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Cimon › Who Was

Definition and Origins

by Mark Cartwright
published on 10 April 2016
Greek Trireme (The Creative Assembly)
Cimon (c. 510 – 450 BCE) was an Athenian statesman and, as strategos, frequent commander of the Athenian fleet when the city was at the height of its power. He won military glory by defeating Spartan rival Pausanias and then the Persians in both a land and sea battle to expand the membership and power of the Delian League which he led for over a decade. Not helped by his political rival Pericles, Cimon was later exiled from Athens and never recovered his former political position but he had already done enough to establish a lasting reputation as one of Athens' greatest generals. He is the subject of one of Plutarch’s Lives biographies.


Born around 510 BCE Cimon (also spelt Kimon) was the son of the general and statesman Miltiades who had famously defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE. His mother Hegesipyle, as the daughter of Olorus, king of Thrace, was also well-to-do. Cimon's sister was Elpinice and there were accusations, now supported by some archaeological evidence, of incest between the two, even if she was married to Callias, the prominent politician. Cimon married Isodice of the Athenian aristocratic Alcmaeonid family so that with powerful family connections he was set to rise to the very top of Athens' political pile.


Cimon fought at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BCE but first comes to political prominence in 479 BCE when he was part of a delegation sent to Sparta. In the following years he was influential in persuading Greek naval powers to join the Delian League, and between 476 and 463 BCE he was frequently made strategos or commanding general of the Athenian fleet and the League as a whole. Amongst his notable victories, he drove the Dolopian pirates out of the Aegean island of Scyros c. 475 BCE. In so doing he won glory by bringing back to Athens the fabled bones of Athens' legendary king Theseus and then made the island an Athenian dependency.


In another successful operation the Spartan general Pausanias was defeated and removed from Byzantium, also c. 475 BCE. Eion in Thrace was another capture for Athens in the same year. There the citizens were enslaved and Cimon set up three Hermes statues in Athens to commemorate the victory. Cimon's star shone even brighter c. 466 when he defeated the Persians at Eurymedon on the southern coast of Asia Minor, twice on the same day in fact, first in a naval engagement and then on land, both times against superior forces. Cimon is credited with improving the effectiveness of the Greek triremewarship by broadening its decks and gangways to allow the transport of more hoplites. In another episode of inventiveness, the general had also had some of his men disguise themselves as Persians using captured clothing to raid an enemy camp.Victory permitted the annexing of more allies to further bolster the Delian League and Cimon's own reputation as one of Athens' greatest commanders.
Cimon also did much for the ordinary citizens of the city too. He rebuilt many public spaces, improved the southern walls of the acropolis, added a water supply to the Academy and trees to the agora and Academy gymnasium, gave the needy handouts, and personally funded a programme to strengthen the Long Walls fortifications which connected Athens to her port, the Piraeus.
Delian League

Delian League

Following victory over the Persians, some historians suggest that Cimon offered to broker a peace deal with Athens' long-time regional rival but that opposing factions in Athens blocked it. The Peace of Callias, c. 450 BCE (proposed by Cimon's brother-in-law), may have been a re-working or even extension of Cimon's original plan. Cimon might have been finished with his old family enemy Persia but he was not done with military expansion and conquered Chersonesus in Thrace and the north-Aegean island of Thasos (along with her gold mines) between 465 and 463 BCE. According to Plutarch the proposal for members of the expanding Delian League, fast becoming the Athenian empire, to pay Athens money instead of ships and men was Cimon's.


Cimon's political career then took a blow in 463 BCE when Pericles formally charged him with corruption. Specifically, he was accused of taking bribes from Alexander I King of Macedon so as not to invade. Acquitted, Cimon was then sent to aid Sparta deal with their helot revolt. The Spartans sent the commander's hoplite army back home, though, afraid of their intentions. As a consequence, in 461 BCE, Cimon, who was always thought to have held Spartan sympathies, suffered a vote of ostracismand was exiled from Athens for 10 years. The commander's reputation for lavish parties and expensive public works had not been helpful in turning public opinion either.
In 457 BCE Cimon did offer his services at Tanagra against a joint force of Sparta and Boeotians but was refused; Athens lost the battle. When he had served his 10-year sentence, Cimon did finally return to his home city and he brokered a peace with Sparta. Then, still fighting Persians until the end, he died either in battle or from disease on Cyprus in 450 BCE. As Plutarch summarized, "He was as brave as Miltiades and as intelligent as Themistocles, and he is generally admitted to have been a juster man than either ( Cimon, 146)."

