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Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of Wilhelm Roentgen
- Biography of Marco Fidel Suárez
- Biography of Santiago Marino
- Biography of John Lennon
Biography of Wilhelm Roentgen
(27/03/1845 - 1923/02/10)Wilhelm Roentgen
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
German physicist and first Nobel Prize in physics
He was born on March 27, 1845 in Lennep, Rhinelandvillage. As a child he moved along with his parents to Holland.
When he was 17 years old enter the Utrecht technical school; in 1865 he began studies at the Polytechnic of Zurich, in Switzerland; and in 1868 he received his mechanical engineeringdegree, PhD a year later. He worked as a teacher of physics in Strasbourg in 1876; at the German University of Giessen, in 1879; and at the Institute of Physics of the University of Würzburg, in 18In 1900 he was awarded the Chair of physics at the University of Munich; He was also appointed director of a new physical Institute created in that same city.
In November 1895 he read before the Society Fisico-medica of Würzburg a report on their discovery of short wave radiation which he called X-ray. Subsequent to these rays name gave them but still knowing as x-rays. He also researched and made discoveries in mechanics, heat and electricity.
He received the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1896 and the first Nobel Prize in physics in 1901.
Wilhelm Röentgen died on February 10, 1923 in Munich.
Biography of Marco Fidel Suárez
(1855-04-23 - 1927/04/03)Marco Fidel Suárez
Colombian writer and politician
He was born on April 23, 1855 in Bello, Antioquia.
Son of a washerwoman, from an early age was noted for his intelligence and received a special education.
At age 14, he entered the seminary and since 1872 was devoted to the Magisterium. He taught philosophy, grammar, arithmetic, algebra, and calligraphy. In 1876 he enrolled in dogmatic theologyand Canon law . He was master of the school of Hatoviejo from October 14, 1877.
He moved to Bogota and from 1880 to 1884 he was student and Professor at the College of the Holy Spirit. In 1881, he won the contest that the Academia Colombiana de la Lengua had opened to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the birth of Andrés Bello. He was the author of satirical articles against General Ramon González Valencia, President of Colombia between 1909 and 1910 as"national bridge"and "the marriage of Camacho".
Also author of works of Philology as "Castilian"; "Grammatical studies", "Pax grammatical analysis"; "Spanish in my Earth", "essays on the castellana de Don Andrés Bello grammar". He held various public posts: Deputy Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of public instruction, representative and Senator.
He came to the Presidency of the Republic as a candidate of the Conservative party, in 19Under his Government promoted communications. It did not meet his presidential term, retiring, in 1921, by discrepancies with a fraction of the conservative party.
Marco Fidel Suárez died on April 3, 1927 in Bogotá.
Biography of Santiago Marino
(1788/07/25 - 1854/09/04)Santiago Mariño
Military and Venezuelan politician
He was born 25 July 1788 in Valle del Espíritu Santo (Nueva Esparta).
Son of the captain of the militia ruled Santiago Mariño de Acuña and Isaias Carige Fitzgerald, Irish descendant. He began his studies at Trinity.
On January 11, 1813, along with 44 Patriots constituted the Board that decided an offensive to liberate the Spanish domain East of Venezuela ; to this end was drafted the document known as Act of Chacachacare. Initiated the Venezuelan Revolution, he took an active part in Cumaná and Guiana with the rank of Captain under the orders of Colonel Manuel Villapol. He took refuge in Trinidad after the fall of the I Republic and led an expedition against the royalists in Eastern Venezuela, which, almost without guns, invaded from the small island of Chacachacare on 12 January 1813.
