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Encyclopedia of Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Umberto Boccioni
- Biography of Marsilio Ficino
- Biography of Dario Franceschini
- Biography of John Le Carré
- Biography of Vasco Pratolini
- Carlo Urbani biography
Biography of Umberto Boccioni
19 October 1882
August 17, 1916
Who is Umberto Boccioni?Umberto Boccioni, futurist painter, sculptor and inventor of plastic dynamism was theoretician and leading exponent of futurism, as well as most of southern Italian Futurist art. Born in Reggio Calabria on 19 October 1882 by Raffaele Boccioni and Cecilia Forlani, parents romagnoli who moved in Calabria. He spent his childhood and adolescence in different cities because of her father's job with it being a civil servant, he is forced to regular shifts.
The family moved to Genoa in 1888 in Padua and afterwards in 1897 in Catania, where he obtained a Diploma in a technical school and begins to cooperate with some local newspapers. In 1899 Umberto Boccioni moved to Rome where he attended the Scuola Libera del Nudo and works in the Office of a cartoonist. In this period the painter realist style, Gino Severini and with him knows he attended the studio of Giacomo Balla which is considered a very important teacher, and Umberto divisionist techniques used to develop research: both will become disciples of dances.
From 1903 to 1906 Umberto Boccioni participates in the annual exhibitions of the society Amatori and Cultori, but in 1905 in controversy with the conservatism of official juries, organizes with Severini, in the foyer of the Teatro Costanzi, the "exhibition of the rejected".
To escape the Italian provincial atmosphere, in the spring of 1906 Boccioni went to Paris, where he remained fascinated by the modernity of the metropolis. From Paris, after a few months, makes a trip to Russia before returning to Italy and settling in Padua to enroll at the Academy of fine arts in Venice, where he graduated.
Get to know the new trends of painting, derived from the evolution of Impressionism and symbolism, Boccioni embarks on another trip stopping in Munich, meeting the German "Sturm und drang" movement and observes the influence of the British pre-raphaelites. Upon returning draw, paint actively, while being frustrated because they feel the limits of Italian culture that considers it still essentially "provincial culture". Meanwhile faces his first experiences in the field of engraving.
The Italy of the early twentieth century has an artistic life still tied to old traditions, but Milan has become a dynamic city, and this is where Boccioni settles upon returning from his last trip to Europe to experiment with various techniques, especially under the influence of pointillism and symbolism. In the fall of 1907 he moved then in Milan, the city that at that time more than others is on the rise and responds to its aspirations. Become a friend of Romulus Romans and begins to attend Gaetano Previati, which suffers some influence in his painting that seems to turn to symbolism. Becomes also member of permanent.
From January 1907 to August 1908, Umberto Boccioni keeps a detailed diary in which he notes the stylistic experiments, doubts and ambitions that shake the artist who only goes between the pointillism, symbolism, Futurism, painting portraits, paintings in symbolic character and some view of the city.
After meeting Marinetti, Boccioni approaches the garde movement in 1910 writes with Carlo Carrà, and Luigi Russolo, the "Manifesto dei pittori futuristi" and the "technical Manifesto of Futurist painting", also signed by Severini and dances. The goal of the modern artist should be, according to the authors, get rid of figurative traditions from the past, models to turn resolutely to the contemporary world, dynamic, lively, constantly evolving.
In his works, Boccioni expresses perfectly the movement of the shapes and the concreteness of matter through the multitudes of subjects in the city from the machines to the chaotic frenzy of everyday reality. Become the artist who best knows how to portray the modern life, hurried and stressful the machine in motion is the main symbol.
Although influenced by Cubism, which admonishes excessive immobility, Boccioni avoids in his paintings the straight lines and uses complementary colors. In paintings like "dynamism of a cyclist" (1913), or "dynamism of a football player" (1911), the representation of the same subject in stages over time suggests the idea of moving into space.
Similar attention and study also dominates the sculpture by Boccioni, for which the artist often neglects the noble materials like marble and bronze, preferring wood, iron or glass, beginning to incorporate fragments of objects in plaster casts of sculptures.
