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Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Sisi - Sissi - Elisabeth of Austria - Elisabeth of Bavaria
- Biography of Taylor Lautner
- Biography of Diego Velazquez - Diego de Silva Velázquez
- Biography of Hernán Cortés
Biography of Sisi - Sissi - Elisabeth of Austria - Elisabeth of Bavaria
(24/12/1837 - 1898/09/10)Sissi
Elisabeth of Austria
Isabeau of Bavaria
He was born on December 24, 1837 in Munich, Bavaria. It was the third of eight siblings. Daughter of Maximilian, Duke in Bavaria, and Ludovica, Princess of Bavaria. His childhood was spent in the Palace of Possenhofen.
Its wholesale sister Elena, was committed to the Emperor of Austria, Francisco José de Habsburg, but known to Sissi fell in love it. They got married in 1854 when he was just 16 years old.
They set their residence in the Palace Shonbrunn. Their first daughter, Sophia, was born in 1855, a year later was born Gisela. On a trip with the girls and Francisco Jose to Hungary, died his small Sofia. Sissi never managed to recover from the loss. In 1858 he gives birth to the heir to the Austrian Crown, Rodolfo. Francisco Josef and Elisabeth were crowned Kings of Hungary in the year 1867, and she receives as a gift the GodoloPalace. In that same year the younger brother of Francisco José, Maximilian of Habsburg, Emperor of Mexico, was taken prisoner by the forces of Benito Juárez and subsequently executed.
Franz Joseph had assumed the throne at age 18, before the mental illness of her uncle, the Emperor Ferdinand I, and the resignation of his father, the Archduke Francis Charles, and ruled their empire in decline until his death in 19Relations with his wife were not good, lived far away and she rejected their marital requirements whenever he could. Sissi did not stop to have a fixed mistress, Katharina Schratt, a beautiful actress who would accompany the Emperor until his death. Sissi got to deal with a portrait of Katharina so that Francisco José hang it in his office. Elisabeth spent ten years continuously traveling to England and Ireland, where it had acquired blocks, to participate in hunting on horseback.
The Empress moved gradually away from the activity of the Court, hated the rigorous Viennese label. His daughter María Valeriawas born in 18Very fond of riding, they had to prepare up to three horses a day, I used three pairs of gloves to protect your hands well and for ten years he participated in equestrian competitions. Fond of poetry, he is the author of many poems. It was considered the most beautiful woman in Europe. I slept with damp cloths on their hips and it is said that he came to have a hair that reached the ankles and took three hours to comb, your hairdresser, Fanny Angerer, became one of the best paid of the Court. Also was subjected to large sweat cures for weight loss and weighed several times a day. The Empress never exceeded 50 Kg, with a height of 172 cm. In 1873 he married his daughter Gisela greater and a year later made her grandmother, Sissi was then thirty-six years old.
In 1886 the death of Ludwig II of Bavaria plunged him into a long depression. His flamboyant cousin had been dispossessed of the throne to the be declared mentally ill shortly before appearing drowned in Lake Starnberg. Sissi said that Luis II had been killed by their enemies.
In 1889 his son Rodolfo died in Mayerling together with her lover, suspected is that he murdered Mary Vetsera and then committed suicide. It is believed that he suffered some mental imbalance, possibly fruit of the family misfortunes. On September 10, 1898, when the Empress was about to move from Geneva to Montreux, he suffered the attack of an Italian anarchist Luigi Luccheni, who sank an awl in his heart, causing immediate death. Luigi wanted to attempt against Henri d'Orleans, pretender to the throne of France, but in the unexpected absence of this decided to assassinate the Empress.
The Empress was able to amass a personal fortune that upon his death, the emperor himself caught. Sisi was one of the first ladies of European royalty that invested in shares and opened savings in private accounts. Part of his fortune in Switzerland Rothschild banking deposit.
Empress Consort of Austria
Queen Consort of Hungary, Bohemia, Croatia, Dalmatia, Slavonia, Galicia, Lodomeria, and Illyria
on April 24, 1854 - September 10, 1898
Queen Consort of Lombardia-venecia
on April 24, 1854 - October 12, 1866
Biography of Taylor Lautner
(1992/02/11 - Unknown)Taylor Lautner
Taylor Daniel Lautner
He was born on February 11, 1992 in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Son of Deborah and Daniel Lautner. His mother works in software development, while his father is a commercial aviation pilot. It has a sister Makena called minor. He was raised as a Roman Catholic and has French, German and Dutch roots. Grew up in Hudsonville, Michigan, a town near Grand Rapids.
