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Carl Sagan… Roberto Cossa… Lucio Gutiérrez… Oliver Cromwell… Biographies Multiposts

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Biographies of famous and historical figures

Biographies of famous:

  1. Biography of Carl Sagan
  2. Biography of Roberto Cossa
  3. Biography of Lucio Gutiérrez
  4. Biography of Oliver Cromwell

Biography of Carl Sagan

(1934/11/09 - 1996/12/20)

Carl Sagan
American astronomer and pioneer of exobiology
He was born on November 9, 1934 in New York.
Son of Samuel Sagan, an emigrant worker of the current Ukraine than during the depression, worked as an usher theater, and Rachel Molly Gruber, a housewife from New York. He had a sister, Carol, and the family lived in a modest apartment near the Atlantic Ocean, in Bensonhurst, a Brooklyn neighborhood.
According to him, they belonged to the more liberal of the four main groups of North America of Judaism.
He studied at the University of Chicago, where earned a doctorate in Astrophysics. He also studied the origins of organisms with geneticists Hermann j. Muller and Joshua Lederberg, contributing to the Constitution of exobiology, the search for extraterrestrial life, as a scientific discipline. He was Assistant Professor of astronomy at the University of Harvard, astrophysicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (1962-1968) and director of the laboratory for planetary studies at Cornell University.
In the Decade of the ' 50s he participated as Adviser and consultant to NASA. He worked actively in space programmes Mariner, Viking, Voyager and Galileo. He was instructor in the Apolloprogram; He played a decisive role in the planetary research: helped decipher the high temperatures on Venus by employing the theory of the effect massive and global greenhouse, the seasonal changes on Mars , and the reddish clouds of Titan.
In addition to scientific publications, wrote several books: the Dragons of eden (1977) Pulitzer Prize for nonfiction in 1978, speculation about the evolution of human intelligence; Bit brain (1979); Cosmos (1980) -based on the series of television of the same title, which produced it - and the Comet (1985). He also wrote a novel, contact (1985).
In 1980, his series on 13 episodes for the services of public tele-difusion "Cosmos", became one of the most popular series in the history of American public television. He was awarded medals of NASA exceptional scientific achievements, achievements in the Apollo program, and distinguished public service (twice). The international Astronautics award: Prix Galbert. Joseph Priestley Award "for distinguished contributions to the welfare of mankind". The Masursky award of the American Astronomical Society and in 1994, the Public Welfare Medal, the highest honor from the National Academy of Sciences.
In 1957, married to biologist Lynn Margulis, mother of Dorion Sagan and Jeremy Sagan. After their divorce married the artist Linda Salzman in 1968, mother of his son Nick Sagan. In 1981, returned to marry Ann Druyan, who was mother of Alexandra Rachel (Sasha) Sagan and Samuel Democritus Sagan.
After suffering myelodysplasia for two years, and three bone marrow transplants bone (the donor was his sister Cari), died of pneumonia at the age of 62 in the center of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research in Seattle, Washington, in the early morning of December 20, 19He was buried in the cemetery of Lakeview in Ithaca, New York.

Biography of Roberto Cossa

(1934/11/30 - Unknown)

Tito Cossa
Roberto Cossa
Argentine playwright
He was born on November 30, 1934 in Buenos Aires.
Journalist, working for the daily Clarín, La Opinion, el Cronista Comercial and Prensa Latina Agency news cubana.
As a dramatist, and together with Ricardo Halac, makes up the Generation of new realism.
Author of works such as La Nona, Yepeto, Gray's absence and Tute cabrero, several of them carried to the big screen.
In 1994 he was awarded the Konex Platinum award to the most important writer of theatre of the Decade in Argentina.