His commitment is focused on the interaction of a moving object with the surrounding space. Unfortunately very few sculptures have survived.
Among the most important paintings of Boccioni are "brawl in Gallery" (1910), "moods # Goodbyes "(1911) and" forces of a road "(1911). Boccioni modernizes pictorial style using its own language, while actively participates in all the initiatives most representative of this current became the Futurist painter.
Serves in various European capitals exhibitions of Futurist painters and writes the "Manifesto of Futurist sculpture", where he exhibited his theories on simultaneity and dynamism, already partially expressed in the "technical Manifesto of Futurist painting."
Since 1912, the year of the first Futurist exhibition in Paris at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Boccioni applies the concept of "plastic dynamism" to the sculpture, while continuing to study the dynamics of the human body, through a long series of drawings and watercolours.
From 1913 he collaborated to the magazine "Lacerba", organized by the Florentine Futurist group headed by Ardengo Soffici, but plastic dynamism meets hostility from some cultural backgrounds futurists and public disinterest.
At the outbreak of the first world war Umberto Boccioni, like many intellectuals, is in favour of Italy enters the war: enlisted as a volunteer in the Lombard Battalion cyclists and part for the front with Marinetti, Russolo, Sant'Elia and Sironi. During his war effort is believed about the Futurist theory enunciated by Marinetti, that war is "the world's only hygiene". Coins then his famous equation "war = insects + boredom".
During the war Umberto Boccioni collaborates with the magazine "Happenings" and returned to his old master dances. In December 1915 his battalion is dissolved and in July the following year Boccioni is assigned to the field artillery and intended to Verona.
Apply the plastic dynamism his paintings and abandons the traditional approach by combining internal and external, real-world data and those of remembrance, into a single image. With this in mind develops the characteristic "guidelines" that trace the trajectory of a moving object in space.
His very personal style, looking for dynamism, led him to approach to Expressionism and Cubism in order to put the viewer in the center of the picture to make it feel involved and engaged.
On August 17, 1916 Umberto Boccioni dies at random (Verona), following a trivial falling from his horse, in the prime of his pictorial revolution that took him from Futurism to plastic dynamism.
Biography of Marsilio Ficino
October 19 1433
1 October 1499
Who is Marsilio Ficino?The son of a physician of the Val d'arno, Marsilio Ficino was born on October 19 1433, Figline (Florence). Is the highest representative along with Nicholas of Cusa of the Florentine Renaissance Platonism and Humanism, with Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, stays at the origin of the great systems of thought of the Renaissance and seventeenth-century philosophy, just think of Giordano Bruno or Bell.
After studying the texts of Hippocrates, Aristotle, Avicenna, and Averroes Galieno, Ficino was chosen by Cosimo de ' Medici the elder (called himself "father") to return to Florence the Platonic tradition, already reintroduced by Leonardo Bruni, the Tan and the Byzantines Bessarion and Pletho since 1439 Council. This mission was added to Maddox, within thirty years, the task of translating the "Corpus Hermeticum", or the writings of the legendary Hermes trismegistus, the Enneads of Plotinus and neoplatonic texts yet.
Soon he was at the center of a circle of scholars, philosophers, artists, writers and scientists, known as "Platonic Academy", and devoted himself to Latin translation of Plato's dialogues that will be printed in 1484.
In addition to Plato Ficino translated Hesiod, Orpheus, "hermetic" Books, the "Enneads" of Plotinus, Proclus, porphyry, Iamblichus, Psellos works, etc.
"In this monumental corpus of translations, which had a broadcast
huge in European culture, reflects the conception of philosophy of Ficino. There is a philosophical tradition, which moves seamlessly from the ancient poets and, through Pythagoras and Plato, Dionysius Areopagita. It is none other than the progressive prove of the Divine Logos; and the task of the philosopher is to bring to light the religious truth that lies behind the various mythic beliefs and philosophies. On this basis, Ficino says substantial agreement between Platonism and Christianity. In polemic against the Aristotelianism of the schools of his time, accused of destroying religion and against the aestheticism of the literati, accused of not understanding the truth hidden in the "Tales" of the ancients, Ficino claims a "pia philosophia", a "docta religio": the Platonic tradition, which (through the fathers of the Church) arrives until modern times and that Ficino believed his task, indeed almost his mission , reaffirm and promote through a new apologetics.
