
Devils & Dust (2005)
Magic (2007)
Working on a dream (2009)
---
The E Street Band:
Vini Lopez-drums (1973-1974)
Ernest "Boom" Carter-(1974)
David Sancious – piano and keyboards (1973-1974)
Roy Bittan – piano and keyboards (since 1974)
Clarence Clemons-tenor sax
Danny Federici-keyboards
Nils Lofgren-guitar (1984)
Patti Scialfa-backing vocals (1984)
Garry Tallent – bass
Soozie Tyrell – violin (since 2002)
Steve Van Zandt-guitar (from 1975 to 1981 and from 1999 to present)
Max Weinberg-drums, percussion (1974)

Sources: Biografieonline.it

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