He is autodesignó general in Chief , freeing the provinces of Cumaná and Barcelona. While Simón Bolívar wanted the union, Marino wanted to maintain separate armies of the West and East, respectively commanded by Bolivar and by himself. After the triumph in Bocachica on José Tomás Boves on March 31, 1814, met with Bolívar in La Victoria on 5 April, together rushed with success the first battle of Carabobo on May 28, being defeated by Boves at La Puerta on June 15, and must go to the East, where were banned by their own comrades in arms and fled to Cartagena de Indias , and from there Jamaica and Haiti, from where they returned with the expedition of Los Cayos, in which Marino served as Deputy Chief of May 6, 1816.
His prestige was very large in the East, and this led to damaging dissensions. Bolívar appointed him Chief of Staff at the battle of Carabobo on 24 June 18With the first symptoms of separation from the Republic of Gran Colombia, remained beside the general José Antonio Páez. In 1835, led the so-called 'revolution of the reforms' that overthrew the President José María Vargas.
It seems that he was initiated into Freemasonry in Trinidad. Marino at the time of his death held the position of most great teacher. He was twice presidential candidate.
Santiago Marino died on September 4, 1854 in La Victoria, Aragua.
Biography of John Lennon
(09/10/1940 - 1980/12/08)John Lennon
John Winston Lennon
British singer and composer
Was born on October 9, 1940 in Liverpool, United Kingdom.
His mother, Julia Stanley, put Winston, in tribute to the British Prime Minister. His father, Fred Lennon, was a deserter in World War II and escaped as a crewmember of a ship to North Africa. Arriving at their destination was made prisoner. His mother joined another man, John Dykins, and left John in the care of his sister Mary Stanley, better known as Aunt Mimi, and her husband George Smith. In July 1946, her father returned and took John to Blackpool. Julia, after finding him, forced him to choose whom to stay and John chose his mother. They returned to Liverpool and left it at the House of his aunt Mimí.
Quarry Bank, where it grew to scribble and write stories about their teachers, he studied in high school in 19Her aunt got a recommendation for the entry into the Liverpool College of art where, in 1956, a friend made her listen to "The Heartbreakers Hotel" by Elvis Presley. His aunt bought him a second-hand guitar. He formed the band "The Quarrymen" with his classmates Nigel Walley, Pete Shotton and Ivan Vaughan. On July 6, 1957, while the band gave a concert in the gardens of the Woolton Parich Church, Ivan presented one boy two years younger than him, his name: Paul McCartney. Together, they performed for the first time "Twenty Flight Rock" of "Be Bop a Lula" by Gene Vincentand Eddie Cochran . Fairly hesitated before accepting that a new guitarist enter to the band, since he was one boy three years younger than him, but it had an advantage, I knew many more chords of music that John and Paul. His name: George Harrison. On February 6, 1958, he accepted it in the group. July 15, John's mother, died in a traffic accident. The following year changed the name of the group by "Johnny and the Moondogs". They acted regularly at the Casbash Club in Liverpool with drummer Ken Brown, although he decided not to join the Group and instead entered the son of the owner of the premises, Pete Best. The payment they received for their concerts consisted of some soft drinks. In November make a proof for the television "Star makers" program, led by Carroll Levis, in Manchester and were rejected. Soon after the group disbanded.
John and Paul, also gave some performances as a duo under the name of Nurk Twins. In 1960 John shared an apartment in Liverpool with his friend Stu Sutcliffe, a painter. After Stu gained 50 pounds in a painting contest, John convinced him to be bought a bass and joined the Group and as I didn't want to play the instrument he was constantly reprimanded by Paul. The Group was reconstituted with John, Paul, George, Pete and Stu with the name "The Silver Beatles". John explained the origin of the name: "we were fans of Buddy Holly and the Crickets (crickets)." Thinking of that name, I thought another insect that could play with double significance. Suddenly, the word beetles appeared to me, and I decided to change it to BEATles that sound like music beat. It was a kind of joke. "During that time John called himself Johnny Silver. The group toured Scotland, joining Johnny Gentle.