(what, for example, emerges in "De Christiana religione" of 1474) [Enciclopedia Garzanti di Filosofia].
After the death of Cosimo, Piero, his son, and were then Lorenzo il Magnifico to support the work of translator and thinker of Ficino.
For what concerns his work more strictly philosophical mold staff, instead, he arrived to complete between 1458 and 1493, a considerable amount of work, including the God's "et anima", the "divine Fury" or "De" Platonic Theology, systematic treatise on the immortality of the soul. Do not forget also the "De vita libri tres" physical and mental health of the scholars, the latter book full of ideas magical and astrological, derived from Plotinus, porphyry, the Asclepius and the Picatrix.
A paramount importance in the work of this great humanist are numerous "argumenta" and "commentaries" processed at the time of its translations, including commentary on the "Timaeus" and "Parmenides". While the "De amore", intended to exert a powerful influence on all the literature until the nineteenth century, by Leo Jew to Shelley, inspired by Plato's "Banquet" can be considered a work of authorship. A further aspect, crucial to understand the European reputation of Ficino, is represented by his "letters", all inspired by an ideal of Platonic wisdom imbued with strong poetic, now now esoteric veins.
It's not hard to understand how the work of Ficino was destined to revolutionize a Western culture until recently largely alien to Plotinus and Proclus "originals" to "all" Plato as well as the "Corpus Hermeticum". It can be seen from very impressive works such as "De Sole", the "De vita" and "De amore": the thinking man's strong affinity with Ficino cosmic proposes a vision and magical, at the center of a "machina mundi" animated, highly Spiritualized precisely because pervaded by "spiritus mundi". The essential function of human thinking is to access, through an imaginative lighting ("spiritus" and "fantasy"), rational ("ratio") and intellectual ("mens") to the self-consciousness of his immortality and the "indiarsi" of man thanks to those "signa" and "symbola", cosmic and Astral signs comparable to universal hieroglyphics originating from the celestial world. Human action in all its aspects, technical, philosophical and religious art, expresses the divine presence a "mens" infinite in nature, within a cyclical view of history, marked by the myth of the "great return" Platonic.
Marsilio Ficino died on October 1 1499 in his Florence, after the fall of Savonarola, while Europe, shortly thereafter, would recognize the epochal thought given to many Italian, Swiss, German and French prints of his work.
Biography of Dario Franceschini
October 19, 1958
Who is Dario Franceschini?Dario Franceschini was born in Ferrara on October 19, 19He graduated in law at the University of Ferrara with a thesis on the history of doctrines and political institutions, by 1985 exerts the profession as lawyer.
Also in 1985 published the book "the people's Party in Ferrara. Catholics, Socialists and fascists in the land of Grosoli e Don Minzoni ", and on the same subject has participated in conferences and in various publications.
Entered in the register of Auditors, was then a member of the Board of statutory auditors of Eni s.p.a. in the first three years of privatisation. Franceschini has edited for six years the bimonthly magazine "review of regional legislative documentation" published by Formez.
It is an ordinary member of Astrid (Association for studies and research on the reform of democratic institutions and innovation in public administration) and the Italian chapter of the International Institute "Jacques Maritain.
From 2003 to 2006 is President of the Palio of Ferrara. In January 2006 he published his first novel "the silver veins that water (Bompiani), with which he won in 2007 in Italy and in France Chambery Prize award Premier Roman Bacchelli Opera Prima Award and City of pens. In October 2007 he published his second novel "La follia improvvisa di Ignazio Rando (Bompiani).
The political engagement of Dario Franceschini began in the fall of 1974 when he founded the Liceo Scientifico "Roiti" of Ferrara, Catholic and centrist Democratic Student Association. The ASD occurs in almost all high schools in the city at first election under the "delegated decrees". From 1974 to 1977, he was elected in the various bodies (boards of class discipline and Institute).