Specialist in martial arts, began practicing karate at the age of six. A year later he began to win championships. He was invited to train with the seven-time world karate champion, Michael Chaturantabut. When he was eight years old he represented United States at the World Karate Association where, in the Junior World Forms and Weapons category, won three gold medals. With only eleven years, it ranked as number one in the world for NASKA completo Black Belt Open Forms, Musical Weapons, Traditional Weapons and Traditional Forms, and the twelve already had three junior World Championships.
His beginnings in the world of the cinema were thanks to his trainer in martial arts who persuaded him to do an audition for an announced "Burger King". He was not elected but his interest in the interpretation had already started, so he decided to continue with the acting career. He moved with his family to the city of Los Angeles so it had no problem in attending more castings.
His first performance was in the film "Shadow Fury", in 20After several appearances in television series, his first major role came in 2005 when Taylor gave life to Sharkboy in the film by Robert Rodríguez, "the adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl in 3-D". The shooting in Austin, Texas, lasted three months, in which they took to achieve the role of Eliot, in "twelve out-of-House", along with Steve Martin, Bonnie Hunter, and Hilary Duff.
In 2008, he was chosen to play Jacob Black in the "twilight" (twilight, new moon and Eclipse) saga. In 2009 he starred in "Valentine's Day". In 2010 he entered the list of the twenty best paid actors in Hollywood.
He participated in the music video "Caught Up In You" by Cassi Thomson.
Sara Hicks was his girlfriend from 2006 to 20It came out with Selena Gómez during a time at the beginning of 2009, and then with Taylor Swift, from September to December in 2009; also with the Canadian actress Marie Avgeropoulos for some time.
Biography of Diego Velazquez - Diego de Silva Velázquez
(1599/06/06 - 1660/08/06)Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez
Sunday, June 6, 1599, quoted by various sources such as your date of birth in Seville, and also his baptism in the Church of San Pedro in the same city by others.
Son of João Rodrigues da Silva, ecclesiastical notary, and Jerónima Velázquez. His father was Portuguese origin; his paternal grandparents, merchants, and possibly converted Jews, settled in Oporto from Seville. He was the eldest of eight children.
The 12 years the painter entered apprentice workshop which would be his future father-in-law Francisco Pacheco, Mannerist painter. During his apprenticeship, he learned tenebrist naturalism prevailing in his time, derived from the Italian realism and flamenco. He adopted the surname of his mother, according to frequent use in Andalusia, signing as "Diego Velázquez" or "Diego de Silva Velázquez". With only 19 years married to Juana, who had She had two daughters: Francisca, baptized may 18, 1619, and Ignacia, 29 January 1621.
His first works, made between 1617 and 1623, are still lifes, portraits and religious scenes. Many have a markedly naturalist accent, as the lunch (c. 1617, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburgo), still life that can be considered the first independent teacher's work. The Waterseller of Seville (c. 1619-1620, Aspley House, London) in the masterly effects of light and shadow, as well as direct observation of the natural, are inevitably relate to Caravaggio. For his religious works used models from the streets of Seville. In the Adoration of the Magi (1619, Museo del Prado, Madrid) the Biblical figures are portraits of his family including his own self.
He met personalities of his time as to the poet Luis de Góngora y Argote (whose portrait, executed in the year 1622 is located in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston). In 1621 travels to Madrid to meet the Royal Collections and in the 1623 returns to the capital to paint a portrait of King Philip IV (1623, Museo del Prado) the monarch appointed him his painter's camera. Also painted mythological as the triumph of Bacchus, popularly called, the drunken subjects (1628-1629, Museo del Prado).
In the year 1628 Petrus Paulus Rubens became the Court of Madrid on a diplomatic mission and makes friends with Velázquez. In August 1629 he travels to Genoa and from there went to Milan, Venice, Florence and Rome; He returned to Spain from Naples in January 16He closely studied the art of the Renaissance and Italian painting of its time. Some of the works carried out during his travels are evidence of the assimilation of these styles; a representative example is his Joseph tunic (1639, El Escorial, Madrid) and the forge of Vulcan (1630, Prado Museum.) Back in Spain, Velázquez resumed their commissions as a court portraitist.