As of June 2, the Group finally changed its name to "The Beatles". A month following John left art school and 16 August the Beatles leave for Hamburg, Germany, where debuted at the Indra Night Club. When the club was closed by the authorities, the Group offered performances by Rory Storm and the Hurricanes, whose drummer was Ringo Starr. In 1961 were professional musicians, and they were hired by "The Cavern", the best club in Liverpool, where it debuted on 21 March.
The single "My Bonnie" recorded by Tony Sheridan, with choirs of the Beatles, was published in Germany in June. The owner of a record store, Brian Epstein, approached The Cavern once some girls asked for the disc. He saw them perform and volunteered to be their representative. On June 6, John publishes an article in the magazine Mersey Beat, from that moment was his collaborator. The following year, Epstein presented them to the best record companies where they were systematically rejected. Stu wrote letters to John where he said that he was Jesus. John, thinking it was a joke, said that he was John the Baptist. Stu began to have strong headaches and died when he was 21-year-old victim of a stroke in April. Stu had a tremendous influence on the Beatles in relation to clothing, hair and their ideas. John thought that Stu was the only artist of the group.
In June they signed a contract for five years, with the record company EMI. Immediately, Brian suggested to replace Pete by Ringo Starr. It changed leather apparel for the suit and tie. John married the pregnant, Cynthia Powell in the civil register of Mount Pleasant. That same night, the group played in Chester. On 4 September recorded their first single "Love me do", that 10 days was as number 48 on the charts and became placed in position N ° At the end of the year, did the last tour in Hamburg. In 1963 the return of Germany, made a tour of Scotland. On 11 January, debuted for the TV on the BBC program "Thank you, Lucky stars" and the next day released their second single "Please, Please Me" and "Ask me Why". In February began his first British tour in March "Please, please me" reached the top of the ranking of Melody Maker, which led them to release the LP of the same name which also became number one. On 8 April was born John Charles Julian Lennon, son of John and Cynthia, at the general hospital, Sefton, Liverpool.
In June, John appeared without the Beatles for the first time in the show of the BBC "Juke Box Jury". Released the single "She Loves You" which was placed in the No. 1 position in the North American rankings. A few days later, appeared the single "I want to hold your hand" and the album "With The Beatles". On January 9, 1964, John Lennon confessed that he did not expect to have any success in the United States. The hit "I want to hold your hand" climbed to number one. On 7 February the Beatles landed at New York John f. Kennedy airport and were greeted by thousands of teenagers on the verge of a massive attack of hysteria. On 9 February they appeared on "the Ed Sullivan Show", getting the incredible audience of 73 million viewers. In addition they offered concerts in Washington, Miami and the Carnegie Hall in New York.
In March the first book of John came "In his own Write". In June, opened the film in black and white, directed by Richard Lester, "Yeah, Yeah, Yeah" ("A hard day's night") the soundtrack of Lennon and McCartney was nominated for the Oscar. In 1965 comes to the screen a new film, this time in color and again with Lester as director, his title was "Help" was shot in the Bahamas to evade taxes and in Austria. The film was accompanied by a long duration.
In June he published his second book "A Spaniard in the Works". At age 25, John Lennon was already millionaire. In March he gave 20,000 pounds to fellow high school and former Quarrymen, Pete Shotton and together they created supermarkets Hayling Ltd. In Hampshire. Nor forgot his family and bought a bungalow in Poole, Dorset from his aunt Mimí. On August 15, the Beatles appear at Shea Stadium, an impressive baseball field where 60,000 people followed the action.
In October, the Queen of England decorated the Beatles with the Medal "Member of the order of the British Empire". After this gesture, many of those who had received it returned it in protest. The LP Rubber Soulwas released in December. On March 4, 1966 appears in London a report to John, interviewed by the journalist Maureen Cleave, in which it is said that the Beatles were more popular than Christ. There was no reaction of the British public, but the same report was released mid-year in the United States totally out of context. The radio stations in Birmingham, Alabama, decided to not pass the Beatles music and organized bonfires burning the disks in the group. Lennon refused to the Beatles to perform in South Africa as a protest against apartheid. In July while on tour in the Philippines, John and his companions refused to visit the wife of dictator, Imelda Marcos, as they were resting. This provoked the ire of Imelda, who was in charge of putting the entire country against the Beatles. They were cast in bad way in the country.