Subsequently he was elected student representative on the Board of Directors of the University of Ferrara. He joined the Christian Democrat party after his election as Secretary of Benigno Zaccagnini and after two years he was elected provincial delegate of the young ad.
In 1980 he was elected municipal councillor in Ferrara and in 1983 parent Council Chamber. The next local elections in 1985 and 1990 is a candidate of DC and first of the elect.
In 1984 enters the National Executive of the dc youth movement for which he founded the monthly magazine "new politics".
Closed the experience of young people entering the provincial and regional party bodies Dc and directs the monthly "Sai" which gathers the young executives of the left dc.
Also becomes Deputy Director of monthly "Confrontation" and in preparing the party weekly "discussion".
In the process of transformation of DC in PPI, the constituent Assembly in Rome in 1993, calls on the party to choose with determination, as a result of the new majoritarian electoral system, the way of the Alliance between the Center and the left.
Consequently, after the decision of the PPI to stand for election of 1994 as "third pole", adheres to the social Christians, founding the movement to Ferrara and became member of the National Council.
In 1994 's head of culture and tourism of the municipality of Ferrara. In 1995, following a split in the center of the province, agreed to run for Mayor for a list composed of Christian social, labour and Greens and collects the 20% of the vote.
After the split of the PPI and the adhesion of the same olive falls within the party.
From 1997 to 1999 is called to the Office of Deputy National.
Enter then became part of the national leadership and the Secretariat with responsibility for communication policies. Enter the second Government of D'alema as Undersecretary to the Prime Minister with responsibility for institutional reform and is confirmed in the same position in the next Government loved.
On behalf of the Government follows in particular the theme of electoral law, and until the final approval, the constitutional law of reform of the statutes of the regions with special status, the introduction of voting rights for Italians abroad and changes to title V of the Constitution.
In the general elections of 2001 is candidate of the olive tree majority in the Chamber of deputies in the College of Ferrara and a candidate of Daisy in the proportionate share in the marches.
Elected Deputy becomes member of the Board of elections and of the Standing Committee on Constitutional Affairs, the Council Presidency and the Interior.
He was a member of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for security and cooperation in Europe (OSCE). He is a founding partner of the Parliamentary Association for fair trade.
One of the founders of the Daisy, in July 2001 he joined the founding Committee of the party, of which he became Coordinator of the National Executive. Is confirmed in direction and in Federal Assembly and the Constituent Congress of Parma Coordinator of 2002 and Congress Rimini of 2004.
Member of the European democratic party, elections of 2006 is leader of the olive tree in Lombardy II and candidate in Emilia-Romagna, for which opt. He was President of the new "l'Ulivo" parliamentary group in the Chamber of deputies since May 2006 to October 20After holding the post of Deputy Secretary of the Democratic Party, following the resignation of Walter Veltroni, on February 21, 2009 during the National Assembly is set to national Secretary and was elected with 1047 votes.
Biography of John Le Carré
October 19, 1931
Who is John Le Carre?John Le Carre is the name by which it is known all over the world, the former employee of the British services David j. m. Cornwell. Born on October 19, 1931 in Poole, in the English region of Dorsetshire, Le Carre was defined, perhaps rightly so, the most important writer of spy story of the twentieth century; an author whose novels imbued with the atmosphere of the cold war gained a following, and on whose wake you have appended hundreds of imitators, few of which are able to match the mixture of "suspense", brilliant writing and humour savory that make great novels of this secret agent lent to the typewriter.
Perhaps its uniqueness lies in the biography, making a man with an edge and with so much to tell. Joined the British intelligence during World War II as a translator of secret documents for as many as five British Prime Ministers, in 1947 he enrolled at the University of Bern in Switzerland, only to abandon it and go back to Oxford, where he specialized in German literature. It is from his professional experience on her Majesty's secret service that takes inspiration for his early books.