In 1631 he entered in his workshop Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo, an Assistant with 20 years born in Cuenca, and that she would marry the 21 August 1633 her eldest daughter, Francisca, had 15 years of age.
To 1640 he works on hunting portraits of the Royal family for the Tower of the stop. He painted few religious pictures, as the crucified (c. 1632), the coronation of the Virgin (c. 1641) and San Antonio Abad and St. Paul first hermit (c. 1634), all located in the Museo del Prado. In the year 1649 he returned to Italy to purchase works of art for the King. During his stay in Rome (1649-1650), he painted the magnificent portrait of Juan de Pareja (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) as well as the deep and disturbing portrait of Pope Innocent X (Doria-Pamphilj Gallery, Rome). Shortly after he was admitted as a member at the Rome Academy of St. Luke . The Venus in the mirror (National Gallery, London) probably dates from this time.
A notarial document certifies the existence in 1652 of a Roman child of Velázquez: Antonio de Silva, a natural son and whose mother is unknown. It has been speculated that it might be the model who posed for a nude Venus in the mirror.
The most important works of the last two decades of his life are the spinners , or the fable of Arachne (1644-1648, Museo del Prado) sophisticated composition of complex mythological symbolism, and one of the masterpieces of Spanish painting Las Meninas or the family of Philip IV (1656, Museo del Prado), which is a stunning portrait of Group of the Royal family with the artist included in the scene.
Velazquez was a bit prolific painter, since he spent much of his life to his profitable career courtesan, and only attributed to him between 110 and 120 works. He served various positions of court official: painter of the King, usher's camera, Sheriff Court, overseer and counter or aposentador de palacio, a job which required too much dedication and painting that relegated to the background. It marked the 17TH century with its naturalistic style, with its skillful diversity of techniques, with his use of light and its subtle color harmonies. There are many people who have considered it the best Iberian painter of history, and perhaps that is why worthy was born and flourished with the Spanish golden age. Their influence would be immense and prolonged, as even the Impressionists of the 19th century would find an ideal study and which suck in his works.
Shortly before his death was named Knight of Santiago. Their unknown ancestry (his blood could not be Jewish or talks) impossible to recognition. The intervention of the King before the Pope Alexander VII made it possible to receive the cross of Santiago in 1659.
His last July 31 he was attacked by a fever and sensing his end, signed his will. Diego Velázquez died in Madrid August 6, 1660, being buried in the crypt of the Church of San Juan Bautista Fuensalida; within the period of eight days his wife Juana was buried beside him. This church was destroyed by the French in 1811, losing his remains.
After his death he was accused of embezzlement. A Commission of the Treasury revised its account books and was sentenced to return 35,000 reals. We proceeded to seize part of their property and their son-in-law, the painter Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo (1610-1667), had to face the rest of the debt.
Biography of Hernán Cortés
(Unknown - 1547/12/02)Hernán Cortés
He was born in Medellin (Badajoz). Son of Martín Cortés and Catalina Pizarro.
When he was 19 years old, embarked bound for Santo Domingo, where he acted as clerk in the town of Azua.
In 1511 he accompanied Diego Velázquez in the conquest of Cuba. It was his Secretary and later Mayor of Santiago, Baracoa. While he had problems with Velazquez, married in 1514 to Catalina Juárez Marcaida managed to be his godfather and led, after two expeditions to the Mainland of what today is Mexico, the led by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba and Juan de Grijalva, it entrusted the Organization of an third expedition.
On February 18, 1519 he set sail carrying 11 ships, more than 500 soldiers, about 100 sailors, 16 horses, 14 cannons, crossbows 32 and 13 shotguns. A few days later he came to the island of Cozumel, which indigenous peoples had been withdrawn. Contacting the end some, he inquired about the Spanish Castaway who knew they were captive. Then appeared Gerónimo de Aguilar who would become his partner thanks to its knowledge of the Mayan language and which knew that the other survivor Castaway, Gonzalo Guerrero, had not wanted to go out to meet the Spanish. Vessels paid the coastlines of the peninsula of Yucatan to the Tabasco River that became known as Grijalva. In the village of Centla, Tabasco, was the first military conflict with the natives. The triumph of cuts, the Mayan Lords regaled Spaniards making them delivery of 20 women among them was the famous Malintzin or Malinche. The latter was given to Alonso Hernández Portocarrero.