The last tour of the Beatles for North America was launched in August. In Toronto, Lennon, invited all the youth of the world to declare their opposition to the war in Viet Nam. In Memphis, the Ku Klux Klan provoked altercations during a concert of the Group and August 29 at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, the Beatles gave their last concert.
On 9 November received an invitation from a group of artists known as "The destruction in Art Symposium" to see an artist of Japanese art carried out an exhibition in London. One of the "works of art" presented is entitled "hammer and nail" a Board with a hammer hanging and a handful of nails below. John asked to drive a nail. The artist said that not. The owner of the Gallery told him that it was John Lennon. She had no idea who it was. He returned and told him that he could nail it for five shillings. The woman was Yoko Ono, and they begin to go out together a year and a half later. In January 1967 after Yoko Ono and having problems with his wife Cynthia Powell, he slept several nights at the home of Brian Epstein, who underwent a brief homosexual relationship.
In February released a single with the theme of John, "Strawvberry Fields forever" and the b-side, "Penny Lane", Paul Mc Cartney. The musical treatment was innovative, but for the first time since 1964, the Group launched an album that not ranked No. On June 1 it appears in Britain more ambitious and revolutionary disc of the Beatles "Sergeant Peppers of the band". On 24 August John, Paul and George, visited the Gurú Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at the London Hilton hotel. Two days later, while the Group was still in Bangor, his friend and manager, Brian Epstein died from an overdose of barbiturates.
Reached the screens a film written and directed by Paul "The Magical Mystery Tour". The bad review sank the film and recently acquired by "The Sgt. Pepper band" prestige. On January 5, 1968, John was found in Waybridge, with his father Fred. John and Paul May 15 appeared on the Tonight Show, in United States, to announce the formation of the company record label Apple. John took the opportunity to publicly denounce the Guru Maharishi as a fraud. The animated film "yellow submarine", in the British Capital of London Pavilion opens.
August 22, Cynthia asked John divorce for adultery with Yoko Ono, which was granted on October Ten days before John and Yoko were arrested for possession of marijuana, after visiting the Department of Ringo Starr. On November 22 he was released the double album the Beatles white, who quickly entered the charts. A week later, John and Yoko released their first album together, "two virgins". Disc cover, showed the two in a naked front. Thirty thousand copies of the album, were confiscated to consider its pornographic cover. In January 1969, the Beatles begin recording a film and an album with the same name "Let it be" which finished with a concert surprise on the roof of Apple's London Studios. John and Yoko on 20 March traveled for 70 minutes to get married in Gibraltar, the only place where allowed to marry. Four days later had lunch with Salvador Dalí and from 25 to 31 March in Amsterdam began a campaign for peace, called "Bed-in". They stayed in Room 902 at the Amsterdam Hilton, got naked on the bed and gave hundreds of interviews inside the bed. From there they traveled to Vienna for the presentation of the documentary "violation". His only appearance in public was at a press conference at the hotel Sacher, tucked inside two large bags. Journalists not knowing if they really were they asked John to sing a song and sang "Maggie May". Yoko sang many Japanese songs, and then they parted to the press without leaving the bags.
April 22 John Winston Lennon changed his name to John Ono Lennon , and recorded with Paul McCartney, "The Ballad of John and Yoko". In May John and Yoko released their second album "life with the Lions". They traveled to Canada to make a new Bed-in. There, John and Yoko recorded from the bed of a hotel in Montreal, "togive a chance to peace". The "Abbey Road" album, which contained the news that one of the faces was fully engaged, without gaps between songs, was released in Britain in September. In October, it appeared a simple John with the Plastic Ono Band : "Cold Turkey". A topic that was forbidden by the advocacy of the drug. On 14 November, Apple released "Wedding Album", containing not only a record of John and Yoko, but a copy of the marriage certificate and a photo of the wedding cake. The musical content was once more surprise: for example, in the song "Amsterdam" recorded the gasps of the two making love.