Starting in the 60 's it starts to write spy stories: "call for the dead" (1961) marks the birth certificate of a character that has captivated readers around the world: the legendary secret agent George Smiley. But Le Carre smiles success with his third test "the spy who came in from the cold", title then become symbolic of all books for espionage. Initially the success is huge; less enthusiastic critical reaction that there a few years will have to sadly think again.
The book will also be resumed on the big screen under the auspices of actor Richard Burton.
After the end of the cold war, the kind of "spy story" undergoes a harsh backlash: it seems that both failed the raw material for storytelling. The crisis does not spare even the English author, apparently unable to find new categories strong narratives.
However with "the tailor of Panama" (1999) and with the exciting "tenacious gardener" (2001) the writer has found success and narrative vein of better times twisting the spy stories to new needs: Comedy in the first of two titles, civilians in the second where he accused the world of pharmaceutical multinationals and launches a heartfelt cry of alarm for the tragic situation in Africa.
Other famous titles, drawn from large production of Le Carre are: "the mole", "Smiley's people", "the little drummer girl", "The Russia House" and "the passion of his time".
Currently John Le Carre lives withdrawn between Cornwall and Hampstead.
Biography of Vasco Pratolini
October 19, 1913
January 12, 1991
Who is Vasco Pratolini?Vasco Pratolini was born in Florence on 19 October 19His family is working and the little extraction Vasco loses his mother when he is only five years; ends up spending his childhood with his maternal grandparents. Upon returning from the war, his father remarried, but Vasco was unable to fit into the new family. Irregular studies and soon was forced to go to work. He works as a laborer in a shop of printers, but also as a valet, Peddler and represented.
These years, apparently, will be critical to his literary apprenticeship: they will give you the chance to observe the life of those ordinary people who then become the protagonists of his novels. At eighteen quits his job and devoted himself to an intense preparation by himself.
In the years between 1935 and 1937 he was diagnosed with tuberculosis and was admitted to the sanatorium. Back in Florence in 1937 he started attending the House of painter Ottone Rosai that causes him to write about politics and literature in the journal "Il Bargello". He founded with his friend poet Alfonso Gatto, the magazine "Campo di Marte", and comes into contact with Elio Vittorini who induces him to focus more on literature than politics.
Vasco Pratolini moved meanwhile to Rome, where in 1941 he published his first novel "the green carpet". Participates actively in the resistance and, after a brief stint in Milan where he worked as a journalist, moved to Naples where he remained until 19Here he teaches at the Art Institute and meanwhile writes "Chronicle of poor lovers" (1947). The idea of the novel dates back to 19The idea, as told by the same Pratolini, is the life of the inhabitants of the Horn, where she lived with her maternal grandparents. A long fifty metres wide and five which is a kind of OASIS, protected by the island's fascist and anti-fascist struggle raging. In 1954 Carlo Lizzani will draw from the novel into a film.
The Neapolitan period is especially prolific from a literary point of view; Pratolini writes novels: "A hero of our time" (1949) and "Le ragazze di San Frediano" (1949), brought to the big screen by Valerio Zurlini in 1954.
Neo-realist novels are defined by its ability to describe the people, the district, the market and the Florentine life with perfect adherence to reality. With its simple style, Pratolini describes the world around him, evokes the memories of his life in Tuscany and the family dramas such as the death of his brother, with whom he establishes a real fictional dialogue in the novel "family Chronicle" (1947). The novel Valerio Zurlini draws a movie in 1962.
Often the protagonists of the novels of Pratolini are portrayed in conditions of poverty and unhappiness, but are all animated by the conviction and the hope of being able to rely on the collective solidarity.
Back permanently to Rome in 1951 and publishes "Metellus" (1955), the first novel of the trilogy "an Italian story" with which he set out to describe different worlds: worker with Metellus, that bourgeois with "Lo scialo" (1960) and that of the intellectuals in "allegory and derision" (1966). The trilogy has a very warm welcome from critics that define it still too Italian fiorentina and not yet.