They come to the region known as Chalchicueyecan (the place of the goddess of the jade skirt), where the good Friday of 1519 founded the Villa Rica de la Veracruz. Cortes, decided to break any relationship of obedience with Diego de Velázquez, created the cabildo of Villa Rica, which in turn named him captain general, and Chief Justice. It would report to the Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain). So its only link would be already with the Crown.
He established contact with indigenous totonacas in Zempoala. He was also a first Embassy of Moctezuma with large gifts of jewelry, gold, plumage and several costumes. According to the indigenous testimonies that are preserved, Moctezuma, deeply concerned by the news that arrived from the shores of the Gulf, thought that the new arrivals were Quetzalcoatl and other gods who were accompanying him. Again, he sent messengers which led, among other things, two large disks, one gold and one silver artistically worked. Those messengers returned to Tenochtitlan and referred to Moctezuma everything what they had seen.
Courts ordered an Embassy that had set sail heading to Spain. It was then drafted which is known as The Cabildo's letter, dated July 10, 15It is know to Carlos V this chapter has named Cortés captain general and justicia mayor. Two weeks later embark envoys from cuts, going as attorneys Alonso Hernández Portocarrero and Francisco de Montejo. They brought presents for the Emperor, among them some indigenous codices. Shortly after courts ordered the dismantling of their ships. In mid-August of that same year it undertakes its output into the interior of Mexico. Leaving Villa Rica de la Veracruz, he left with 400 laborers, 15 riders, 6 pieces of artillery, as well as hundreds of indigenous people. After crossing the sierra, approached the region Tlaxcala. A group using the otomi submitted to them, the Tlaxcalans put to test the military strength of the Spaniards. To see how the Otomi were easily defeated, decided to ally themselves with them in hopes of defeating their former enemies, thus the Lords of Tenochtitlan. At the end of September, 1519 the Spaniards entered the capital of Tlaxcala, Ocotelulco.
Proceeded their progress towards the metropolis of the mexicas. Passing by the city of Cholula, subject then to the mexica, according to Spanish Chronicles might found a betrayal of its inhabitants to give death to the Spaniards. According to indigenous Chronicles, betrayal was actually perpetrated by the same Spanish and indigenous allies. The fact is that there a massacre of indigenous people took place. On November 8, 1519, after crossing the volcanoes, they made their first entry into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, arriving by the calzada Iztapalapa who joined the city with the shore of the Lake to the South. Hosted on the Royal palaces, they could realize the greatness and power of the city. Moctezuma, who received them as guests, soon became his prisoner.
In may 1520 arrived Pánfilo de Narváez in the region of Zempoala, sent by the Governor of Cuba to depose prisoner to cuts. This came out of Mexico-Tenochtitlan to cope and defeated Narváez in Zempoala. This allowed him to increase the number of his men, since many of those who came with Narváez went to their ranks. While cuts had been out, Pedro de Alvarado suddenly rushed to the Mexica during the great Festival of Toxcatl, in honor of their God Huitzilopochtli. A polite return to the city he found it with great agitation. It was considered that it was best to leave it to hidden. It was then when killed Moctezuma. According to some, trying to appease the mexicas, they threw him these various stones, one of which fatally wounded him in the head; According to others, by hand of the Spaniards who gave him more than one slash in the lower abdomen. The night of June 30 of that year Cortés and his men with great stealth abandoned the city. The mexicas, who gave the voice of alarm, rushed them with fury. The Spaniards lost then more than half of his men as well as all the treasures that had seized. This defeat is known with the name of 'the sad night'.
The conquistadors marched into seeking the help of their allies Tlaxcala and not was not until almost a year later, i.e. on May 30, 1521, when they gave beginning to the formal siege of the city of Tenochtitlan. This concentrated cuts more than 80,000 people from Tlaxcala and reinforced its own troops with the arrival of other various expeditions to Veracruz. Since the end of April of the same year he launched water thirteen brigs which played a very important role in the siege of the island where the city was established. The indigenous Chronicles speak of the choice of the Lord Cuitlahuac as successor of Moctezuma and the smallpox epidemic which killed him and many others. They also describe the new election and performances of the young Prince Cuauhtemoc. Ones and others, the indigenous, and Spanish chroniclers refer then what were the siege and the native resistance over almost eighty days of site. On August 13, 1521 fell city Tenochtitlan, and Cortés imprisoned to the young Cuauhtemoc. Set then in Coyoacán, where was the reconstruction of the city of Mexico conceived with new plant to the Renaissance mode.