The 25th day of the same month, John returned his medal of Member of the order of the British Empire "as a protest by the interference of the British in the war of Biafra and Viet Nam and by the fall of the simple Cold Turkey in the charts". The letter was signed: "with love, John Lennon of bag". In December Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webber (Evita's authors) offered Lennon the role of Jesus in their Rock Opera "Jesucristo Superstar", but when in doubt of the Beatle was offered the role to an unknown actor. On January 16, 1970 opened an exhibition of erotic lithographs of Lennon, which was closed by the Scotland Yard. Four days later John and Yoko shaved head and proclaimed the advent of the year 1 of a new era. April 10 Paul resigned from the Group and on 8 May was edited the last official album of the Beatles:Let it Be. It was the end of the Beatles as a group and start solo careers.
December 11 was released the album "John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band" with a great appreciation of criticism. One of the best songs of the album "working class hero", was banned by the BBC. In March 1971 released the single "Power to the people". In November appears "Imagine", which Lennon said: "in reality would have to qualify as a song Lennon / Ono." Much of it is Yoko. "Imagine" became almost generational anthem of the 1970s and in the song more Laureate and known of Lennon. In June 1972 was published "Some Time in New York City". On the cover of the album had a doctored photograph of Mao and Nixon dancing naked together. One of the songs from the album "the woman is the black of the world", was banned in the United States, because you could not say the word black. The following year, John and Yoko separated. John, took refuge in his Japanese Secretary, May Pang.
November 10 was published "mind games". Not any instrument he played, he only devoted himself to sing. Just reached the discrete number 26 of the list of successes. In 1974, he settled temporarily in Los Angeles with May Pang and began working on the album "walls and bridges" in which Elton Johncollaborated among others. One of the topics, "Ya ya", Julián Lennon, then only had 11 years, sang with his father. On 28 November, arose with Elton John at Madison Square Garden in New York. Among attendees was Yoko, separated for two years. Yoko approached John out of the recital and returned it to conquer with only a drop of eyes.
On February 21, 1975 he published the album "Rock 'n' Roll". Tribute to the great pioneers of Rock. Finally, John and Yoko got to having a child, after several miscarriages. On 9 November was bornSean Ono Lennon. During the following five years John, Yoko and Sean lived alone in New York thanks to their residence permit. They bought land amounting to two hundred thousand dollars to breed Hilstein breed cows, houses and properties in California. All alternate with trips around the world with Sean. Responsible for managing the business and finance was Yoko. John was dedicated to raising and to see his son grow up to be, as he had not been able to do so with Julian.
On November 21, 1980, was published simultaneously around the world "Double Fantasy" with seven songs by John and seven of Yoko. The main theme was "Woman" that quickly became number 1.
In the early hours of the afternoon of December 8 of that year, John and Yoko left Dakota House to recording studios, as on many other occasions, the couple met with some fans that surround the car trying to get an autograph from the former Beatle. Among the fans was Mark David Chapman. When John and Yoko returned from the study, at about 11 o'clock for dinner with Sean, Chapman again approached the couple and unloaded five shots over the body of John. The last words spoken by Lennon were "I have skyrocketed, I have skyrocketed!" When he was taken to Roosevelt hospital, an agent asked him if it was John Lennon, he replied with a terse "Yeah". It was his farewell to the world. Missing minutes to midnight when radio and TV stations began to spread the news. People, unable to believe it, spontaneously went out. They settled on stains of blood rose petals and sang "Give peace a chance". There was no public funeral. Only ten minutes of silent meditation.