With the history of the unskilled worker Metellus the writer wants to go beyond the narrow confines of the neighborhood, which until now has been the protagonist of his novels. Pratolini attempts to provide a more complete fresco of Italian society since the late 1800s. In fact, the protagonist Metellus span a period of time ranging from 1875 to 1902.
He devoted himself to the activity of screenwriter participating screenplays of: "Paisan" by Roberto Rossellini, "Luchino Visconti's Rocco and his brothers", and "Le quattro giornate di Napoli" by Nanni Loy.
The publication of the trilogy follows a long period of silence, interrupted only in 1981 by the publication of "Il mannello di Natascia" containing testimonies and memories dating back to the 1930s.
Vasco Pratolini died in Rome on 12 January 1991 at the age of 77 years.
Carlo Urbani biography
October 19, 1956
March 29, 2003
Who is Carlo Urbani?Carlo Urbani was born in Castelplanio, Ancona, on 19 October 19Already as a young man he devoted himself to the most needy and is a constant presence in the parish: collaborating to collect medicine to outstretched hands, promotes a solidarity Group that organises holidays for people with disabilities, became part of the parish pastoral Council; also playing the organ and soul songs. His great love is not only for others, but also for the beauty, for music and art.
The desire to care for people suffering leads him to choose his medical studies and specialization in infectious diseases. After graduating he worked at first as a general practitioner, then becomes the hospital's infectious disease Department aid in Macerata, where he remained for ten years.
Bride Giuliana Chiorrini, together have three children: Thomas, Luke and Magdalene. These were the years when Carlo Urbani begin to feel stronger the call to assist the sick forgotten, overlooked by opulent countries, by power plays, by the interests of pharmaceutical companies. 1988-89 organized with other doctors, from travel, in Central Africa, to bring help to villages less accessible. Once again its parish community accompanies and supports it with a bridge of assistance to Mauritania.
Direct knowledge of African reality reveals clearly that the causes of death of the populations of the third world are too often curable diseases--diarrhea, respiratory crisis-for which they lack the drugs that nobody wants to get to a market that is so poor. This reality involves him to the point that he decides to leave the hospital, when he has a chance to become primary.
In 1996 joined the Organization "Médecins Sans Frontières" and leaves with his family for Cambodia, where he engages in a project for the control of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease of the intestine. Here also notes the strong social and economic reasons for the spread of diseases and lack of care: you die of diarrhoea and Aids, but medications to treat the infection and complications are nowhere to be found.
In his capacity as consultant to the World Health Organization for parasitic diseases has the opportunity to reiterate that the primary cause of the spread of diseases is poverty. As doctor without borders, the primary interest of Charles is in the care of the sick, however cannot keep silent about the causes of those sufferings.
In January 2000 the daily Avvenire: "Carlo Urbani declares I as the who consultant of parasitic diseases. In all international forums repeats that the cause is only one: poverty. In Africa I got cool studies. And I was ' disappointed ' by discovering that people don't die of strange diseases: diarrhea, respiratory crisis died. Diarrhoea is still one of the five leading causes of death worldwide. And you don't care with medicines unavailable. One of the latest challenges Msf has received is the participation in the global campaign for access to essential medicines. And that's where we destined the Nobel ".
In April 1999 he was elected President of Msf Italy. In this capacity he participates in the delegation that receives the Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the organization.
After Cambodia his commitment led him to Laos, and then in Viet Nam. In the last weeks of life is dedicated with courage to care and research on Sars, the terrible respiratory illness that threatens the whole world. It is well aware of the risks, however, talking with his wife, observes: "we must not be selfish, I must think of others".
At the beginning of March he went to Bangkok for a Conference, nothing suggests that have contracted the disease. After arrival the symptoms occur with strength and Carlo Urbani, the first to deal with the disease, understand your situation. Hospitalized in Hanoi warns his wife to return to Italy the sons, which are immediately sent away.
Love of the neighbour who has accompanied him throughout his life, he does give up even at the last hug to avoid any possibility of contagion. His wife remains nearby, but no direct contact is possible.
After you receive the sacraments Carlo Urbani died on March 29, 2003.