Biography of Lucio Gutiérrez

(1957/03/23 - Unknown)

Lucio Gutiérrez
Military and Ecuadorian politician
He was born March 23, 1957 in Quito, Ecuador.
It was the third of six children, descended from a long military branch.
He graduated in the Espe with the highest GPA in Civil Engineering. A degree in management. She has certificates in Continental defence and international relations. Military pentathlon champion.
It was yeoman of Abdalá Bucaram and Fabián Alarcón. Gutiérrez supported along with other officers the indigenous uprising of January 21, 2000, which led to the fall of then-President Jamil Mahuad. He managed the creation of a front of forces of left and centre-left and social movements. Ecuadorian military middle managers were allied with indigenous people in January 2000 in an attempt to install a popular Government to replace Mahuad administration dismantled, but commanders of the armed forces spoke out favour of Vice President Gustavo Noboa, who took over the Presidency.
He founded his own party, patriotic society January 21, to participate in the presidential race. Pachakutik became his main ally, after the defection of the Socialist dome. His campaign focuses on the fight against Jamil Mahuad.
Nearly three years after the coup, he won at the polls the Presidency of Ecuador against banana billionaire Álvaro Noboa.
In April 2005, thousands of Quito, coordinated by the local radio station "Radio la Luna", were to ask for the resignation of Gutierrez, who declared an ephemeral State of emergency in the country, which only lasted 20 hours. The Declaration of the State of emergency has increased the indignation of the quiteños, who increased their demonstrations. On April 20, thousands of demonstrators headed to the independence square, in front of the Carondelet Palace, seat of the Executive, to celebrate the fall of Gutierrez, who left the seat of Government, cordoned off by military personnel, to which the congregants, who waved national flags, cheered. Gutierrez and his family had abandoned the Palace Corondelet after knowing of the loss of the support of the armed forces. Alfredo Palacio, Vice President of Ecuador, became the eighth President of the country in less than ten years, following the dismissal of Gutierrez by the country's Parliament. The representative Cyntia Viteri, as President in the Congress functions, was commissioned to take oath to Palacio, who, in his first statements, said that the people of Ecuador, particularly the quiteño, ended with the dictatorship, immorality, arrogance, terror and fear." Lucio Gutiérrez departed on 24 April for exile in Brazil on Board of a military plane that arrived from the Brazilian Embassy, where he took refuge after his impeachment by Congress.
With his wife Ximena Bohórquez had two daughters: Karina and Viviana.

Biography of Oliver Cromwell

(1599/04/25 - 1658/09/03)

Oliver Cromwell
English politician
He was born April 25, 1599 in Huntingdon. His family was originally from Wales and surnamed Williams, came out of anonymity thanks to the favour of the Minister of Henry VIII, Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, who was the uncle of the great-grandfather of Oliver. The family adopted the name of its benefactor.
Educated under the tutelage of Thomas Beard, in Huntingdon. He studied at Sidney Sussex College at the University of Cambridge, and of laws in London. In August 1620 he married Elizabeth Bourchier and returned to Huntingdon.
Between 1628 and 1629, he served as Member of Parliament representing Huntingdon. In 1640 he returned to Parliament, moment in which the conflict between Charles I and the Puritans reached its critical phase. In 1642 the civil war broke out between Parliament (dominated by the Puritans) and supporters of the monarchy. Met a regiment of cavalry, fighting on behalf of the parliamentary cause.
In 1644 he was appointed lieutenant general of Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester. In July 1644 it took parliamentary forces to victory at the battle of Marston Moor, which meant you to him and to his regiment the nickname of Ironsides. In 1645 his address again to be decisive in the battle of Naseby (14 June 1645), a battle which destroyed the Royal Army.
Due to the negotiations with the King Carlos I, the victors are divided. Cromwell joined the army faction that advocated religious tolerance, against hard-line Presbyterians in Parliament. In Wales he repressed a rebellion and defeated the Scottish in Preston (August 1648). In December, it authorized the expulsion of Parliament's opposition.
After being proclaimed the Republic on 30 January 1649, and following the execution of the King, he began the subjugation of Ireland and Scotland. The 19 April 1653 dissolved the Rump Parliament to pass an Permanent Assembly. When the Barebones Parliament also failed, he accepted the Instrument of Government (December 1653), a written Constitution which established a protectorate and appointed him lord guard, sharing sovereign powers with a new 21-member Council of State .
In 1657 he accepted the humble petition and advice: petition to create a second parliamentary Chamber and power to nominate his successor, but did not accept the title of King. It provided the religious tolerance of non-Catholic groups and the Jews expelled from England returned in 1655.
Oliver Cromwell died in London September 3, 1658, being buried in Westminster Abbey.

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