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Biographies of famous and historical figures
Biographies of famous:
- Biography of André Marie Ampère - André-Marie Ampère
- Biography of Philip II of Spain
- Biography of Francis Joseph I of Austria
- Biography of Jerónimo de Ossa
Biography of André Marie Ampère - André-Marie Ampère
(1775/01/20 - 1836/06/10)André-Marie Ampère
He was born on January 20, 1775 in Polemieux-au-Mont-d'Or, village near Lyon (France).
In the year 1801, aged 26, he was appointed Professor of physics and chemistry at the Institute of Bourg, and in 1809, Professor of mathematics at the Polytechnic School of Paris.
Ampere (A), the unit of electric current, takes its name from it. Its electrodynamic theory and interpretations of the relationship between electricity and magnetism were published in his collection of observations on electrodynamics (1822) and theory of electrodynamic phenomena (1826).
Inventor of the needle astatic, which made possible the galvanometer. He was also the first to demonstrate that two parallel conductors through which circulates a current in the same direction, are attracted to the other, while if the current senses are opposites, they repel each other.
André-Marie Ampère died on June 10, 1836, in Marseille, France
Biography of Philip II of Spain
(1527/05/21 - 1598/09/13)Philip II
King of Spain (1556-1598)
He was born May 21, 1527 in Valladolid.
Son of Carlos I and Isabel of Portugal.
His father abdicated in 1555-1556, after his trip to Italy and the Netherlands and be recognized as successor regio in Flemish States and by the Castilian Cortes, Aragon and Navarra, governs from the cut Madrid.
For fifty years he ruled the largest empire in the world, defined at the time as twenty times larger than the Roman Empire. His Kingdom is based on advice, real and in a centralized administration Secretaries. His appeal to the Court of the Inquisition was frequent. Politically the tribunal was used to end the flare-up of Protestantism in the Castilian Plateau.
Although the naval expedition of García de Toledo got the victory in Malta (1565), the morisco problem was on the inside. The Moors of the Granada Alpujarras staged the main uprising, which ended with their defeat by don Juan de Austria (1569-1571).
Secretary Antonio Pérez greatly influenced the business public until its fall in 1579, and in 1568 died the Prince Charles, who had been arrested because of their contacts with the members of a presumed succession conspiracy promoted by the nobility.
To keep the Empire he was immersed in conflict Europe, multiplying the prenuptial. He contracted a subsequent marriage with Maria of Portugal (1543), the Queen of England (Mary I Tudor), Isabel de Valois France and Anne of Austria (1570), mother of his successor Philip III. It was his greatest love and after his death in 1580, dressed in mourning to publicly express their pain and their desire not to get married again.
Heir to the war against France, despite the Truce of Vaucelles (1556) and just starting his reign, both Royal houses began their struggle for control of Naples and Milan. The Duke of Alba defended the squares Italian, attacking the Papal States of Paul IV to break his alliance with Henry II of France. Meanwhile, the Castilian armies and mercenary forces defeating the French troops in San Quintín and Gravelines 1557 and 1558, origin of the peace negotiations of the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in the following year. Another big problem was piracy, banditry and the Turkish and Berber incursions in the Mediterranean.
Constituted, with Venice, Genoa, and the Papacy, the main block of the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire. The fleet under the command of don Juan de Austria - with Requesens, Álvaro de Bazán, Colonna and Doria- won the renowned naval victory of Lepanto (1571).
His wife Mary Tudordied, rarefied relationship with Elizabeth I. In its permanent struggle, supporting all enemies castellanos, Isabel ended with the Catholic Scottish Kings, while it supported the piracy in the Caribbean (Francis Drake) and the Dutch rebels. The military conclusion came determined in 1588 by the defeat of the Spanish Armada led by the Duke of Medinasidonia.
It also solved the conflict in the Netherlands. After the victories of the Duke of Alba to 1573, running to Egmont and Hornes, Luis de Requesens, don Juan de Austria, nor Alejandro Farnesio broke the rebellion of 'sea beggars' Calvinists. They did not placate the revolt of the States-General and the final emancipation of Holland, Zealand and the rest of the United Provinces.