His wife, Catalina Juárez Marcaida, arrives from Cuba and a few months later dies mysteriously in Coyoacan. In August of the same 1523 landed the three Flemish Franciscans, Pedro de Gante, Juan de Tecto and Juan de Ayora. Service cuts that Cristóbal de Olid, his envoy to the region of the Hibueras, had rebelled, then ordered an expedition to subdue him. He left the city of Mexico in 1524 leaving it in charge of several official Royal which, in addition to fighting each other, committed numerous abuses. Courts, after an expedition full of troubles and pointless because, when you reach the Hibueras already had died Cristóbal de Olid, returned to the city of Mexico by mid-15Almost simultaneously received an order of Carlos V to send an armada to the Moluccas in relief that, setting sail from Spain had come to these islands. This coincided with the coming of the judge Luis Ponce de León to take residence trial courts. Died shortly after, took charge of the Marcos Aguilar'strial. This also died within a few days. Courts, which had already under construction several boats, dispatched three heading to the Moluccas and under the command of Álvaro de Saavedra Ceron, his cousin, to assist the Navy from Fray García Jofre de Loaísa. The armada sailed from Zihuatanejo on October 31, 15One of the boats of the same came to the Moluccas.
Obeying instructions from Carlos V, he undertook a trip to Spain. It arrived at the port of Palos and after passing through Seville, Medellín and the monastery of our Lady of Guadalupe, met with the Emperor in Toledo. Although not regained the Government of New Spain, he obtained at least the title of Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, as well as 22 villas and 23,000 vassals. Married to Doña Juana de Zúñiga, daughter of the count of Aguilar, returned to Mexico around the middle of 15The new Spain was then altered due to the excesses of Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán , who had been appointed President of the first hearing. Cortes had to face prevented him entering the capital.
Finding in Tezcoco, his mother Catalina Pizarro, that he had come with him, there ended his days. A year later, a second hearing was installed with Sebastián Ramírez de Fuenleal as President. Based on the capitulations which had taken place during his stay in Spain, it undertakes in 1532 a series of expeditions in the sea of the South (Pacific Ocean). In the middle of that year, it sends two ships under the command of Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, without achieving any result. Personally in Tehuantepec directs the construction of other ships in the shipyard that there has established. The following year they leave other two boats from the port of Santiago in Colima. One of them, under the command of Juan de Grijalva, discovers the Revillagigedo Islands. The other, in front of which was Diego Becerra, after a mutiny on board, reached to reach the southern tip of the Baja California. There most of those who were on board were killed in a clash with Indians. In 1535 he undertook a third expedition personally going in front of it.
He founded a small colony in the Bay of la Paz, appointed as the Santa Cruz. More than one year later he returned to Mexico without having achieved anything in this land that was later called California. Tireless, it then sent two ships heading to Peru to assist Francisco Pizarro who was besieged in Lima. In 1537 it gave beginning to a path of maritime trade, from the port of Huatulco to Panama and Peru. In 1539, he dispatched his fourth expedition to the South Sea. This company was requested to the captain Francisco de Ulloa , who penetrated to the mouth of the Colorado River , and returning to the southern tip of the peninsula, rallied by the Pacific even beyond the island of Cedars.
He undertook a new trip to Spain. Among other things there went a memorial to Carlos V complaining of grievances which, in his opinion, had received the first viceroy of the new Spain, Antonio de Mendoza. Intending to return to Mexico, became Castilleja de la Cuesta, near Seville. There shortly before he had dictated his testament. He died December 2, 1547 at the age of 62.
Survived you his wife, his sons Martin and Luis, as well as the other Martin who had had with Malinche, and Mary, Catherine, and Juana born of his wife, as well as others also had out of wedlock, as Doña Leonor, born of Doña Isabel de Moctezuma.
The first funeral of cuts was in the Church of San Isidoro del Campo in Seville. Years later, his remains were transferred to the new Spain and buried in the Church attached to the convent of San Francisco in Tezcoco. From there they went to the main Chapel of the convent of San Francisco in the city of Mexico. His last rest overtook him in the Church of Jesus of Nazareth, next to Jesus Hospital founded. They are currently preserved in an urn placed in a niche in the wall of the side of the Gospel.