Graces › Antique Origins

Definition and Origins

by Mark Cartwright
published on 15 May 2016
The Three Graces ()
The Graces (also Charites, sing. Charis) were goddesses from Greek mythology who personified charm, grace, and beauty.Hesiod describes three Graces, and this is their most common grouping in literature and art, but their number varies depending on the source. Associated with Aphrodite and spring flowers especially, they were considered the youthful bestowers of beauty in all its forms, from physical to intellectual, artistic to moral.


In Theogony Hesiod describes three Graces: Aglaea (personifying Radiance), Euphrosyne (Joy), and Thalia (Flowering). He reports that their parents were Zeus and Eurynome, the daughter of Ocean. Hesiod describes them as 'beautiful-cheeked' and 'from their eyes desire, the limb-melter, trickles down when they look; and they look beautifully from under their eyebrows' (907). He goes on to mention that Aglaea, the youngest Grace, became the wife of the craftsman god Hephaistos. The Graces live on Mt. Olympus with the Muses and Himeros, the personification of Desire. In Hesiod's Works & Days the Graces help at the birth of Pandora and, along with the Horae (goddesses of the seasons), are given the task of beautifying the first woman and covering her in flowers, garlands, and fine jewellery. The Graces are described as masters of dancing, singing, and poetry, in which capacity they entertained the guests at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis.
Homer mentions them in both the Iliad and Odyssey but does not specify either their names or number. He associates them with Aphrodite, and this tradition is maintained in later sources with the Graces becoming an established part of the goddess' large entourage. In Book 5 of the Iliad, Homer tells us that the Graces made a beautiful and immortal robe for Aphrodite.Homer goes on in Book 14 to say that Hera gave the Grace Pasithee to Sleep to be his wife in return for him ensuring Zeus was temporarily removed from the action of the Trojan War. The Graces pop up again in Homer's Odyssey where they dispense beauty to mortals and are the handmaidens of Aphrodite, bathing the goddess and anointing her with scented oil in her sanctuary on Cyprus.



In the Hellenistic period, the poet Hermesianax added another Grace to the traditional group, that of Peitho, who personified Persuasion. From this period onwards the Graces are linked with Hecate, the lunar goddess associated with magic and ghosts. The Graces became closely associated with flowers, especially roses (which they help grow) and myrtles but also any spring flowers in general. They are often in the company of fertility gods, helped by their experience at the births of Aphrodite and Pandora.
The Graces were the subject of cult worship across the Greek world, but especially southern Greece and Asia Minor. They were particularly important at Orchomenus in Arcadia where they had an annual festival, the Charitesia, held in their honour.Pausanias mentions that they were there associated with meteorites or shooting stars. The historian goes on to list various names of Graces at different cities, for example, Auxo and Hegemone at Athens, and Kleta and Phaenna at Sparta. These were no doubt local deities incorporated into the wider Greek cult of the Graces. In Athens, from the 3rd century BCE, the Graces and Aphrodite were linked to Demos, the personification of the people as attested by an inscribed altar.
The Birth of Venus

The Birth of Venus


The Graces can be difficult to identify in art as they have no particular attributes but they are most commonly portrayed as a trio of beautiful young women in Greek and Roman art where they either dance or move in a procession. They appeared in Archaic and Classical Greek art on pottery, relief sculpture, coins, and even on the throne of Zeus at Olympia according to Pausanias. The Graces appear on the famous black-figure Francoise Vase (c. 570 BCE) in a scene from the wedding of Thetis and Peleus and in a much-copied marble relief plaque by Sokrates (c. 470 BCE) where they are in typical processional pose and hold hands.
As with other similar deities representing beauty the Graces were originally portrayed clothed in Greek art but gradually convention came to portray them naked. The Hellenistic Period saw the first example sculptures where they are three standing naked women embracing and this became a much-copied theme in Roman and later art. The Graces were especially popular in Renaissance art. An example is Botticelli's Birth of Venus (1486) where a lone Grace stands on the right, ready to offer the emerging goddess a robe to cover her modesty.


Article based on information obtained from these sources:
with permission from the Website Ancient History Encyclopedia
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