It annexed Portugal and their domains, asserting their inheritance rights in 1581 in the cuts take.
Married his first cousin Maria Manuela of Portugal on 15 November 15They had a son: Charles of Austria (1545-1568), Prince of Asturias.
Married remarried to his second aunt Mary, Queen of England, Winchester July 25, 15They had no children.
Third marriage to Isabella of Valois the 22 June 15They were father of two daughters: Isabella Clara Eugenia (1566-1633) and Catherine Micaela (1567-1597).
Married fourth wife Anne of Austria November 14, 15They had four sons and a daughter: Fernando (4 December 1571 – 18 October 1578), Prince of Asturias. Carlos Lorenzo (12 August 1573 – 30 June 1575). Diego Félix (August 15, 1575 – November 21, 1582), Prince of Asturias. Felipe (14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621), Prince of Asturias, future King of Spain Felipe III. Maria (14 February 1580 – 5 August 1583).
Philip II died September 13, 1598, at the monastery of El Escorial.
Biography of Francis Joseph I of Austria
(1830/08/18 - 21/11/1916)Francis Joseph I of Austria
Emperor of Austria (1848-1916) and King of Hungary (1867-1916) (1867-1916)
He was born on August 18, 1830 in Vienna.
Eldest son of Archduke Carlos Francisco, brother and heir to the Austrian Emperor Ferdinand I.
As Francisco Carlos renounced his rights to the throne, Francisco Jose was proclaimed Emperor when Fernando abdicated during the revolution of 1848. Supported by Russia, and together with his Chancellor, Felix, Prince zu Schwarzenberg, they restored order in the Empire while restoring the domain of Austria into the German Confederation (1849-1850).
He married Elisabeth of Austria, daughter of the Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, in 1854, and they were parents of a son and three daughters. When Francisco José refused its support Russia in the Crimean War, (1854-1856), relations were damaged. After the Austrian defeat in and loss of Lombardy (1859), tried to reinforce the Austrian power in Germany, but the defeat by Prussia in Sadowa (1866), causing Austria to lose his German possessions and that he had in Italy.
His power was weakened and was forced to serve the claim of autonomy made by the Hungarians in 1867, date in which Isabel, and his wife, were crowned Kings of Hungary. He tried to give an organ of self-government Slavs from Austria, although he could not carry it out by a the opposition of the German and Hungarian elite who controlled the new monarchy austro-hungara.
The discontent of the subjects Czechs and Serbs further undermined the authority of the Habsburg and increased friction with Russia. Their years of reign were marred by a series of family tragedies: in 1889, committed suicide his only son and heir to the throne, the Archduke Rodolfo; in 1898, his wife, Empress Elisabeth (popularly known as Sisi), was assassinated by an Italian anarchist; and in 1914, his nephew, Franz Ferdinand, who replaced Rodolfo as heir to the throne, died in an attack by a Serbian nationalist.
This murder sparked a crisis between the side of Austria -Hungary and Germany, on the one hand, and that of Serbia and Russia, on the other, which culminated in the First world war.
Franz Joseph died on November 21, 1916 in the Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna.
Biography of Jerónimo de Ossa
(1847/04/08 - 1907/09/06)Jeronimo de la Ossa
He was born on April 8, 1847 in Panama City. Son of José Francisco De Icaza and Manuela Escobar. The child of a conservative and numerous family, brother of Maria Ossa de Amador, wife of Manuel Amador Guerrero and Emilia de La Ossa Lefevre wife of Enrique Lefevre.
At the age of 16 moved to Chile where he remains for 14 years and obtained the titles of Professor of mathematics and the degree of Civil Engineer, also taught some time.
He returned to his country in 1879, and with 32 years married Angélica Bergamotto and works in the construction of the canal. He was the author of verses that appeared in magazines and newspapers of the isthmus and Chile. The best poetic production attained, according to literary critics, was the poem of the National anthem.
On the occasion of the presentation of credentials as Ambassador and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America of the Lord William j. Buchanm, the master Jorge Santos, Director of the Republican band suggests that you choose the music composed by him and asks him of the Ossa, who put lyric.
Jerónimo de la Ossa died on September 6, 1907 in Panama City.